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THE 


AMERICAN 


JOUMAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY 


AND   OF   THE 


HISTORY  OF  THE  FINE  ARTS 


VOLUME  V 

1889 


BOSTON 
GINN  &  COMPANY 

NEW  YORK,  CHICAGO 
PRINCETON:  THE  MANAGING  EDTOR 

BALTIMORE:  J.  MURPHY  &  Co. 

LONDON:  TRUBNER  &  Co.    PARIS:  E.  LEROUX 

TURIN,  FLORENCE  and  ROME:  E.  LOESCHER 

BERLIN:  MAYER  &  MULLER 


CC 


EDITORS  AND  CONTRIBUTORS. 

Advisory  Editor  :  Prof.  CHARLES  ELIOT  NORTON,  of  Harvard  University. 

Literary  Editor:  Mr.  ARTHUR  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  of  Baltimore. 

Managing  Editor:  Prof.  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr.,  of  Princeton  College. 

Editorial  Contributors  :  Prof.  ALFRED  EMERSON,  of  Lake  Forest  Uni- 

versity; Prof.  HAROLD  N.  FOWLER,  of  Phillips  Academy,  Exeter; 

Prof.  ALLAN  MARQUAND,  of  Princeton  College  ;  Prof.  A.  C.  MER- 

RIAM,  of  Columbia  College  ;  Dr.  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  of  Cambridge 

University,  England;  Mr.  JUSTIN  WINSOR,  of  Harvard  University; 

Prof.  J.  H.  WRIGHT,  of  Harvard  University. 

The  following  writers  have  contributed  or  promised  early  contributions  : 

UNITED  STATES. 

Dr.  FRANCIS  BROWN,         Miss  I.  F.  HAPGOOD,          Prof.  F.  W.  PUTNAM, 
Mr.  LUCIEN  CARR,  Mr.  H.  W.  HENSHAW,         Mr.  RUSSELL  STURGIS, 

Mr.  JOSEPH  T.  CLARKE,    Mr.  W.  H.  HOLMES,  Prof.  CYRUS  THOMAS, 

Mr.  W.  H.  DALL,  Mr.  T.  H.  LEWIS,  Mr.  S.  B.  P.  TROWBRIDGE, 

Mr.  F.  B.  GODDARD,          Mr.  W.  P.  P.  LONGFELLOW,  Dr.  W.  HAYES  WARD, 
Mr.  WM.  H.  GOODYEAR,    Mrs.  Z.  NUTTALL,  Dr.  J.  R.  WHEELER,  etc. 

EUROPE. 

M.  E.  BABELON,  attache"  au  Cabinet  des  Me"dailles,  National  Library,  Paris. 
Dr.  A.  A.  CARUANA,  Librarian  and  Director  of  Education,  Malta. 
Count  ADOLFO  COZZA,  Inspector  of  antiquities  for  Etruria,  Orvieto. 
L'Abbe"  L.  DUCHESNE,  Professor  of  Christian  Archaeology,  Catholic  Institute,  Paris. 
M.  EMILE  DUVAL,  Director  of  the  Muse'e  Fol,  Geneva. 

Dr.  A.  FURTWANGLER,  Professor  of  Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Berlin. 
Mr.  ERNEST  A.  GARDNER,  Director  of  the  British  School  of  Archaeology,  Athens. 
Prof.  W.  HELBIG,  former  Secretary  of  the  German  Archaeological  Institute,  Rome. 
Prof.  HANS  HILDEBRAND,  Director  of  the  Museums,  ed.  of  Tidskrift,  etc.,  Stockholm. 
Dr.  G.  HIRSCHFELD,  Professor  of  Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Koenigsberg. 
Dr.  F.-X.  KRAUS,  Professor  at  the  University  of  Freiburg-im-Breisgau. 
Comm.  RODOLFO  LANCIANI,  Director  of  excavations  and  antiquities,  Rome. 
Dr.  ALBERT  L.  LONG,  of  Robert  College,  Constantinople. 

Comte  de  MARSY,  Director  of  the  Soc.  Franc,  d'  Archeologie,  Bulletin  Monumental,  etc. 
Prof.  ORAZIO  MARUCCHI,  member  of  Comm.  Archseol.  Commission  of  Rome,  etc. 
Prof.  G.  MASPERO,  former  Director  of  Antiq.,  Egypt  ;  Prof,  at  College  de  France,  Paris. 
M.  JOACHIM  MENANT,  of  Rouen,  France. 
Prof.  ADOLPH  MICHAELIS,  of  the  University  of  Strassburg. 
M.  EMILE  MOLINIER,  attache"  au  Muse'e  du  Louvre,  Paris. 

M.  EUGENE  MUNTZ,  Librarian  and  Conservator  of  the  Ecole  des  Beaux-  Arts,  Paris. 
Prof.  F.  PIPER,  Professor  of  Christian  Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Berlin. 
Mr.  W.  M.  RAMSAY,  Professor  in  the  University  of  Aberdeen. 

Dr.  FRANZ  v.  REBER,  Professor  in  the  University  and  Polytechnic  of  Munich,  etc. 
M.  SALOMON  REINACH,  attache*  au  Muse'e  National  de  St.  Germain. 
Comm.  Gio.  BATT.  DE  Rossi,  Director  of  the  Vatican  and  Lateran  Museums,  Rome. 
Dr.  TH.  SCHREIBER,  Prof,  of  Archaeology  in  the  Univ.,  and  Director  of  Museum,  Leipzig. 
Mr.  ROBERT  SEWELL,  Madras  Civil  Service,  F.  R.  G.  S.,  M.  R.  A.  S. 
Comm.  ENRICO  STEVENSON,  member  of  the  Comm.  Archaeol.  Commission  of  Rome,  etc. 
M.  F.  TRAWINSKI,  sous-chef  a  la  Direction  des  Beaux-Arts,  Paris. 
Dr.  PAUL  WOLTERS,  Secretary  of  the  German  Archaeological  Institute  at  Athens. 
Hon.  JOHN  WORTHINGTON,  U.  S.  Consul  at  Malta. 
The  Director  and  Members  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens. 


npHE  JOURNAL  is  the  official  organ  of  the  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE  OF 
J-  AMERICA,  and  of  the  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS, 
and  it  will  aim  to  further  the  interests  for  which  the  Institute  and  the  School  were 
founded.  It  treats  of  all  branches  of  Archaeology  and  Art — Oriental,  Classical, 
Early  Christian,  Mediaeval,  and  American,  and  is  intended  to  supply  a  record  of  the 
important  work  done  in  the  field  of  Archaeology,  under  the  following  categories : 
1.  Original  Articles;  2.  Correspondence  from  European  Archaeologists;  3.  Archae- 
ological News,  presenting  a  careful  and  ample  record  of  discoveries  and  investigations 
in  all  parts  of  the  world ;  4.  Reviews  of  Books ;  5.  Summaries  of  the  contents  of  the 
principal  Archaeological  Periodicals. 

Two  departments  in  which  the  JOURNAL  stands  quite  alone  are  (1)  the  Record  of 
Discoveries,  and  (2)  the  Summaries  of  Periodicals.  In  the  former,  a  detailed  account 
is  given  of  all  discoveries  and  excavations  in  every  portion  of  the  civilized  world, 
from  India  to  America,  especial  attention  being  paid  to  Greece  and  Italy.  In  order 
to  ensure  thoroughness  in  this  work,  more  than  sixty  periodical  publications  are 
consulted  and  material  is  secured  from  special  correspondents.  In  order  that  readers 
may  know  of  everything  important  that  appears  in  periodical  literature,  a  consider- 
able space  is  given  to  careful  summaries  of  the  papers  contained  in  the  principal 
periodicals  that  treat  of  Archaeology  and  the  Fine  Arts.  By  these  various  methods, 
all  important  work  done  is  concentrated  and  made  accessible  in  a  convenient  but 
scholarly  form,  equally  suited  to  the  specialist  and  to  the  general  reader. 

It  has  been  the  aim  of  the  editors  that  the  JOURNAL,  besides  giving  a  survey  of 
the  whole  field  of  Archaeology,  should  be  international  in  character,  by  affording  to 
the  leading  archaeologists  of  all  countries  a  common  medium  for  the  publication  of 
the  results  of  their  labors.  This  object  has  been  in  great  part  attained,  as  is  shown 
by  the  list  of  eminent  foreign  and  American  contributors  to  the  five  volumes  already 
issued,  and  by  the  character  of  articles  and  correspondence  published.  Not  only  have 
important  contributions  to  the  advance  of  the  science  been  made  in  the  original 
articles,  but  the  present  condition  of  research  has  been  brought  before  our  readers 
in  the  departments  of  Correspondence,  annual  Reviews  of  various  branches  (like 
Numismatics,  Biblical  Archaeology,  Greek  Epigraphy),  and  reviews  of  the  more 
important  recent  books. 

The  JOURNAL  is  published  quarterly,  and  forms,  each  year,  a  volume  of  above  500 
pages  royal  8vo,  illustrated  with  colored,  heliotype,  and  other  plates,  and  numerous 
figures.  The  yearly  subscription  for  America  is  $5.00 :  for  countries  of  the  Postal 
Union,  27  francs,  21  shillings,  or  marks,  post-paid.  Vol.  I.  unbound  or  bound  in 
cloth,  containing  489  pages,  11  plates  and  16  figures,  will  be  sent  post-paid  on  receipt 
of  $4:  Vol.  II,  containing  521  pages,  14  plates  and  46  figures,  bound  for  $5.00,  un- 
bound for  $4.50 :  Vol.  Ill,  containing  531  pages,  33  plates,  and  19  figures  ;  Vol.  IV, 
550  pages,  20  plates,  and  19  figures;  and  Vol.  V,  534  pages,  13  plates,  and  55 
figures ;  bound  for  $5.50,  unbound  for  $5. 

All  literary  communications  should  be  addressed  to  the  Managing  Editor,  Prof. 
A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr.,  Ph.  D.,  Princeton  College,  Princeton,  N.  J.:  all  business 
communications,  to  the  Publishers,  GINN  &  COMPANY,  Boston. 


iii 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  V,  1889. 


No.  i.    JANUARY— MARCH.  p^ 

I.— THE  NEWLY-DISCOVERED  HEAD  OF  IRIS  FROM  THE  FRIEZE  OF  THE 

PARTHENON  (plate  ii ;  figure  1),    .        by  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,        1 
II.— DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA  IN  1888.     II.  STELE  OF  A 

WARRIOR  (plate  i ;  figure  2),          .        .          by  CARL  D.  BUCK,        9 
1U.— DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA  IN  1888.     III.   THE  CHO- 
REQ1A  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKARIA.    INSCRIPTIONS  FROM  IKARIA 
Nos.  5-7  (facsimile  inscription;  figures  3,  4),      by  CARL  D.  BUCK,       18 
IV_ ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES.    VIII.  "HUMAN  SACRIFICES"  ON  BABYLONIAN 

CYLINDERS  (figures  5-19),       ...    by  WM.  HAYES  WARD,      34 

V.— A  COLLECTION  OF  BABYLONIAN  WEIGHTS,       .       by  ALBERT  L.  LONG,        44 

NOTES. 

I.— INSCRIPTION  FROM  KORM ASA;  RAMSAY  No.  7,  by  PAUL  WOLTERS,  47 

II.—  THE  ARCHITECTURAL  INSCRIPTION  FOUND  AT  EPIDAUROS  IN  1885, 

by  J.  C.  KOLFE,  47 

III. — EARLY  BRONZES  IN  THE  CAVE  OF  ZEUS,  .          .       by  A.  L.  F.,  JR.,  48 

KEVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 

ORIENTAL  ARCHEOLOGY, 49 

CLASSICAL  ARCHEOLOGY,          .  56 

CHRISTIAN  ARCHEOLOGY, 63 

THE  EENAISSANCE, 65 

COREESPONDENCE. 

Report  on  Excavations  and  Explorations  in  Egypt  during  the  Season  of  1888-89, 

by  FARLEY  B.  GODDARD,      68 
The  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athena, 77 

ARCH^XXLOGICAL  NEWS. 

AFRICA  (Egypt,  Tunisia);  ASIA  (Hindustan,  Persia,  Caucasus,  Mesopo- 
tamia, Arabia,  Palestine,  Syria,  Asia  Minor,  Kypros) ;  EUROPE  (Greece, 
Krete,  Italy,  Sicily,  Spain,  France,  Switzerland,  Belgium,  Germany, 
Austria-Hungary,  England) ;  AMERICA  (United  States,  Mexico), 

by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR.,      79 


No.  2.    APRIL— JUNE. 

1.— THE  DECREES  OF  THE  DEMOTIONIDAL    A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRA- 

TRY, by  F.  B.  TARBELL,     135 

II.— DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA  IN  1888.  IV.  CHRONO- 
LOGICAL REPORT  OF  EXCAVATIONS.  V.  TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE 
IKARIAN  DISTRICT.  VI.  ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  (plates  III, 

iv,  v ;  figures  21-31),       ....         by  CARL  D.  BUCK,     154 
III.— NOTES  ON  ROMAN  ARTISTS  OF  THE  MIDDLE  AGES  (i), 

by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR.,    182 
iv 


CONTENTS. 


EEVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 

ARCHEOLOGY, 

ORIENTAL  ARCHEOLOGY, 

CLASSICAL  ARCHEOLOGY, 

CHRISTIAN  ARCHEOLOGY, 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 

AFRICA  (Egypt,  Tunisia,  Morocco) ;  ASIA  (Afghanistan,  Mesopotamia, 
Palestine,  Asia  Minor,  Kypros) ;  EUROPE  (Greece,  Italy,  Sicily,  France, 
Germany,  Austria-Hungary,  England) ;  AMERICA  (United  States,  Mexico), 

by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR., 
SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondence  Hellenique — Bullettino  d.  imp.  Istituto  arch.  germ. 
Sez.  Romana — Gazette  Archeologique — Jahrbuch  d.  k.  deuts.  archaol.  Institute — 
Mittheilungen  d.  k.  deuts.  archaol.  Institute.  Athen.  Abth. — Revue  Archeologique, 


PAGE. 
189 
189 
190 
196 


198 


234 


No.  3-    JULY— SEPTEMBER. 

l.—EXCA  VATIONS  BY  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  THE  THEATRE  OFSIKYON. 
I.   GENERAL  REPORT  OF  THE  EXCAVATIONS  (plates  VI,  VII,  IX), 

by  W.  J.  McMuRTRY,    267 
II.  SUPPLEMENTAL  Y REPORT  OF  THE  EXGA  VA  TIONS,  by  M.  L.  EARLE,     286 

in.  A  SIKYONIAN  STATUE  (plate  vin),        .        .    by  M.  L.  EARLE,    292 

II. — DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IK  ARIA  IN  1888. 

VII.  INSCRIPTIONS  Nos.  8-17,     ....  by  CARL  D.   BUCK,      304 

III.— EARLY-CHRISTIAN  AND  MEDIEVAL  MONUMENTS  IN  ITALY. 

I.  AN  EARLY  ROCK-CUT  CHURCH  AT  SZ7TJRJ  (plate  X  ;  figures  33-36), 

by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR.,    320 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letter  from  Greece  on  Tiryns  and  Mykenai, 


by  WlLHELM   DORPFELD,      331 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 

ARCHEOLOGY, 337 

CLASSICAL  ARCHEOLOGY, 339 

CHRISTIAN  ARCHEOLOGY, .  347 

PREHISTORIC  ARCHEOLOGY, .        .  356 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 

AFRICA  (Egypt,  Algeria,  Tunisia);  ASIA  (Japan,  Hindustan,  Central 
Asia,  Caucasus,  Armenia,  Arabia,  Syria,  Asia  Minor,  Kypros) ;  EUROPE 
(Greece,  Krete,  Italy,  Sicily,  Spain,  France,  Switzerland,  Belgium, 
Germany,  Austria-Hungary,  Denmark,  Russia,  England) ;  AMERICA 
(Mexico),  by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR.,  358 

SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin  de  Correspondance  Hellenique — Gazette  Archeologique — Journal  of 
Hellenic  Studies— Revue  Archeologique, 403 


vi  CONTENTS. 

No.  4.     OCTOBER-DECEMBER. 

PAGE. 
I. — THE  THASIAN  RELIEF  DEDICATED  TO  THE  NYMPHS  AND  TO  APOLLON 

(figures  37-41), by  AD.  MICH^ELIS,    417 

II.—EXCA  VATIONS  BY  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  NEAR  STAMATA  IN  ATTIKA. 
I.  REPORT  ON  EXCA  VATIONS  AND  SCULPTURES  (plate  XIl), 

by  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,    423 

II.  INSCRIPTIONS  Nos.  I-IV,         .          .          .  by  F.   B.  TARBELL,      426 

III. — DISCOVERIES  BY  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  PLATAIA  IN  1889. 

I.  A  NEW  FRA  OMENT  OF  THE  PREAMBLE  TO  DIOCLETIAN'S  EDICT, 
DE  PRETIIS  RERUM  VENALIUM, 

by  J.  C.  ROLFE,  and  F.  B.  TARBELL,    428 

II.  REPORT  ON  EXCAVATIONS  (Figure  42), 

by  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN,  F.  B.  TARBELL,  and  J.  C.  ROLFE,    439 

IV.— DISCOVERIES  BY  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  AT  ANTHEDON  IN  1889. 

i.  INSCRIPTIONS  Nos.  i-LXiv,  by  C.  D.  BUCK  and  F.  B.  TARBELL,    443 

V.— DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA  IN  1888. 
VIIT.  SCULPTURES  ( plates  xr,  xm ;  figures  43-55), 

by  CARL  D.  BUCK,    461 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 

AFRICA  (Egypt,  Algeria,  Tunisia) ;  ASIA  (Hindustan,  Mesopotamia, 
Arabia,  Syria,  Palestine,  Asia  Minor) ;  EUROPE  (Greece,  Krete,  Italy, 
Sicily,  France,  Germany,  Turkey,  Russia,  England);  AMERICA  (United 
States), by  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR.,  478 

SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 

'E<f>T)fj.fpls  'ApxotoAo'y/c^ — Jahrbuch  d.  k.  deuts.  archdol.  Institute — Mittheilungen 

d.  k.  dents,  arehdol  Institute.    Athen.  Abth., 524 


ALPHABETICAL  TABLE. 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS,  PAPERS  OF  :  pAGB. 

Discoveries  in  the  Attic  deme  of  Ikaria  in  1888 ; 

ii.  Stele  of  a  Warrior, 9 

in.  The  Choregia  in  Athens  and  at  Ikaria.  Inscrs.  from  Ikaria,  Nos.  5-7,      18 

IV.  Chronological  Eeport  of  Excavations, 154 

V.  Topography  of  the  Ikarian  district,        .        .        .        .        .         .     158 

vi.  Architectural  Remains, 165 

vn.  Inscriptions  from  Ikaria,  Nos.  8-17, 304 

vin.  Sculptures, 461 

Discoveries  at  the  Theatre  of  Sikyon ; 

I.  General  Report  of  the  Excavations, 267 

ii.  Supplementary  Report  of  the  Excavations, 286 

in.  A  Sikyonian  Statute,      .         . 292 

Discoveries  near  Stamata,  in  Attika, 423 

Discoveries  at  Plataia  in  1889 ; 

i.  A  new  fragment  of  the  Preamble  to  Diocletian's  Edict,  De  Pretiis 

Rerum  Venalium, 428 

n.  Report  on  Excavations, 439 

Discoveries  at  Anthedon  in  1889 ; 

i.  Inscriptions  from  Anthedon  (Nos.  I-LXIV), 443 

The  newly-discovered  Head  of  Iris  from  the  frieze  of  the  Parthenon,       .        1 
The  Decrees  of  the  Demotionidai :  a  study  of  the  Attic  Phratry,     .        .     135 

Note  on  the  School, 77 

ARCH^OLOGICAL  NEWS, 79, 198,  358,  478 

Afghanistan,  202 — Algeria,  362,  481— Arabia,  88,  365,  486 — Armenia, 
365— Asia  Minor,  90,  208,  369,  489— Austria-Hungary,  129,  227,  398— 
Belgium,  126,  396— Caucasus,  87, 365— Central  Asia,  365— Denmark,  399— 
Egypt,  79,  197,  358,  478— England,  129,  228,  401,  514— France,  124,  226, 
394,  510— Germany,  127,  227,  396,  513— Greece,  92,  212,  374,  490— Hin- 
dustan, 85,  363,  481— Italy,  107,  217,  382,  496— Japan,  363— Krete,  107, 
382,  495— Kypros,  91,  209,  373— Mesopotamia,  87,  202,  486— Mexico,  134, 
232,  402— Morocco,  202— Palestine,  88,  207,  487— Persia,  86— Russia,  399, 
513— Sicily,  120,  223,  391,  509— Spain,  122,  393— Switzerland,  126,  396— 
Syria,  89,  368,  486— Tunisia,  84,  200,  362,  481— Turkey,  513— United 
States,  133,  231,  522. 
BUCK  (Carl  D.).  Discoveries  in  the  Attic  deme  of  Ikaria  in  1888. 

ii.  Stele  of  a  Warrior, 9 

in.  The  Choregia  in  Athens  and  at  Ikaria, 18 

iv.  Chronological  Report  of  Excavations 154 

v.  Topography  of  the  Ikarian  district, 158 

vi.  Architectural  Remains, .165 

vn.  Inscriptions, 304 

vin.  Sculptures, 461 

Inscriptions  from  Anthedon, 443 

DORPFELD  (Wilhelm).     Letter  from  Greece  on  Tiryns  and  Mykenai,      .        .     331 
EARLE  (M.  L.).  Supplementary  Report  of  Excavations  at  the  Theatre  of  Sikyon,     286 

A  Sikyonian  Statue, 292 

vii 


viii  ALPHABETICAL  TABLE. 

PAGE. 

FOWLER  (Harold  N.).    Summaries  of  Periodicals,  .       250,  254,  524,  526,  531 

FROTHINGHAM  (Arthur  L.,  Jr.).     Note  on  Early  Bronzes  in  the  Cave  of  Zeus,      48 

Notes  on  Koman  Artists  of  the  Middle  Ages, 182 

Early-Christian  and  Mediaeval  Monuments  in  Italy.     I.  An  early  rock-cut 

Church  at  Sutri, 320 

Archaeological  News, 79,198,358,478 

Summaries  of  Periodicals, 234,241,259,407,413 

GODDARD  (Farley  B.).    Report  on  Excavations  and  Explorations  in  Egypt 

during  the  season  of  1888-89, 68 

LONG  (Albert  L.).    A  Collection  of  Babylonian  Weights,        ....      44 

MARQUAND  (Allan).    Summaries  of  Periodicals, 245,  403 

McMuRTRY  ( W.  J. ) .  General  Report  of  Excavations  at  the  Theatre  of  Siky on,    267 

MERRIAM  (A.  C.).    Summaries  of  Periodicals, .    409 

MICHAELIS  (Adolph).    The  Thasian  Relief  dedicated  to  the  Nymphs  and  to 

Apollon, 417 

REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 

Archeology, 189,  337 

Oriental  Archaeology, 49,  189 

Classical  Archaeology, 56,  190,  339 

Christian  Archaeology, 63,196,347 

The  Renaissance, ............       66 

Prehistoric  Archaeology, 356 

ROLFE  (J.  C.).     Note  on  the  Architectural  Inscription  found  at  Epidauros,  in 

1885, 47 

A  new  fragment  of  the  Preamble  to  Diocletian's  Edict,  De  Pretiis  Rerum 

Venalium,  found  at  Plataia, 428 

Report  on  Excavations  at  Plataia, 439 

SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS, 234,  403,  524 

Bulletin  de  Correspondence  Hellenique, 234,  403 

Bullettino  d.  imp.  Istituto  arch.  germ.  Sezione  Romana, 241 

'E<t>y/j.(pls  'ApxaioXoyiK-fj,       ..........     524 

Gazette  Archeologique, 245,  407 

Jahrbuch  d.  k.  deuts.  archaol  Institute, 250,  526 

Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies, 409 

Mittheilungen  d.  k.  deuts.  archaol.  Institute.    Athenische  Abth.,        .        .     254,  531 
Revue  Archeologique, 259, 413 

TARBELL  (F.  B.).    The  Decrees  of  the  Demotionidai :  a  study  of  the  Attic 

Phratry, 135 

Inscriptions  from  Stamata, 426 

A  new  fragment  of  the  Preamble  to  Diocletian's  edict,  De  Pretiis  Rerum 

Venalium,  found  at  Plataia, 428 

Report  on  Excavations  at  Plataia, 439 

Inscriptions  from  Anthedon, .     443 

WALDSTEIN  (Charles).    The  newly-discovered  head  of  Iris  from  the  frieze  of 

the  Parthenon, 1 

Report  on  Excavations  near  Stamata  in  Attika, 423 

Report  on  Excavations  at  Plataia, 439 

WARD  (William  Hayes).    Notes  on  Oriental  Antiquities,     vm.  "Human 

Sacrifices"  on  Babylonian  Cylinders  (figures  5-19),       ....      34 

WOLTERS  (Paul).     Note  on  Inscription  from  Kormasa :  Ramsay  No.  7,  .         .47 


PLATES. 


PAGES  IN  TEXT. 
9-17 


i. — Archaic  Warrior-Stele  from  the  excavations  at  Ikaria. 
n. — The  newly-discovered  Head  of  Iris  from  the  East  Frieze  of  the 

Parthenon 

in. — Ikaria.     Church  from  the  south  (before  demolition),  showing  the 

Choregic  Monument 

iv. — Ikaria.    Excavations,  looking  eastward,  with  Choregic  Monument 

to  the  right 

V. — Ikaria.     Excavations,  looking  eastward  over  the  Pythion. 
vi. — Theatre  of  Sikyon.     Seats  and  Conduit  surrounding  the  orchestra.  ] 
vii.— Theatre  of  Sikyon.     Stage-foundations  and  adjoining  structures.     | 
ix. — Theatre  of  Sikyon.     Plan,  showing  excavations  by  the  American  f 

School «    .         .        .        .       J 

VITI. — Sikyonian  Statue  from  excavations  by  the  American  School. 
x. — Interior  of  an  early  rock-cut  church  at  Sutri,  Italy. 
xi. — Ikaria.     Three  marble  Reliefs  from  the  excavations  by  the  Ameri- 
can School, 467,  471,  473 

xii. — Stamata.      Marble  Torso  from  the  excavations  by  the  American 

School 424 

xiii.— Ikaria.     Fragment  of  marble  Relief  from  the  excavations  by  the 

American  School.      . 468 


1-8 


154-181 


267-292 


292-303 
320-330 


FIGURES. 


1. — Slab  from  East  Frieze  of  Parthenon  (in  British  Museum)  repre- 
senting Zeus,  Hera  and  Iris,  to  which  belongs  the  newly-dis- 
covered head  of  Iris, 5 

2.— Stele  of  Aristion,  in  Central  Museum  at  Athens,  .        .        .        .  10 

3. — Tripod-base  with  inscription,  found  at  Ikaria,       ....  31 

4. — Tripod-base  found  near  the  Ilissos, 32 

5-19.— Babylonian  Seal-cylinders,  illustrating  "  human  sacrifices,"         .  34-43 

20. — Ground-plan  of  akropolis  of  Mykenai, 103 

21-23. — Ikaria.     Choregic  Monument, 166-167 

24-25. — Ikaria.     Types  of  walls  found 173 

26. — Ikaria.     Part  of  the  Peribolos-wall, 174 

27.— Ikaria.     Inscribed  threshold  of  the  Pythion,        .        .         .        .  174 

28. — Ikaria.     One  of  the  double  marble  seats, 176 

29-30.— Marble  Vase  found  at  Ikaria, 177-178 

31.— Griffin-heads  found  at  Ikaria, 179 

32. — vm-century  Phrenician  Tomb  in  the  necropolis  of  Carthage,       .  202 

33-35.— Rock-cut  church  at  Sutri, 322-324 

36.— Examples  of  low  and  masked  arches, 326 

37-41.— The  Thasian  Relief  dedicated  to  the  Nymphs  and  to  Apollon,     .  417-422 

42. — Ground-plan  of  Byzantine  church  uncovered  at  Plataia,       .        .  441 

43-55. — Ikaria.     Sculptures  from  the  excavations  by  the  American  School,  461-477 

ix 


COPYRIGHT,  1890,  BY  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr. 


JOHN  MURPHY  A  CO.,  PRINTERS, 
BALTIMORE. 


THE   AMERICAN 

JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY 

AND  OF  THE 

HISTORY  OF  THE  FINE  ARTS. 


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REVIEW  OF  PAST  WORK. 

It  has  been  the  aim  of  the  editors  that  the  JOURNAL,  besides  giving 
a  survey  of  the  whole  field  of  Archaeology,  should  be  .international  in 
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common  medium  for  the  publication  of  the  results  of  their  labors.  This 
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and  by  the  character  of  articles  and  correspondence  published.  Not  only 
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the  original  articles,  but  the  present  condition  of  research  has  been  brought 
before  our  readers  in  the  departments  of  Correspondence,  annual  Reviews 
of  various  branches  (like  Numismatics,  Biblical  Archaeology,  Greek  Epi- 
graphy), and  reviews  of  the  more  important  recent  books. 

Two  departments  in  which  the  JOURNAL  stands  quite  alone  are  (1) 
the  Record  of  Discoveries,  and  (2)  the  Summaries  of  Periodicals.  In  the 
former,  a  detailed  account  is  given  of  all  discoveries  and  excavations  in 
every  portion  of  the  civilized  world,  from  India  to  America,  especial 
attention  being  paid  to  Greece  and  Italy.  In  order  to  ensure  thorough- 
ness in  this  work,  more  than  sixty  periodical  publications  are  consulted, 
and  material  is  secured  from  special  correspondents. 

In  order  that  readers  may  know  of  everything  important  that  appears 
in  periodical  literature,  a  considerable  space  is  given  to  careful  sum- 
maries of  the  papers  contained  in  the  principal  periodicals  that  treat 
of  Archaeology  and  the  Fine  Arts.  By  these  various  methods,  all  impor- 
tant work  done  is  concentrated  and  made  accessible  in  a  convenient  but 
scholarly  form,  equally  suited  to  the  specialist  and  to  the  general  reader. 


PROGRAM  OF  VOLUME  V,  1889. 

We  are  glad  to  announce  that  the  Journal  has  been  made  the  official 
organ  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  and  will  thus 
be  enabled  to  publish  a  large  part  of  the  results  of  the  excavations  so  bril- 
liantly carried  on  during  the  last  two  years  at  Sikyon,  and  Ikaria.  The 
report  of  the  excavations  at  Ikaria  will  include  papers  on  the  topography 
of  the  Ikarian  region,  on  the  architectural  remains  of  the  shrines  of  Dio- 
nysos  and  Apollon,  the  inscriptions,  the  archaic  warrior-slab,  the  sepulchral 
stelai,  and  other  pieces  of  sculpture  of  different  periods.  The  work  in  the 
theatre  of  Sikyon  will  be  reported  by  MM.  McMurtry  and  Earle.  Also, 
Dr.  Charles  Waldstein  has  contributed  a  paper  on  his  important  discovery, 
among  the  recent  finds  on  the  Akropolis,  of  the  head  of  Iris  belonging  to 
the  slab  of  divinities  from  the  eastern  frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  which  is  in 
the  British  Museum.  In  view  of  recent  acquisitions,  especially  by  the  Bal- 
timore branch  of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  there  will  be  articles,  by 
Dr.  Hartwig  and  others,  on  a  collection  of  black-  and  red-figured  vases 
signed  by  well-known  Greek  artists,  such  as  Nikosthenes,  Xenokles,  Epi- 
ktetos,  Duris,  Philtias.  The  series  of  papers  by  Messrs.  Clarke  and  Emerson 
on  Greek  antiquities  in  Southern  Italy,  already  promised,  has  been  delayed, 
but  will  soon  be  commenced. 

One  change  in  the  present  arrangement,  to  be  begun  in  volume  v,  wjll 
undoubtedly  be  welcomed  by  our  readers.  Up  to  the  present,  the  book- 
reviews  have  not  been  numerous :  it  is  now  proposed  to  carry  out  the 
principle  followed  in  the  NEWS  and  the  SUMMARIES  :  that  is,  to  give  a 
condensed  view  of  the  entire  field  by  printing  in  each  issue  a  large  number 
of  notices  of  the  most  important  books  recently  published,  under  the  head- 
ings, Oriental,  Classical,  Christian,  Renaissance,  and  Prehistoric  Archaeology. 

The  various  series  commenced  in  past  volumes  will  be  continued :  such 
as  those  by  Dr.  Wm.  Hayes  Ward  on  Oriental  Antiquities,  by  MM.  Miintz 
and  Frothingham  on  Christian  Mosaics.  Dr.  Ward  will  publish  some 
Hittite  Sculptures ;  an  inedited  archaic  Babylonian  cylindrical  object  from 
Urumya ;  and  a  paper  on  the  so-called  "  human  sacrifices"  on  Babylonian 
cylinders :  Mr.  Talcott  Williams,  a  note  on  the  Arch  of  Chosroes.  Professor 
A.  C.  Merriam  will  review  the  late  discoveries  in  Greek  Epigraphy,  and 
M.  Ernest  Babelon  the  latest  publications  and  discoveries  in  Numismatics. 

The  present  policy  of  making  the  JOURNAL  a  complete  record  of  con- 
temporary archaeological  work,  by  its  correspondence,  book-reviews,  news, 
and  summaries,  will  be  continued. 


NOTICES. 

London  Athenaeum. — We  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  no  other  periodical 
in  the  English  language  is  so  well  fitted  to  keep  the  student  who  lacks  time  or 
opportunity  to  read  all  the  foreign  journals  abreast  of  the  latest  discoveries  in  every 
branch  of  archaeology. 

Gottingische  Gelehrte  Anzeigen.— No  comprehensive  account  of  the  most  recent 
discoveries  exists,  and  the  new  American  Journal  can  do  most  meritorious  work  and 
fill  a  deficiency  which,  since  the  time  of  Gerhard's  death,  has  been  often  deplored  by 
every  archaeologist  who  had  not  the  good  fortune  to  be  at  the  fountain-heads. 

Philologische  Rundschau. — We  may  expect  that  the  American  Journal  of  Archse- 
ology  will  take  an  honorable  position  by  the  side  of  those  already  existing  in  Europe. 

Bibliotheque  de  I'Ecole  des  Chartes. — As  we  think  it  (the  American  Journal 
of  Archaeology)  is  called  upon  to  render  real  service,  not  only  in  the  United  States,  but 
in  Europe  and  in  France,  we  take  pleasure  in  announcing  it  here.  The  plan  is  vast 
and  well  conceived. 

Archivio  di  Letteratura  Biblica  ed  Orientals  (Turin). — Periodicals  are  divisi- 
ble into  three  categories :  some  have  no  pretensions  to  be  classed  as  learned  ;  some 
pretend  to  be  but  are  not  so  in  reality ;  others,  finally,  pretend  to  be  and  really  are. 
The  periodical  which  we  announce  ( The  American  Journal  of  Archaeology]  belongs  to 
the  last  category. 

New  York  Evening  Post. — The  American  Journal  of  Archaeology  will  not  dis- 
appoint the  hopes  of  the  friends  of  the  science  in  America.  If  not  well  supported, 
it  will  be  because  there  is  little  real  interest  in  America  in  classical  and  mediaeval 
archaeology. 

Chicago  Evening  Journal. — The  American  Journal  of  Archceology  is  alike  credit- 
able to  the  country  and  to  the  earnest  and  scholarly  gentlemen  who  have  it  in  charge, 
and  we  are  pleased  to  know  that  it  has  already  achieved  an  enviable  reputation  in 
Europe. 

London  Academy. — Mr.  J.  S.  Cotton,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Egypt  Ex- 
ploration Fund  (London,  Dec.  22,  1887),  referred  to  the  American  Journal  of  Archce- 
ology and  the  American  Journal  of  Philology,  which  he  defined  as  being  of  a  higher 
order  of  merit  than  any  publications  bearing  similar  titles  in  Great  Britain. 


GINN  &  COMPANY,  Publishers, 

Boston,  New  York,  and  Chicago. 


JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY  VOL.V,   PLATE  II 


Heliog.D-ujardrn 


HEAD  OF   IRIS 
From  the  east  frieze  of  the  Parthenon 


AMERICAN 

JOURNAL  or  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol.V.  MARCH,   1889.  No.  I. 

AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 

AT  ATHENS. 

THE  NEWLY  DISCOVERED  HEAD  OF  IRIS  FROM 
THE  FRIEZE  OF  THE  PARTHENON. 

[PLATE  II.] 


In  the  successful  excavations  that  have  been  carried  on  during  the 
last  few  years  on  the  Akropolis  at  Athens,  now  brought  to  a  close,  the 
closing  days  were  peculiarly  fortunate  for  the  excavators.  I  must  refer 
the  readers  to  the  Ae\riov  for  an  account  of  these  excavations ;  but  I 
wish  to  publish  one  discovery  which  may  perhaps  be  considered  the 
crowning  event  in  this  series  of  fortunate  finds,  though  it  merely  con- 
sists of  a  fragment  of  marble  not  more  than  a  foot  in  size.  It  will  be 
shown  in  the  following  remarks — it  is  to  be  hoped,  conclusively — that 
the  fragment  is  a  most  interesting  portion  of  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon. 

"As  is  well  known,  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon  formed  a  continu- 
ous band  of  sculpture  in  low  relief  which  ran  round  the  outer  wall  of 
the  cella,  with  its  two  smaller  halls  in  front  and  back,  the  pronaos  and 
the  tamieion.  Like  every  peripteric  temple,  the  rectangular  temple 
proper,  with  its  halls  closed  in  by  walls  on  all  sides,  was  surrounded  by 
a  colonnade  which  supported  the  roof  and  projected  over  the  walls  of 
the  actual  temple.  The  distance  from  the  walls  to  the  columns  (ex- 
clusive of  these)  varies  from  2.96  to  3.57  m.  (9.7  to  11.7  ft.).  This 
space  was  paved  with  white  marble  and  afforded  shady  walks  to  the 
visitors  to  the  Akropolis.  The  plain  wall  is  bounded  above  by  a 
slightly  projecting  band  (rawia)  under  which  are  small  blocks,  called 
by  Vitruvius  regulae,  which  in  the  Doric  order  to  which  the  temple 

1 


2  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

belongs  would  lead  us  to  expect  above  them  the  triglyphon,  a  frieze 
subdivided  by  metopes  (/xeroTrat,  metopae)  and  triglyphs  (r/oi<yXt^>ot). 
Instead  of  this  triglyphon,  however,  we  here  have  a  continuous  frieze 
(£ftx£opo?,  Sidfafjia)  which  ran  round  the  four  sides  of  this  outer  wall 
like  a  belt,  or  rather  like  a  band  uniting  its  two  ends  on  the  forehead 
of  a  victor.  It  was  11.9  m.  (39  ft.)  above  the  pavement  of  the  colon- 
nade, and  above  it  a  painted  ornamentation  after  the  manner  of  a  cor- 
nice completed  the  decorations  of  the  wall,  which  was  joined  above  to 
the  entablature  of  the  outer  colonnade  by  a  ceiling,  just  as  below,  the 
marble  pavement  joined  the  base  of  the  columns  with  the  wall.  The 
length  of  the  frieze  was  159.42m.  (522.8ft.),  of  which  21.18m.  (69.5ft.) 
covered  each  of  the  narrower  walls  of  the  front  and  back,  while  58.53  m. 
(191.9  ft.)  decorated  each  longer  side  of  the  rectangular  building.  It 
consists  of  numerous  slabs  carefully  joined  together,  almost  exactly  1  m. 
(3  ft.  3.95  in.  according  to  Stuart)  in  height.7'1 

The  subject  represented  on  this  frieze  is  generally  acknowledged  to 
be  the  procession  on  the  occasion  of  the  Panathenaic  Festival.  The 
participants  in  this  procession  started  at  sunrise  on  the  last  day  of  the 
Festival,  the  birthday  of  Athene,  from  the  outer  Kerameikos,  passed 
through  the  Dipylon,  the  Dromos,  and  the  chief  street  of  the  Inner 
Kerameikos,  to  the  market-place,  then  to  the  Eleusinion,  to  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  Akropolis,  to  the  west,  and  through  the  Propylaia 
to  the  Temple  of  Athene  Polias,  upon  whose  altar  the  hecatombs  offered 
by  Athens  and  its  dependent  states  were  sacrificed,  and  a  great  festive 
meal  concluded  the  whole  celebration.  Accordingly,  in  the  frieze  on 
the  narrow  west  end  of  the  Temple  is  represented  a  scene  of  preparation 
for  the  procession.  There  are  groups  of  horsemen,  many  of  them  already 
mounted,  others  in  the  act  of  mounting,  another  forcing  the  bit  into 
the  mouth  of  his  restive  horse,  another  drawing  on  his  boots,  another 
again  trying  to  hold  back  a  rearing  horse,  and  so  on.  The  long  north 
and  south  sides  present  the  procession  proper.  In  it  are  not  only  the 
divisions  of  horsemen,  the  chariots  with  charioteers  and  hoplites ;  but 
also  groups  of  men  and  youths  and  maidens  on  foot  carrying  branches 
or  vases,  or  musical  or  sacrificial  instruments  of  which  in  ancient  life 
the  authors  give  us  an  account.  Finally  there  are  the  sacrificial  cows 
and  sheep  which  bring  us  to  the  narrow  east  or  front  side  where  the 
advancing  maidens  are  met  by  the  magistrates  supposed  to  be  awaiting 
them  on  the  Akropolis.  With  this  the  procession  is  brought  to  a  close, 

1  WALDSTEIN,  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidia,s,  p.  191. 


THE  NEWLY  DISCOVERED  HEAD  OF  IRIS.  3 

but  the  scene  has  only  reached  its  climax ;  for  in  the  central  portion 
of  this  frieze  forming  the  front  of  the  Temple  are  represented  the  gods 
and  goddesses  who  are  supposed  to  be  witnessing  the  display  in  honor 
of  Athene.  Accordingly,  Athene  heads  the  right-hand  division  of  gods, 
as  Zeus  heads  the  left-hand  division  ;  and  these  two  divisions  are  kept 
apart  by  the  introduction  of  a  scene  supposed  by  many  to  represent 
the  dedication  of  the  Peplos  to  Athene,  by  others  the  preparation  on 
the  part  of  the  Priest  and  Priestess  to  perform  the  sacrifice  of  the  heca- 
tombs offered  to  the  goddess. 

The  gods,  grouped  on  either  side  of  the  central  scene,  are  seated  in 
dignified  repose  beside  one  another.  After  Athene  we  have,  accord- 
ing to  Flasch,2  Hephaistos,  then  Poseidon,  then  Dionysos,  and  then 
Demeter  (called  by  others,  perhaps  correctly,  Peitho).  This  last  figure 
and  Dionysos  fortunately  have  their  heads  preserved,  and  they  form 
two  of  the  most  perfect  works  that  have  come  down  to  us  from  an- 
tiquity. After  Demeter  we  have  Aphrodite,  against  whose  knee  the 
youthful  Eros  is  leaning,  with  whom  the  series  of  gods  on  this  side 
comes  to  an  end.  On  the  other  side,  next  to  Zeus,  who  is  seated  upon  a 
more  elaborate  throne,  is  his  divine  spouse,  Hera,  beside  whom  stands  as 
an  attendant  a  youthful  female  figure,  according  to  Flasch,  Iris,  accord- 
ing to  others,  Hebe  or  Nike.  Then  follows  Ares,  then  Artemis,  then 
Apollo,  and  the  gods  on  this  side  are  brought  to  a  close  by  Hermes. 

The  bodies  of  all  these  figures  are  in  comparatively  good  preservation ; 
but  the  heads  of  all,  with  the  exception  of  the  two  above  mentioned, 
have  been  so  strongly  corroded  and  worn  or  broken  away,  that  no  trace 
of  modelling  remains.  The  central  marble  slab,  beginning  with  Iris 
and  including  the  central  scene,  ended  on  the  other  side  with  Hephais- 
tos. The  upper  corners  of  this  slab  were  at  some  period  broken  away 
and  carried  with  them  the  head  and  neck  of  Iris,  which  figure  was  thus 
found  by  Lord  Elgin  without  a  head  and  is  to  be  seen  in  this  state  in 
the  British  Museum. 

The  excavations  carried  on  to  the  southwest  of  the  Akropolis,  lay- 
ing bare  the  wall  built  by  Kimon,  and  descending  to  great  depth  to  the 
primeval  rock  of  the  Akropolis,  showed  that  after  the  Persian  invasion 
Kimon  levelled  the  surface  of  the  Akropolis  and  filled  in  all  those 
portions  where  the  rock  sunk  to  considerable  depth  below  the  highest 
point.  His  wall,  surrounding  the  entire  Akropolis,  binds  the  whole 
compactly  together  and  joins  the  rocky  bosses  into  the  complete  unity  of 

2  Zum  Parthenonfries:  Wiirzburg,  1877. 


4  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the  levelled  citadel  as  it  has  now  come  down  to  us.  All  the  objects 
found  in  the  excavations  carried  on  along  this  Kimonian  wall  in  this 
and  other  portions  of  the  Akropolis,  date  from  a  period  preceding  the 
Persian  invasion  when  the  enemy  destroyed  the  buildings  and  monu- 
ments on  the  citadel.  And  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  these  objects 
were  thrown  in  during  the  operation  of  filling  up  and  levelling  the 
surface  of  the  Akropolis  when  Kimon  undertook  the  restoration  of  the 
Athenian  citadel. 

But  above  the  wall  of  Kimon,  which  is  built  with  massive  blocks 
of  careful  masonry,  there  is  another  wall  of  nondescript  character,  which 
projects  to  the  present  day  above  the  surface  of  the  Akropolis  and  forms 
a  kind  of  parapet.  This  wall  is  composed  of  stones,  Roman  brick,  and 
earthwork,  and  has  been  considered  a  barbarian  wall.  We  shall  recur 
presently  to  the  date  of  this  structure. 

Sticking  in  this  wall,  just  where  it  joins  the  wall  of  Kimon,  was 
found  the  marble  fragment  with  which  we  are  now  concerned.  It  is 
a  piece  of  Pentelic  marble  0.275  m.  in  the  widest  portion,  and  0.22  m. 
in  height  in  the  highest  portion;  the  slab  is  0.155m.  thick  in  the 
thickest  part  exclusive  of  relief,  and  the  highest  relief  is  0.05  m., 
the  fracture  in  the  back  being  very  uneven,  comparatively  thin  at 
the  back  of  the  head,  and  thickest  at  the  top  left  angle  :  at  this  cor- 
ner there  is  a  facing  of  about  an  inch  in  width  running  round  the 
edge  of  the  left  side  that  is  not  visible  in  our  plate  and  surrounding 
the  rougher  surface  within  it.  It  thus  formed  part  of  a  frieze  block, 
and  has  the  same  working  of  the  sides  where  block  joined  block  as  is 
found  in  the  slabs  of  the  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon  which  are  54  centi- 
metres in  thickness.  The  face  of  this  marble  fragment  (PLATE  n)  con- 
tains a  head  in  low  relief  turned  to  the  left,  where  a  curved  flattish 
elevation,  rising  from  the  back  and  shoulder  of  the  figure,  runs  up- 
wards to  the  left  edge  of  the  fragment.  The  left  edge  and  top  are 
thus  cleanly  cut,  and  therefore  this  fragment  formed  the  top  corner  of 
some  relief.  The  head,  in  excellent  preservation  (only  the  tip  of  the 
nose  has  been  broken  away),  shows  that  simplicity  and  breadth  of  style 
and  that  marked  technique  of  low  relief  (the  edges  almost  undercut 
running  straight  down  to  the  background)  which  distinguish  the  work 
of  the  Parthenon  Frieze ;  and  Mr.  Kavvadias,  the  Director  General 
of  Excavations,  and  Mr.  Stai's  conjectured  that  it  was  a  piece  of  the 
Parthenon  Frieze.  They  asked  me  to  examine  the  fragment,  and  I 
at  once  felt  assured  that  it  was  the  head  belonging  to  Iris  in  the  East 
Frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  the  slab  to  which  it  belongs  now  being  among 


THE  NEWLY  DISCOVERED  HEAD  OF  IRIS. 


the  Elgin  marbles  in  the  British  Museum  (Figure  T).    When  a  cast  of 
this  slab  was  produced  the  identification  was  placed  beyond  all  doubt. 

The  head  and  neck  are  turned  towards  the  left,  worked  in  profile, 
with  a  very  slight  turn  towards  the  front  as  if  to  make  room  for  a  flat 
elevation  rising  beside  the  head.  This  elevation  was  evidently  a  wing, 
and  in  the  original  was  no  doubt  painted  to  indicate  its  detail  draw- 
ing. The  modelling  of  the  head  and  neck  are  of  that  broad  simple 
character  which  mark  Pheidian  art,  and  yet  with  this  large  style 
the  artist  has  been  able  to  add  a  singular  grace  and  charm  to  the 
nobility  of  character.  The  modelling  of  the  hair  is  not  overelabo- 


FlGURE  1. — Slab  from  the  East  Frieze  of  the  Parthenon  (in  the  British  Museum)  repre- 
senting Zeus,  Hera,  and  Iris,  to  which  belongs  the  newly  discovered  head  of  Iris. 

rate,  in  simple  broadish  ridges,  and  yet  varied  in  the  flow  of  line, 
conveying  well  its  peculiar  texture.  It  is  similar,  in  this  respect, 
to  the  excellent  head  of  Derneter  in  this  same  frieze ;  yet  the  whole 
peculiar  mode  of  wearing  the  hair  is  one  which  marks  a  more  youth- 
ful figure.  The  hair  falls  over  the  brow  in  short  curls  and  over  the 
temples,  and  it  had  been  hanging  loosely  down  the  back  till,  with  her 
left  hand,  Iris  collected  it  into  a  knot  at  the  back  of  her  head.  This 
is  the  action  of  the  figure  in  the  moment  represented  by  the  sculptor. 
There  are  several  instances  in  the  frieze  in  which  male  figures  are  rais- 
ing their  hands  to  their  heads,  tying  the  taenia,  or  otherwise  arranging 
their  hair.  So,  in  the  West  Frieze  (Michaelis),  Plate  ix,  Fig.  2;  North 


6  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Frieze,  Plate  xi,  Fig.  38,3  Plate  xm,  Figs.  97,  125;  South  Frieze, 
Plate  xi,  Fig.  121  (a  similar  motive  to  the  preceding  one),  and  West 
Frieze,  Plate  ix,  Fig.  2. 

In  general,  this  head,  which  may  well  be  compared  to  the  head  of 
Derneter,  is  a  youthful  translation  of  the  same  type.  As  its  dimen- 
sions (the  head  of  the  fragment  is  0.09  m.  from  brow  to  chin,  that  of 
Demeter  0.10.  m ;  from  bend  of  nostril  to  the  lobe  of  the  ear  in  the 
fragment  0.06  m.  and  in  Demeter  0.07  m.)  are  comparatively  smaller, 
the  proportions  being  exactly  those  that  obtain  between  the  figure  of 
Iris  and  the  figure  of  Demeter. 

In  the  extant  marble  in  the  British  Museum  (Fig.  1),  we  see,  on 
the  right  side  of  Iris,  traces  of  a  wing  and  the  uplifted  left  arm.  Now 
the  wing  here,  corresponds  exactly  to  the  right  wing  on  our  fragment; 
and,  when  the  fragment  was  placed  on  the  cast  of  the  relief  from  the 
British  Museum,  the  wrist  of  the  upraised  left  hand  of  Iris  naturally 
continued  to  the  extant  remains  of  the  fingers  of  the  hand  clearly  to 
be  seen  collecting  the  hair  into  a  knot  on  the  head  of  the  fragment. 
The  little  finger  and  the  third  finger  have  been  injured  somewhat,  but 
the  middle  finger  is  quite  intact.  They  are  distinctly  seen  when  looked 
at  from  above,  but  can  be  distinguished  with  sufficient  clearness  in  the 
front  view  here  given  on  PLATE  n. 

In  the  restorations  made  by  Stuart  and  copied  by  Worsley,  the  head 
is  wrongly  turned  towards  our  right ;  but,  when  the  slight  remaining 
fragment  of  the  neck  in  the  Iris  of  the  British  Museum  is  examined, 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  head  was  turned  to  our  left,  and  this  our  frag- 
ment now  places  beyond  a  doubt.  Henning's  restoration  is  more  cor- 
rect in  this  respect.  I  am  now  awaiting  the  arrival  of  the  cast  of  the 
fragment  in  its  thickness,  which  Mr.  Kavvadias  has  kindly  promised 
me.  This  will  be  sent  to  the  British  Museum,  and  I  hope  to  place  it  on 
the  figure  in  the  original  frieze,  when  the  identification,  which  really 
needs  no  further  confirmation,  will  be  settled  beyond  all  dispute. 

The  question  of  the  history  of  this  central  slab  and  of  our  head  must 
be  dwelt  upon  in  a  few  words.  As  is  known,  the  Parthenon  remained 
in  its  original  condition  until  the  close  of  the  fifth  or  beginning  of  the 

3  In  this  figure  we  have  the  complete  motive  of  the  Diadumenos,  both  hands  placed 
up  tying  the  taenia,  the  right  hand  higher  than  the  left  hand ;  and,  when  we  remem- 
ber the  statue  of  a  youthful  Anadumenos  by  Pheidias  mentioned  by  Pausanias  (vi. 
4,  5),  we  may  be  justified  in  conjecturing  that  this  subject,  repeated  in  the  famous 
statue  of  Polykleitos,  and  applied  to  graceful  female  figures  of  which  so  many  adap- 
tations have  come  down  to  us,  may  have  been  the  invention  of  Pheidias. 


THE  NEWLY  DISCOVERED  HEAD  OF  IRIS.  7 

sixth  century  A.  D.,  when  it  was  converted  into  a  Christian  church. 
Some  authorities  now  hold  that  this  was  done  under  Constantine.  The 
alteration  then  made  in  the  structure  was  the  transference  of  the  main 
entrance  from  the  east  to  the  west,  and  in  the  east  end  an  apse  was 
built.  This  probably  necessitated  the  taking  down  of  the  central  slab. 
Carrey,  in  1674,  did  not  see  it,  and  omits  it  from  the  drawings  of  the 
frieze.  Pierre  Babin,  in  his  letter  to  the  Abbe"  Pe*coil4  in  1672,  after 
describing  the  Frieze,  mentions  one  slab  as  being  not  in  its  place,  but  ' 
behind  the  door  of  the  Temple  (then  Mosque).  In  Chandler's  time 
(1765)  it  was  let  into  the  wall  of  the  fortress.  He  refers  to  it  as  the 
piece  which  probably  ranged  in  the  centre  of  the  cell  and  contained  "  a 
venerable  person  with  a  beard  reading  in  a  large  volume  which  is  partly 
supported  by  a  boy." 5  No  doubt  the  priest  with  the  boy  and  the  cloak. 
In  1785,  Worsley  saw  it  lying  on  the  ground  before  the  east  front  of 
the  Temple ;  while,  according  to  Visconti,  it  is  again  immured  in  a 
house  whence  Lord  Elgin's  workmen  took  it.6  Thus,  the  slab  remained 
for  about  thirteen  centuries  detached  from  its  place  on  the  Akropolis. 
But  in  taking  down  this  heavy  block  the  top  corners  were  probably 
chipped  off;  the  right  one  contained  no  figure,  the  left  one  this  head 
of  Iris.  Now  it  is  unlikely  that  this  small  fragment  would  have  re- 
mained about  in  such  excellent  preservation  for  any  length  of  time. 
And  thus,  shortly  after  the  removal  of  the  slab,  it  was  probably  used 
in  the  building  of  the  wall  in  which  it  was  found,  which  wall  is  thus 
likely  to  belong  to  the  Byzantine  period.  Now  the  central  figures  of 
the  Eastern  Pediment  of  the  Parthenon  were  not  extant  when  Carrey 
made  his  drawings  in  1 674,  fourteen  years  before  the  destruction  of  the 
Temple  by  the  Venetians  under  Morosini.  These  were,  in  all  like- 
lihood, removed  to  make  some  large  windows  or  similar  structures  in 
the  east  front  of  the  temple,  when  it  was  converted  into  a  church.  And, 
if  these  figures  were  then  thrown  from  their  places  and  reduced  to  frag- 
ments on  the  ground,  it  is  likely  that  portions  of  them  are  also  im- 
mured in  this  wall,  which  ought  therefore  to  be  taken  down  and 
examined.  It  can  easily  be  erected  again  in  its  present  picturesque 
condition  ;  and  I  am  happy  to  say  that  the  Commission  recently  ap- 
pointed to  consider  what  remains  to  be  done  on  the  Akropolis,  unani- 
mously decided  to  examine  this  wall. 

By  the  discovery  of  this  fragment,  another  important  light  is  thrown 

*F.  MICHAELIS,  Der  Parthenon,  Anhang  in,  p.  336,  31. 

5  Travels  in  Greece:  Oxford,  1776,  p.  51. 

6  WALDSTEIN,  ibid.  p.  264. 


8  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  ARCH^OL OGY. 

upon  the  question  of  the  genuineness  of  reduced  Roman  casts  of  the 
Frieze,  the  bearings  of  which  upon  the  genuineness  of  the  terracotta 
plaques  at  Paris,  Copenhagen,  and  Rome  I  have  discussed  in  Note  F 
of  Essay  vn  of  my  Essays  on  the  Art  of  Pheidias.  On  page  265, 1  put 
the  question,  "Are  the  Roman  casts,  which  have  certainly  been  in  ex- 
istence since  1840,  reductions  taken  by  Collard  precisely  from  the  early 
casts  of  Choiseul-Gouffier,  reduced  perhaps  by  Andreoli?"  and  I  in- 
clined then  to  answer  in  the  affirmative.  But  the  fragment  shows  this 
not  to  have  been  the  case :  for  in  the  Roman  cast  the  head  of  Iris  is 
turned  towards  our  right,  and  has  thus  evidently  been  influenced  by 
the  restoration  of  Stuart.  The  Roman  cast  of  the  Frieze  is  thus  not 
connected  with  the  originals  in  a  more  perfect  state  than  Lord  Elgin 
forwarded  them  to  London.  Though  this  does  not  yet  finally  prove 
the  terracottas  I  found,  to  be  forgeries,  it  goes  far  to  make  this  probable. 
It  is  by  such  discoveries  that  this  question  will  finally  be  decided,  and 
not  by  mere  assertions  on  the  part  of  those  who  have  not  carefully 
studied  all  the  points  and  have  in  no  way  contributed  by  unwarrant- 
able expression  of  opinion  to  the  settling  of  the  problem. 

Finally,  I  should  like  to  mention  that  I  desired  in  treating  of  this 
head  to  dwell  upon  the  method  of  representing  the  eye  in  the  heads 
from  the  Parthenon.  In  a  note  to  an  article  on  a  head  in  Madrid  pub- 
lished by  me  in  1884,7 1  pointed  to  the  peculiar  treatment  of  the  upper 
eyelid,  which  treatment  forms  a  conclusive  chronological  landmark  for 
Greek  sculpture.  In  all  the  eyes  of  the  Archaic  period  down  to,  say, 
the  year  460  B.  c.,  the  eyelids  join  at  their  outer  angle  on  one  plane. 
After  this  period,  owing,  no  doubt,  to  the  influence  of  pictorial  art, 
and  the  consideration  of  the  shadows  thrown  by  the  brow  on  the  upper 
eyelid  in  real  life,  the  upper  lid  is  carried  beyond  and  over  the  lower 
lid  at  the  outer  angles.  In  the  sculptures  of  the  Parthenon  we  have 
the  first  indication  of  this  innovation,  some  eyes  having  the  old  treat- 
ment, others  the  new ;  and  after  that  period  the  projecting  upper  eyelid 
becomes  the  rule.  I  have  for  a  long  time  examined  eyes  of  ancient 
statues  with  this  consideration,  and  what  was  conjecture  has  taken  the 
form,  of  a  law.  I  hope,  with  the  aid  and  co-operation  of  Mr.  C.  D. 
Freeman,  to  publish  the  results  of  this  investigation  with  numerous 
illustrative  instances. 

CHARLES  WALDSTEIN. 
American  School,  Athens, 
January,  1889. 

7  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies,  vol.  v,  p.  174. 


JOURNAL   OF  ARCHAEOLOGY 


VOL.V    PLATE    I 


ARCHAIC   WARRIOR    STELE 

From  the    excavations  of  the  American  school 

AT    IKARIA 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 

AT  ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA, 

1888. 


II.   STELE  OF  A  WARRIOR  * 

[PLATE  I.] 

The  stele  represented  on  PLATE  i  was  unearthed  during  the  exca- 
vations carried  on  by  the  American  School  in  February,  1888,  at 
"Dionyso,"  the  site  of  the  Attic  deme  of  Ikaria.1  In  clearing  away 
the  mass  of  rubbish  which  had  collected  in  the  interior  of  the  ruined 
Byzantine  church,2  the  workmen,  at  a  depth  of  twenty  centimeters, 
came  upon  what  was  apparently  a  long  marble  slab,  broken  into  three 
pieces,  forming  the  threshold  between  the  narthex  and  the  main  body 
of  the  church.  Upon  turning  over  one  of  the  three  fragments,  it  was 
found  to  be  sculptured  ;  and,  when  the  other  fragments  had  been  care- 
fully taken  out  and  fitted  to  the  first,  there  appeared  a  relief  which 
evoked  the  involuntary  exclamation,  "  Warrior  of  Marathon ! "  The 
material  is  Pentelic  marble.  The  total  height  of  the  slab  (of  which  the 
upper  extremity  is  wanting),  inclusive  of  the  base  or  Kprjirl^is  1.72 
met. ;  height  of  Kp^iris  alone,  0.165  m. ;  leaving  1.55  m.  for  the  relief 
proper.  The  width  of  the  Kp^Tri^  is  0.485  m. ;  width  of  stele  at  top, 
0.41  m. ;  showing  a  diminution  of  0.075  m.  The  thickness  of  the  slab 
is  0.12  m.;  highest  relief,  0.055  m.;  lowest  relief,  0.01  m.;  width  of 
rim  about  the  relief,  0.01.  Wanting  in  the  figure  itself  are :  the  head 
above  the  neck,  the  right  hand,  and  pieces  of  each  leg  just  above  the 
knee.  The  small  fragment  which  fits  in  at  the  waist  is  not  lost,  but 
could  not  be  found  at  the  time  the  photograph  was  taken.  The  KprjTris 
bears  four  finely  cut  rosettes,  but  no  inscription. 

The  resemblance  of  this  stele  to  the  "  Warrior  of  Marathon,"  or 

*  I  wish  to  make  acknowledgment  of  my  indebtedness  to  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein 
for  assistance  in  the  preparation  of  this  paper,  especially  in  the  detailed  archaeo- 
logical and  artistic  comparison  between  the  Ikarian  stele  and  that  of  Aristion. 

lAmer.  Journal  of  Archaeology,  IV,  pp.  421-2. 

*Ibid.,  m,  p.  439;  iv,  p.  44. 


10 


AMERICA N  JO URNAL  OF  AE GHMOL OGY. 


FIG.  2.— Stele  of  Aristion. 


"  Stele  of  Aristion/'  as  it  is  more  cor- 
rectly called,  now  in  the  Central  Mu- 
seum at  Athens,  is  very  striking ;  and 
for  purposes  of  comparison  a  reproduc- 
tion of  this  well-known  monument  is 
here  given3  (Figure  2).  The  stele  of 
Aristion  was  found  in  1838  in  the  ru- 
ined village  of  Velanideza,  which  lies 
at  about  two-thirds  the  distance  between 
Spata  and  the  eastern  coast  of  Attika, 
not,  as  is  frequently  stated,  on  the  plain 
of  Marathon,  between  which  and  Vela- 
nideza intervenes  the  eastern  range  of 
Pentelikon.  It  comprises  three  distinct 
parts :  the  relief  itself,  the  base  proper, 
and  a  smooth  surface  between  the  relief 
and  the  base,  which  Mr.  Kabbadias  calls 
the  Kprjiris.  The  KprjTrts  and  the  base 
proper  (ftdOpov)  must  be  distinguished : 
the  KpTjTTis,  in  a  sense  a  base,  is  the  sur- 
face upon  which  stands  the  figure  in 
relief,  and  is  as  essential  a  part  of  the 
representation  as  the  ground  upon 
which  stand  the  figures  in  a  picture. 
The  ftdOpov,  on  the  other  hand,  serves 
as  the  base  of  the  whole  monument, 

3  KEKULE,  Die  antiken  Bildwerke  im  Theseion 
zu  Athen,  where  are  collected  the  references  to 
all  reproductions  and  descriptions  up  to  date 
(1869).  Of  the  colored  reproductions  the  best, 
perhaps,  is  that  in  the  Revue  Archeologique,  1844, 
pi.  i.  Cf.  MURRAY,  History  of  Greek  Sculpture, 
vol.  i,  p.  193 ;  OVERBECK,  Geschichte  d.  gr.  Plastik 
(3rd  ed.),  vol.  i,  p.  150;  Mrs.  MITCHELL,  Hist. 
of  Ancient  Sculpture,  p.  218 ;  FRIEDERICHS-WOL- 
TERS,  Die  Gipsabgilsse  antiker  Bildwerke,  No.  101 ; 
KABBAAIA2,  KaraXoyos  TOV  KevrpiKOv  Movffeiov, 
No.  29 ;  PERRY,  Greek  and  Roman  Sculpture,  p. 
105;  VON  SYBEL,  Weltgeschichte  der  Kunst,  p. 
119 ;  COLLIGNON,  L'  Archeologie  Grecque,  p.  133 ; 
PARIS,  La  Sculpture  Antique;  BATJMEISTER 
Denkmdler  des  klassischen  Altertums,  p.  341. 


STELE  OF  A   WAREIOE  FOUND  AT  IKARIA.  11 

and  is  an  external  feature  corresponding  to  the  frame  of  the  picture. 
The  height  of  the  whole  monument,  inclusive  of  the  ftdOpov,  is  2.40 
met.;  the  /3d6pov  itself  has  a  height  of  0.30  met.,  a  width  of  0.715, 
and  a  thickness  of  0.435  m.  The  width  of  the  stele  at  the  bottom  is 
0.435  m.,  at  the  top,  0.42  m.,  thus  showing  a  diminution  of  0.015  m. 
The  thickness  of  the  stele  is  0.14  m.  at  the  bottom,  0.12  m.  at  the  top. 
Upon  the  KprjTris  is  the  inscription,  epyov  'A/Ho-ro/eXeo?,  showing  that 
the  monument  is  the  work  of  the  artist  Aristokles ;  and  upon  the 
fidOpov  we  have  'Apicrriovos,  evidently  the  genitive  of  the  name  of  the 
person  represented  in  the  relief.4  The  form  of  the  letters5  is  somewhat 
older  than  in  the  inscription  on  the  altar  set  up  by  the  younger  Peisi- 
stratos,  mentioned  by  Thoukydides,  and  found  in  1877  on  the  bank 
of  the  Ilissos.6  The  date  of  this  inscription  must  fall  between  the 
death  of  Peisistratos  (527  B.  c.)  and  the  expulsion  of  Hippias  (510 
B.  c.) ;  and,  though  perhaps  some  allowance  should  be  made  in  the  com- 
parison of  a  rural  inscription  with  one  from  Athens,  no  one  would  now 
venture  to  date  the  inscription  of  the  Aristion  stele  so  late  as  the  fifth 
century ;  so  that  the  popular  designation  of  it  as  "  The  Warrior  of 
Marathon  "  must  be  considered  ill-founded.7 

Turning  our  attention,  now,  to  the  relief  upon  the  stele  of  Aristion, 
we  find  represented  in  profile  a  warrior  armed  with  cuirass  (of  either 
stiffleather  or  metal,  represented  according  to  the  older  method,  i.e.,  with 
no  indication  of  the  anatomical  forms  it  covers),  helmet  and  greaves, 
with  both  feet  planted  firmly  on  the  ground,  the  right  arm  hanging 
bythis  side  and  the  left  grasping  a  spear.  The  crest  of  the  helmet, 
which  was  probably  of  a  separate  piece,  is  wanting,  as  well  as  the 

*Some  prefer  to  read  it,  as  one  continuous  inscription,  "Work  of  Aristokles,  son  of 
Aristion : "  see  MURRAY,  Hist,  of  Greek  Sculpture,  p.  193,  note  1 :  "  The  inscription 
immediately  beneath  the  relief  reads  EPAONAPI^TOKI/  EO*,  and  continues 
on  the  plinth  in  larger  letters,  API^TIOA'O^.  But  this  separation  is  a  mere 
necessity  of  space,  and,  besides,  had  'Aristion '  referred  to  the  person  of  the  relief,  it 
would  surely  have  come  first." 

.  5  The  letters  given  by  Murray,  in  the  note  just  cited,  are  not  intended  closely  to  re- 
semble those  of  the  original.  The  correct  forms  are  given  by  OVERBECK,  Geschichte  d. 
gr.  PlastikW,  p.  150;  LOEWY,  Inschriften  griech.  Bildhauer,  No.  10. 

6  C.  I.  A.,  iv  (Supplementa  voluminis  primi)  373e. 

7  Dr.  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN  maintains  that,  if  one  were  to  judge  merely  from  the 
style,  independently  of  epigraphy,  so  early  a  date  would  not  be  given  to  the  monu- 
ment.    But,  on  this  point,  authorities  are  not  agreed :  OVERBECK  ( Geschichte  d.  gr. 
PlastikW,  p.  231,  note  63)  expresses  regret  that,  whereas  in  the  first  edition  of  his 
work  he  had,  led  by  a  correct  Stilgefuhl,  given  an  early  date  to  the  stele,  in  his  second 
edition,  yielding  to  opposing  opinions,  he  had  adopted  a  later  date. 


12  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

point  of  the  spear ;  the  tip  of  the  beard,  also,  was  of  a  separate  piece 
set  on,  probably  on  account  of  some  flaw  in  the  marble.  The  lower 
portion  of  the  cuirass  is  represented  as  if  made  of  leather  strips  over- 
lapping each  other  in  such  a  manner  as  to  leave  freedom  of  movement 
to  the  wearer,  while  furnishing  complete  protection.  The  short  chiton 
worn  under  the  armor  appears  on  the  shoulder,  and  about  the  thighs 
below  the  leather  strips.  The  greaves  are  of  the  usual  flexible  and 
tight-fitting  form,  following  the  modelling  of  the  muscles  of  the  calf. 
The  archaic  imperfection  is  illustrated  in  the  ear,  which  is  set  too 
high  and  too  far  back ;  in  the  eye,  which  is  seen  as  if  almost  in  full 
face  and  does  not  harmonize  with  the  position  of  the  head  in  profile;  in 
the  hand,  the  position  of  the  thumb  being  wholly  unnatural  with  re- 
lation to  the  fingers ;  in  the  feet,  which  rest  firmly  and  flatly  on  the 
ground;  and  in  the  severity  of  modelling  and  awkwardness  of  attitude 
in  general.  The  sculptor  has  evidently  been  hampered  by  the  narrow 
limits  of  the  slab  within  which  he  had  to  work,  and,  in  places,  he  has 
encroached  upon  the  rim  which  surrounds  and  frames  the  relief. 

The  stele  still  exhibits  abundant  traces  of  coloring,  though  the  bril- 
liant coloring  which  it  had  when  found  has  now  in  great  measure  faded 
away.  The  background  was  painted  red,  and  the  spear  also  shows 
traces  of  this  color ;  the  beard  and  hair  seem  to  have  had  a  brownish 
tinge ;  the  shoulder-guard  is  ornamented  with  a  star,  and  on  the  piece 
below  it,  of  which  the  ground  is  red,  is  the  head  of  an  animal,  but 
the  colors  can  no  longer  be  made  out ;  there  are  traces  of  dark  blue 
upon  the  helmet  and  cuirass ;  of  the  three  decorative  bands  painted 
upon  the  cuirass,  the  upper  one  is  a  maeander,  executed  in  red,  as  is 
also  the  tassel  which  hangs  over  the  breast :  the  K^TTI^  shows  signs  of 
color,  and  undoubtedly  bore  an  ornamental  design. 

The  comparison  between  the  Aristion  stele  and  that  from  Ikaria, 
which  forms  the  subject  of  the  present  article,  may  be  divided  under 
four  heads :  first,  the  dimensions  and  general  arrangement  of  the  space ; 
second,  the  sculpture  itself;  third,  the  painting;  fourth,  their  com- 
parative importance.8 

i.  Dimensions  and  arrangement  of  space. — The  total  heights  of  the 
two  monuments  do  not  admit  of  comparison,  since  we  have  not  the 
fidOpov  of  I.  and  also  since  much  more  is  missing  from  the  top  of  I.  than 
from  the  top  of  A.  But,  measuring9  on  the,  relief  of  A.  from  the  soles 

8  For  the  sake  of  brevity,  the  stele  of  Aristion  will  be  designated  as  A.,  the  stele  of 
Ikaria  as  /. 

9  The  stele  of  Aristion  is  now  inclosed  in  a  glass  case  which  cannot  be  opened,  so 


STELE  OF  A  WARRIOR  FOUND  AT  IK  ARIA.  13 

of  the  feet  to  a  line  drawn  across  the  neck  in  a  position  corresponding 
to  the  line  of  breakage  in  I.,  I  found  the  height  1.55  m.,  exactly  equal 
to  that  of  the  extant  portion  of  the  relief  of  /.,  so  that  the  figures  were 
evidently  of  the  same  height.  The  /cprjTris  of  A.  is  about  eleven  centi- 
meters higher  than  that  of  J.  The  width  of  the  steles  at  the  /cp^Tu? 
is  0.435  m.  in  A.,  0.485  m.  in  J. ;  while  the  width  at  the  top  is  0.42  m. 
in  A.,  0.41  m.  in  J.  Thus,  the  total  diminution  in  A.  is  only  0.015, 
while  /.,  though  shorter  by  0.38  m.,  shows  a  diminution  of  0.075  m. 
In  A.  there  is  a  diminution  of  0.02  m.  in  the  thickness  of  the  slab, 
while  in  I.  the  diminution  is  0.015  m.  The  width  of  the  rim  on  the 
sides  of  the  relief  is  the  same  in  both.  J.  is  sculptured  in  somewhat 
higher  relief  than  A. 

In  A.,  the  inscription  giving  the  artist's  name  is  upon  a  narrow 
projecting  band  at  the  top  of  the  /c/j^Trt?,  while  in  Z  there  is  a  band, 
not  projecting,  but  indicated  by  a  fine  line  cut  below  it,  on  which  are 
four  rosettes  but  no  inscription.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  the 
fidOpov  of  Z,  like  that  of  A.,  bore  an  inscription  giving  the  name  of  the 
person  to  whom  the  monument  was  erected. 

The  general  arrangement  of  the  space  is  the  same  in  the  two  reliefs ; 
in  J.,  however,  the  whole  figure  above  the  knees  leans  further  forward 
than  in  A.  The  result  of  this  is,  that,  while  the  sculptor  of  A.  is  cramped 
for  space  in  the  back  of  his  figure,  where  it  encroaches  on  the  outer  rim 
of  the  slab,  notably  at  the  shoulders,  the  hips,  calf  and  heel,  the  sculp- 
tor of  I.  has  ample  space  within  the  rim  for  his  figure,  though  he  has 
not  profited  by  it  to  give  to  legs  and  hips  their  true  relations.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  variation  on  the  two  slabs  in  the  relative  posi- 
tions of  the  figures  causes  A.  to  have  more  room  in  front,  so  that  the 
arm  of  the  hand  which  holds  the  spear  is  visible,  whereas  in  Z  the  hand 
alone  projects  from  behind  the  bust  with  an  awkwardness  that  calls 
attention  to  the  cramped  space. 

ii.  Sculpture. — In  /.,  enough  of  the  beard  remains  to  show  that  the 
tip  was  not,  as  in  A.,  of  a  separate  piece ;  furthermore,  its  projection  is 
far  nearer  a  horizontal  than  in  A.  The  lower  end  of  the  helmet  crest 
which  is  visible  behind  the  neck  of  /.  shows  that  this  also  was  not  cut 
from  a  separate  piece.  In  J.,  the  chiton  on  the  shoulder  is  not  repre- 
sented in  sculpture,  as  it  is  in  A.  In  At)  the  armor  below  the  armpit 
is  cut  away  to  permit  free  action,  while  in  /.  it  is  fitted  tightly  around 

that  I  was  unable  to  take  measurements  from  it.  In  giving  the  general  dimensions, 
I  have  taken  the  figures  of  Kabbadias  and  of  Rangabe*.  The  first  measurement  of 
1.55  m.  was  taken  from  a  cast  in  the  Archaeological  Museum  at  Cambridge,  England. 


14  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the  whole  shoulder,  not,  however,  coining  so  low  down  over  the  shoul- 
der as  in  A.  A  rude  attempt  is  made  in  /.,  not  seen  in  A.,  to  mark,  by 
means  of  an  oblique  groove,  the  projection  of  the  shoulder-muscle,  as 
separated  from  the  biceps.  The  right  forearm  is  thrown  further  for- 
ward in  I.,  but  shows  better  modelling  in  A.  It  is  impossible  to  make 
out  clearly  the  modelling  of  the  hand  in  J.,  owing  to  its  mutilated  con- 
dition, but  the  fracture  leads  us  to  think  that  the  space  occupied  by  it 
was  larger  in  /.  than  in  A.  ;10  and,  though  traces  of  the  outlines  do  not 
show  that  the  thumb  projected  below  the  rest  of  the  closed  hand,  as 
is  usually  the  case,  there  are  indications  that  the  hand  was  better 
modelled  than  in  A.  In  /.,  none  of  the  left  forearm  is  shown,  as  in  A. 
In  A.,  the  lower  border  of  the  cuirass  is  strongly  marked  by  a  project- 
ing band  over  the  hanging  strips  of  leather.  For  the  leather  strips  of 
the  cuirass,  there  are,  in  J..,  five  strips  outside,  and  five  in  an  inner  series, 
without  reckoning  the  edge  of  a  strip  in  the  extreme  rear;  whereas  in 
J.  there  are  only  three  strips  in  the  inner  series,  and  three  over  them, 
if  these  latter  are  strips  at  all  and  not  rather 'an  extension  of  the  cuirass 
itself,  with  two  wedge-shaped  openings  cut  in  it.11  On  the  front  of  the 
cuirass  of  J.  the  navel  is  indicated,  not  so  in  A.  In  the  modelling 
of  the  chiton  where  it  falls  below  the  armor  over  the  thigh,  A.  is  un- 
doubtedly far  superior  to  J. :  whereas  in  A.  the  conventional  stiffness 
of  the  archaic  folds  is  relieved  by  delicate  softening  of  the  outlines  and 
varied  modelling  of  the  surface — showing,  on  the  part  of  the  artist,  a 
considerable  sense  for  texture,  as  well  as  ability  to  realise  it  in  low 
relief — all  the  folds  in  I.  stop  abruptly  on  a  line  parallel  with  the  edge  of 
the  cuirass.12  In  the  thigh,  again,  the  very  delicate  modelling  of  the 
muscles  displayed  in  A.  is  not  found  in  /.,  where  the  surfaces  are  left 
comparatively  flat,  and  the  outlines  hard.  The  knees  likewise  are 
somewhat  better  in  A.  than  in  I.  The  indication  of  the  sinews  upon 
the  greaves  of  the  right  leg  is  about  the  same  in  both  figures ;  it  is  more 
wavy  in  A.,  but  more  strongly  marked  in  /.  Instead  of  the  three  par- 
allel ridges  that  define  the  muscle  of  the  calf  on  the  inside  of  the  left 
greave  in  A.t  we  have,  in  I.,  only  one  strongly  marked  incised  line  run- 

10Actual  measurement  shows  the  fracture  in  /.  to  be  three  centimeters  wider  than 
the  hand  in  A. 

11  The  fact  that  there  is  no  projecting  band  above  these  notches  to  mark  the  end  of 
the  cuirass,  would  seem  to  favor  this  interpretation,  but  it  must  be  remembered  that 
the  lower  border  of  the  cuirass  may  well  have  been  represented  merely  in  color,  and 
thus  have  disappeared. 

12  With  the  general  treatment  of  the  chiton  in  A.  compare  that  of  the  standing  war- 
rior on  the  north  side  of  the  Harpy  monument,  where,  however,  it  is  much  less  refined. 


STELE  OF  A  WARRIOR  FOUND  AT  IKARIA.  15 

ning  along  the  edge  of  the  shin-bone.  The  feet  in  both  sculptures  have 
the  archaic  characteristics  of  resting  flat  on  the  ground,  and  of  being 
very  long  and  thin  with  toes  somewhat  resembling  fingers;  they  are 
somewhat  more  delicately  modelled  in  /.,  and  the  manner  in  which  the 
right  foot  is  joined  to  the  ankle  is  more  free.  Whereas,  in  A.,  the 
sculptor  represented  the  left  heel  behind  the  toes  of  the  right  foot,  in 
/.,  both  feet  are  somewhat  more  fully  shown. 

in.  Painting. — I  was  not  at  first  able  to  see  on  the  Ikarian  stele 
any  traces  of  coloring,  the  marble,  owing  to  corrosion,  having  lost 
its  original  surface;  but  later,  having  an  opportunity  to  examine 
it  in  Stamata,  whither  it  has  been  removed,  and,  in  a  better  light,  I 
found  that  the  outlines  of  the  maeanders  which  decorated  the  cuirass 
are  still  very  plain.  I  think  that  traces  of  painting  of  the  chiton  on 
the  right  shoulder  are  almost  certain,  and  faint  outlines  of  a  third 
ornamental  band  about  the  flaps  of  the  cuirass  seemed  to  be  visible  in 
places,  though  these  cannot  be  pronounced  certain.13  But,  beyond  these 
scanty  traces,  judgment  of  the  amount  of  painting  on  our  stele  must 
rest  on  analogy ;  and,  here,  the  Lyseas  stele  is  of  so  great  importance 
that  it  must  be  examined  in  this  connection. 

IV.  Comparative  importance. — But,  before  leaving  the  stele  of  Ari- 
stion,  I  will  sum  up  the  results  of  the  comparison,  and  consider  the 
important  but  difficult  question :  Which  of  the  two  steles  is  the  earlier  ? 
In  favor  of  A.  being  the  earlier  may  be  urged :  (1)  the  less  skilful 
adaptation  of  the  design  to  the  space  at  the  artist's  disposal ;  (2)  the 
inferior  modelling  of  the  feet.  In  favor  of  the  priority  in  date  of  J. 
are  :  (1)  the  less  developed  and  refined  modelling  throughout,  the  feet 
excepted ;  (2)  the  greater  dependence  upon  painting  for  details ;  (3) 
the  much  more  conventional  treatment  of  the  drapery ;  (4)  the  more 
awkward  and  unnatural  manner  of  holding  the  spear.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  both  sculptures  belong  to  very  nearly  the  same  time. 
Several  possibilities  are  open  to  us :  I.  may  be  the  earlier,  and  A.  an 
improvement  on  it  made  either  by  the  same  hand  or  by  another  and 
superior  artist ;  or  A.  may  be  the  prototype  of  which  I.  is  a  copy  by 
an  inferior  artist,  or  even  a  careless  reproduction  by  the  same  artist. 

13A  photograph  often  reveals  lines  which  prove  the  existence  of  faded  coloring ; 
and,  in  the  present  case,  Dr.  Waldstein,  previous  to  my  second  examination  of  the 
stele,  pointed  out  to  me  that,  in  the  photograph,  there  were  very  plain  traces  of  two 
wide  maeanders  about  the  cuirass.  There  are  also  traces  on  the  right  shoulder  which 
seem  to  show  that  the  chiton  was  represented  here  in  painting.  [Professor  Rhouso- 
poulos  pointed  out  the  maeanders  March  7,  1888. — A.  C.  M.] 


16  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

It  is  not  impossible,  however,  that  both  may  belong  to  a  class  of  analo- 
gous monuments  of  which  the  prototype  has  yet  to  be  found,  and  have 
no  more  intimate  connection  than  a  common  type.  Dr.  Waldstein, 
judging  from  the  photograph,  is  inclined  to  think  the  Ikarian  the 
earlier.  I  am  disposed  to  believe  that  both  are  the  work  of  the  same 
artist ;  whether  it  be  that  the  Ikarian  stele  was  the  prior  effort,  upon 
which  in  the  Aristion  stele  he  improved,  in  both  style  and  technique, 
and,  considering  the  latter  his  masterpiece,  inscribed  his  name  upon  it ; 
or  that  the  stele  of  Aristion  was  the  artist's  great  work,  of  which  he 
executed  one  or  more  less  careful  reproductions  with  trifling  variations. 
The  question  must  rest  with  the  individual  judgment  of  scholars. 

Let  us  now  consider  the  Lyseas  stele,  to  the  importance  of  which  in 
the  history  of  painted  steles  in  general  reference  has  been  made.  It  was 
found  at  Velanideza  in  1839,  and  at  first  presented  a  perfectly  uniform 
surface,  showing,  however,  to  careful  observers,  traces  of  coloring. 
These  traces,  owing  to  the  crust  of  lime  formed  over  the  surface, 
remained  indistinct  until,  in  1878,  the  stele  was  carefully  cleaned  by 
the  German  architect  Thiersch,  the  result  of  whose  work,  as  shown 
in  the  Mittheilungen  des  deutsch.  arch.  Inst.  of  1879  (plates  I,  u),  is 
made  the  basis  of  two  very  instructive  articles  by  Loeschcke.  In 
the  inscription  upon  the  base,  the  letters  are  of  an  older  type  than 
those  on  the  altar  of  Peisistratos  son  of  Hippias,  which  cannot  be  dated 
after  510  B.  c.;  thus  the  date  of  the  stele  must  fall  toward  the  middle 
of  the  century.  Loeschcke  does  not  hesitate  to  date  it  from  the  time 
of  the  elder  Peisistratos  (560-527).  Lyseas  is  represented  of  life-size, 
draped  in  a  long  himation,  with  the  lustration-branch  in  his  left  hand 
which  is  raised  nearly  to  the  shoulder,  and  in  his  right  the  kantharos 
from  which  he  is  about  to  pour  the  libation.  In  the  article  referred 
to,  Loeschcke  draws  a  parallel  between  painting  on  marble,  as  evidenced 
in  this  and  other  steles,  and  that  of  the  earliest  red -figured  vases ;  and 
he  arrives  at  the  conclusion,  that  the  style  of  the  red-figured  vases  is, 
in  contrast  to  that  of  the  black-figured,  derived  from  the  traditional 
manner  of  painting  on  stone.  In  addition  to  the  principal  figure  of  the 
stele  of  Lyseas,  there  is  on  the  /cprjTris  a  design  in  painting  represent- 
ing a  man  on  horseback  followed  by  another,  as  if  in  a  race.  This 
seems  in  itself  evidence  that  the  corresponding  portion  of  all  similar 
monuments  was  painted ;  and  the  stele  at  Ikaria  was  surely  no  excep- 
tion, although  no  traces  of  color  can  now  be  detected.  A  full  list  of 
early  Attic  steles  is  given  by  Loeschcke  in  the  second  portion  of  the 
article  cited ;  but,  besides  those  which  have  already  been  mentioi  ed, 


STELE  OF  A   WARRIOR  FOUND  AT  IK  ARIA.  17 

the  only  ones  of  any  special  interest  in  connection  with  the  Ikarian 
stele  are  two  fragments,  both  belonging  to  a  stele  of  a  hoplite,  but,  as 
has  been  shown  by  a  comparison  of  measurements,  not  parts  of  the 
same  work.  The  fragment  found  at  the  chapel  of  Hag.  Andreas  near 
the  village  of  Lebi  and  published  by  Conze,14  represents  a  warrior  hold- 
ing his  lance  in  his  left  hand :  in  this,  not  only  is  the  armor  of  a  different 
nature  from  that  of  the  Aristion  and  Ikarian  steles,  but  the  whole  work- 
manship is  of  a  more  careless  and  inferior  type.  The  second  fragment, 
which  was  found  at  Athens,  shows  only  the  legs  from  the  knee  down- 
ward, and,  though  of  much  better  workmanship  than  the  last-named 
fragment/5  is  still  far  inferior  to  either  the  Aristion  or  the  Ikarian 
stele.  As  in  the  former,  and  not  in  the  latter,  the  muscles  of  the  calf 
are  indicated  by  three  curved  parallel  ridges.16 

Outside  of  Attika,  the  most  interesting  sepulchral  stele  is  that  found 
at  Orchomenos,  the  work  of  the  Naxian  Alxenor,  which,  though  of  less 
finished  workmanship  than  the  Aristion  stele,  belongs  to  a  more  ad- 
vanced stage  of  art,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  attempt  at  foreshortening, 
unsuccessful  though  it  be,  and  also  by  the  expression  shown  in  the  face, 
in  contrast  to  the  totally  expressionless  face  of  Aristion. 

The  series  of  steles  sculptured  in  relief — instructive,  (1)  as  standing 
midway  between  the  arts  of  sculpture  and  painting  and  comprising 
elements  of  both,  (2)  as  being  in  the  main  the  work  of  the  early  Attic 
school,  (3)  as  showing  a  considerable  advance  toward  a  perfected  style — 
receives  in  the  Ikarian  stele  a  very  important  augmentation,  of  which 
the  interest  is  second  only  to  that  of  the  monument  of  Aristion. 

Athens,  CARL  D.  BUCK, 

November  10,  1888.  Member  of  the  American  School 

of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens. 

14  Arch.  Zeitung,  1860,  Taf.  cxxxv.  2. 

15  This  would  not,  however,  be  a  strong  argument  against  the  identity  of  the  two 
fragments,  if  it  were  not  disproved  by  the  measurements ;  for  it  can  be  taken  as  an 
almost  general  rule,  in  early  sculpture,  that  the  legs  below  the  knee  are  much  better 
modelled  than  any  other  portion  of  the  figure :  witness  the  so-called  Apollo  of  Tenea 
in  Munich. 

16At  Laurion  is  the  lower  part  of  a  similar  stele  representing  two  youths  one  behind 
the  other  (Mittheilungen,  1887,  p.  296,  and  pi.  x). 

[As  an  example  of  somewhat  later  date  than  the  Aristion  and  Ikarian  steles,  I 
would  call  attention  to  a  fragment  preserved  in  the  Collection  of  Baron  Baracco  in 
Rome :  it  is  the  lower  part  of  a  stele  in  low  relief.  It  contains  the  lower  limbs  of  a 
male  figure,  and,  on  the  npy-iris,  not  a  painting  but  a  representation  in  low  relief,  if 
my  memory  does  not  play  me  false,  of  a  chariot  with  charioteer  and  horses  in  rapid 
motion. — A.  L.  F.,  jr.] 
2 


AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES 

AT  ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA, 

1888. 


III.  THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKARIA.* 

It  is  hoped  that  the  following  inscriptions  discovered  by  the  Ameri- 
can School  at  Ikaria,  and  now  first  published,  will  throw  new  light  on 
the  choregia  of  Attic  rural  demes,  a  subject  upon  which  we  have  very 
little  accurate  information.  In  order  to  call  to  mind  the  various  ques- 
tions which  must  be  proposed  in  examining  the  choregia  in  a  country 
deme,  it  will  be  useful  to  make  a  summary  survey  of  the  various  stages 
through  which  the  choregic  management  passed  in  Athens.1 

It  is  usually  stated,  that  for  all  the  great  festivals,  such  as  the 
Greater  Dionysia,  the  Thargelia,  and  the  Panathenaia,  each  tribe,  by 
the  medium  of  its  eV^eX^rat,  appointed  one  of  its  wealthier  members 
to  act  as  its  representative  choregos.  The  duties  of  a  choregos  were  to 
supply  and  suitably  equip  a  chorus  at  his  own  expense  and  to  provide 
for  its  instruction  by  appointing  a  ^opoStSacr/caXo?,  whose  title  was 
commonly  shortened  to  StSao-tfaXo?,  who  should  have  charge  of  the 
training  of  the  chorus.  This  trainer  was  originally  the  poet  himself, 
and  for  this  reason  Aristophanes  (Acharnians,  628),  referring  to  him- 
self, uses  the  word  StSacr/eaXo?  in  precisely  this  sense.  The  time  of  the 
festival  was  the  occasion  for  judging  the  comparative  merits  of  the 
choruses  and  for  awarding  a  prize  to  the  choregos  who  presented  the 
best-trained  chorus.  The  prize  was  not  the  same  for  all  festivals,  but, 
for  the  Great  Dionysia  and  the  Thargelia,  consisted  of  a  bronze  tripod 
which  the  victor  was  expected  to  dedicate  in  a  conspicuous  position, 
frequently  building  for  it  an  elaborate  structure  such  as  the  monu- 
ment of  Lysikrates. 

*  Professor  Tarbell,  the  Annual  Director  of  the  School,  has  been  kind  enough  to 
look  over  this  article,  and  I  am  indebted  to  him  for  several  suggestions. 

1  See  article  Choregia  in  the  standard  Dictionaries  of  Antiquities ;  BOECKH,  Die 
Staatshaushaltung  der  Athener^)  p.  539  ff.;  MDLLER,  Lehrbuch  der  griechischen  Buhnen- 
alterthiimer,  p.  330  ff. ;  and,  especially  for  the  distinction  between  the  various  classes 
of  inscriptions,  KOEHLER,  Mittheilungen  d.  d.  archaol.  Institutes,  1878 ;  REISCH,  De 
musicis  Graecorum  certaminibus  ;  BEINCK,  Inscriptiones  Graecae  ad  choregiam  pertinentes. 

18 


THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IK  ARIA.  19 

In  the  course  of  this  paper,  it  is  proposed  to  submit  some  of  the 
foregoing  statements  to  a  more  exact  examination,  in  the  light  of  the 
evidence  now  at  hand. 

The  circumstances  of  the  victory  gained  by  the  chorus  are  habitually 
recorded  in  an  inscription,  and  the  change  which  takes  place,  at  differ- 
ent periods,  in  the  phraseology  of  these  inscriptions  is  very  important 
as  indicating  corresponding  changes  in  the  management  of  the  choregia 
itself.  Koehler,  who  has  made  a  careful  study  of  choregic  inscrip- 
tions, held  that,  while  in  the  fifth  century  the  tribe  was  accounted 
victor,2  in  the  fourth  century  the  choregos  had  become  more  eager  for 
personal  credit  and  was  himself  named  as  victor  for  the  tribe.3  But 
such  a  distinction  cannot  be  maintained  ;  since,  in  the  fourth  century, 
the  tribe  is  accounted  victor  in  two-thirds  of  the  inscriptions  in  which 
both  tribe  and  choregos  are  mentioned. 

The  inscription  given  in  Note  3  is  one  of  several  which  show  that  in 
the  fourth  century  it  was  not  uncommon  to  allow  two  tribes  to  combine 
and  appoint  the  same  man  as  choregos.  Dittenberger,  in  a  note  to  this 
inscription,  observes  that,  whenever  separate  tribes  furnish  choruses,  the 
tribe  is  named  as  victor,  but,  when  two  tribes  combine,  it  is  the  choregos 
who  is  accounted  victor  ;  and  he  interprets  this  as  an  indication  that 
the  attribution  of  the  choregos  as  victor  arose  from  the  dislike  of  the 
Greeks  to  name  several  victors  in  the  same  contest. 

Reisch,  noting  the  fact  that,  in  nearly  every  case  in  which  two  tribes 
unite  in  one  choregia,  the  chorus  is  of  boys,  deduces  a  general  rule,  and, 
in  the  single  inscription  in  which  the  nature  of  the  chorus  is  not  stated 
(De  Mus.,  p.  31,  in),  claims  that  irai^wv  is  to  be  understood.  These 
generalizations  of  Dittenberger  and  Reisch,  however,  rest  on  what  may 
be  mere  coincidences.  In  fact,  the  inscription  on  the  Thrasyllos  monu- 
ment,4 in  which  a  choregos  for  a  single  tribe  is  named  as  victor,  is  against 
Dittenberger's  theory,  though  he  seeks  to  evade  the  force  of  it,  because 
this  inscription  has  in  general  the  phraseology  of  a  private  dedication. 
The  same  holds  true  of  the  inscription  on  the  Nikias  monument.5 
Another  inscription  —  .....  o  Uepi0oi8qs  ^op^wv  evi/ca  \  .....  i&t 


2  Of.  C.  I.  A.,  I,  336  :   OtVeis  |  eV/Ka  |  TraiSoy  \  Evpv/J.evf[s']  \  MeAereoyos 
ffTparos  |  eSiSaffKe  |  . 

3  Cf.  DITTENBERGER,  Sylloge  Inscriptionum  Graecarum,  411  :    Afinos  yivri<ri.fio6\o 

eVt/ca  'A/ca^aj/TiSt  |  TlavSioviSi  iraiSuj/,  EVK\T)$  \  eSiSaance,  Ev5a/j.i<ritos 


4  C.  I.  G.,  224  =  DiTT.,  423. 

5  KOEHLER,  Mitth.,  1885,  p.  231. 


20  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCH^EOLOG  Y. 


v,  \  Ol~\vidS 

r}px€v6  —  affords  absolute  proof  that  either  one  or  the  other 
of  the  generalizations  is  unsound.  If  at  the  beginning  of  the  second 
line  the  name  of  only  one  tribe  is  supplied,  we  have  an  instance  of  a 
choregos  for  a  single  tribe  being  named  as  victor,  and  Dittenberger's 
theory  falls  to  the  ground.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  names  of  two 
tribes  are  supplied,  we  have  a  case  where  two  tribes  unite  to  supply  a 
chorus  of  men,  not  of  boys,  and  Reisch's  generalization  no  longer 
holds  good. 

Brinck  maintains  that,  whenever  there  is  a  union  of  two  tribes, 
it  is  for  the  festival  of  the  Thargelia,  and  quotes,  in  support  of  this, 
the  statement  of  Ulpian  :  ev  rot?  Sapyrj\LOi<;  Svoiv  <$>v\alv 

os,  rofc  Se  peryakois  &t,ovvcrioi<$  el?  %o/??77O9  ef 
This  theory  is  thought  by  some  to  be  disproved  by  the  fact 
that  one  of  the  inscriptions  making  mention  of  two  tribes  was  found 
on  the  southern  slope  of  the  Akropolis  ;  but  it  is  not  impossible  to 
hold  that  it  was  moved  thither  from  elsewhere.  Indeed,  three  bases, 
each  with  a  choregic  inscription  referring  to  two  tribes,  have  actually 
been  found  on  the  site  of  the  Pythion,  where  Thargelian  dedications 
were  made. 

A  general  classification  of  choregic  inscriptions  is  attempted  by  Reisch, 
founded  on  the  mention  or  non-mention  of  the  flute-player,  and,  in 
case  of  such  a  mention,  on  the  position  of  his  name  with  reference  to 
that  of  the  didaskalos.  Reisch  states  that  in  the  fifth  century  the  didas- 
kalos  alone  appears  ;  the  reason  for  this  being  that  at  that  period  the 
poet  and  musician  were  one  and  the  same  person,  that  is,  that  the  poet, 
like  Pindar,  composed  his  own  music.  In  the  fourth  century,  the 
flute-player  is  always  mentioned  —  in  the  first  half  of  the  century  after 
the  didaskalos,  in  the  second  half,  before  the  didaskalos,  as  the  art  of 
music  gradually  developed,  and  emancipated  itself  from  its  subjection 
to  poetry. 

It  was  Koehler  who  first  clearly  pointed  out  the  radical  change  in  the 
management  of  the  choregia  which  was  brought  about  in  the  last  part 
of  the  fourth  century.  The  system  under  which  each  tribe  appointed 
a  choregos  was  abolished,  and  the  people  collectively  became  the  nomi- 
nal choregos,  but  appointed,  probably  from  the  wealthier  citizens,  an 
officer  called  agonothetes,  who  superintended  the  preparation  of  all  the 

6  REISCH,  p.  32,  v  ;  RANGABE,  Antiguites  Hdleniques,  972. 

7  ULPIAN  ad  Demosthenem,  Lept.,  28. 


THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IK  ARIA.  21 

choruses.8  Even  in  this  period  a  tribe  was  mentioned  as  victor,  but  it  is 
not  clear  what  was  now  the  exact  relation  of  the  separate  tribes  to  the 
choregia. 

There  remain  a  few  choregic  inscriptions  differing  from  those  which 
have  been  mentioned  both  in  their  phraseology  and  in  their  purpose. 
Perhaps  the  best  example  of  these  is  the  following  :  T^to]  a6evr}<s 


ave6ecra\y\  \  [r]ak  &.IQVVGWI,  ra<yaX//,a  KOI  TO/JU 
[/3co/<toi>].9  Here  we  observe  that  the  word  aveOeaav  is  used,  whereas 
in  the  inscriptions  referred  to  above  the  fact  of  the  dedication  is  never 
expressly  stated,  the  principal  verb  being  always  a  form  of  VIKW  or 
Xopyryw.  The  inscription  also  tells  us  that  the  objects  dedicated  were 
a  statue  and  an  altar,  not  a  tripod.  There  are  a  few  other  inscriptions 
in  which  aveO^Ke  is  used,  one  belonging  to  the  epoch  before  Eukleides, 
cut  in  the  channels  of  a  column.  Owing  to  these  facts,  a  classification 
has  been  adopted  by  scholars  (Kirchhoff,  Koehler,  Dittenberger,  Reisch) 
into  official  and  private  monuments.  That  is,  a  victor  would,  in  his 
official  capacity  as  a  representative  of  his  tribe,  dedicate  the  tripod  which 
he  had  obtained  as  a  prize,  with  an  inscription  in  the  usual  set  phrase- 
ology ;  but  as  a  private  person  he  might  also  dedicate  a  thank-offering 
for  his  victory,  the  nature  of  which  would  be  entirely  a  matter  of  his 
personal  choice,  and  the  inscription  upon  which  would  not  follow  a 
fixed  phraseology,  but  would  be  a  statement  of  dedication  (dveOrj/ce), 
with  the  optional  mention  of  some  of  the  circumstances  connected  with 
the  choregia.  The  characteristics  upon  which  this  classification  is 
founded  are,  then,  an  inscription  of  fixed  phraseology  in  which  dveQrj/ce 
is  not  used,  cut  upon  a  monument  intended  to  support  a  tripod  ;  as 
opposed  to  an  inscription  in  which  aveOrjice  is  expressed,  cut  upon  a 
monument  intended  for  the  support  of  something  other  than  a  tripod  ; 
though  it  is  not  inconceivable  that  a  choregos  might,  in  his  private 
capacity,  choose  to  dedicate  a  tripod,  which,  however,  could  not  be  the 
one  given  him  as  the  official  prize.  For  this  classification  to  be  an 
absolute  one,  it  must  be  capable  of  including  in  one  class  or  the  other 
every  choregic  inscription.  An  inscription  with  aveOrj/ce  upon  a  monu- 
ment holding  a  tripod  and  plainly  intended  as  a  public  and  official  dedi- 
cation, or  an  inscription  without  dveOrj/ce  upon  a  monument  intended 
for  something  other  than  a  tripod,  would  be  an  anomaly. 

8  Of.  DlTT.,  418  :  6  Srj^os  e'xop^yct,  2ca<ri<rrparos  i)pxe>  \  [ay(o']vo64'n]S  Qeofdrns  AUHTKOV- 
oiSov  EiWu/*eus,  |  'Epex^ei's  avSpoav  eVi/ca,  |  ~2e0Kpd.Tr)S  'P6Sios  r]tf\fi,  'Epa.T<ai>  '  Ap/cas  e5i8a<r/cej/. 

9  KOEHLER,  Mitth.,  1878,  p.  229  ;  DITT.,  422. 


22  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Of  the  stones  upon  which  inscriptions  occur  that  do  not  have  aveOrjtce, 
some  have  cuttings  which  show  that  they  surely  held  tripods ;  some 
were  found  in  such  positions  as  make  it  extremely  probable  that  they 
held  tripods;  some  are  upon  architraves  which  may  very  well  have 
belonged  to  large  choregic  monuments ;  but,  as  to  many,  especially 
those  found  at  the  beginning  of  this  century,  it  is  impossible  to  find 
any  evidence  upon  which  to  base  a  conclusion  as  to  what  they  may 
have  supported.  The  important  fact  is,  however,  that  there  is  no  mon- 
ument bearing  an  inscription  of  this  class,  of  which  there  is  any  evi- 
dence that  it  held  anything  else  than  a  tripod.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
do  find  an  anomaly  in  the  inscriptions  on  the  architraves  of  two  cho- 
regic monuments,  those  of  Thrasyllos  and  Nikias  (cf.  Notes  4  and  5). 
Both  these  inscriptions  have  the  phraseology  which  should  belong  to 
monuments  of  the  private  class,  but  it  is  plain  from  their  form  and 
position  that  they  are  in  fact  monuments  publicly  and  officially  dedi- 
cated, as  much  as  the  famous  one  of  Lysikrates.  In  publishing  the 
Thrasyllos  inscription,  Dittenberger  notes  this  fact,  and  accounts  for  it 
on  the  ground  that  at  this  date,  just  before  the  institution  of  the  cho- 
regia  of  the  people  and  the  agonothesia,  the  distinction  between  the  two 
classes  of  monuments  was  less  strictly  observed  than  before.  Koehler,10 
in  treating  of  the  Nikias  monument,  which  was  erected  in  the  same  year 
as  that  of  Thrasyllos  (one  being  for  a  chorus  of  boys,  the  other  for  a 
chorus  of  men),  claims  that  the  pretentious  character  of  the  monuments 
and  the  unusual  form  of  the  inscriptions  are  alike  to  be  accounted  for 
by  the  unusual  circumstances  attending  the  celebration  of  the  festival 
of  this  year  (319  B.  c.). 

In  the  usual  statement  of  the  appointment  of  the  choregos  given  on 
the  first  page,  it  will  be  observed  that  no  account  is  taken  of  any  differ- 
ence in  the  management  of  the  choregia  dependent  on  variations  in  the 
form  of  chorus  furnished.  We  know  that  there  were  purely  lyric  cho- 
ruses of  men  and  of  boys,  and  dramatic  choruses  for  tragedy  and  for 
comedy ;  but,  as  the  mention  of  choregia  in  literature,  especially  in  con- 
nection with  antidosis,  naturally  gives  the  notion  of  a  fixed  and  inva- 
riable institution,  it  is  usual  to  group  the  various  classes  of  choregoi 
under  one  general  statement,  considering  that  all  were  appointed  in  the 
same  manner,  received  the  same  prizes,  and  were,  in  short,  identical  in 
every  way,  except  that  their  duties  in  preparing  the  chorus  would  of 
course  differ  according  to  the  particular  nature  of  the  chorus.  This  is 

10  Mittheilungen,  1885,  p.  234. 


THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKARIA.  23 

the  view  taken  in  the  various  dictionaries  of  antiquities,  and  accepted  by 
all  the  authorities  which  are  referred  to  at  the  beginning  of  this  paper, 
with  the  exception  of  the  last  two,  who  depart  more  or  less  from  it.  It 
is  observed  by  Reisch,  that  none  of  the  inscriptions  having  the  usual 
phraseology  of  monuments  of  the  official  class  contains  any  reference  to 
a  dramatic  chorus.  Out  of  twenty-six  such  inscriptions  or  fragments 
collected  by  him,  nineteen  distinctly  mention  the  kind  of  chorus,  and 
it  is  always  lyric,  of  either  men  or  boys ;  of  the  remaining  seven,  three 
are  complete  and  do  not  state  the  nature  of  the  chorus,  and  four  are 
broken,  so  that,  if  the  chorus  was  mentioned,  it  is  no  longer  possible 
to  know  its  nature.  There  are,  however,  a  few  choregic  inscriptions 
plainly  referring  to  a  dramatic  chorus,  one  being  of  the  private  class 
and  referring  to  a  comic  chorus  (/ceo/^w&ofc  being  used),  and  two,  pub- 
lished by  Koehler,11  which  are  important  enough  to  be  given  in  full. 

Mia-ycovos 
AtoScopo 
&ifcaio<yevr)<>  efiiSacrKev.  ' '  Kpifypwv 


The  Dikaiogenes  mentioned  in  the  last  line  of  the  first  is  held  to  be 
identical  with  the  tragic  poet  who  flourished  in  the  beginning  of  the 
fourth  century.  The  first  peculiarity  to  be  observed  in  these  two  in- 
scriptions is  the  fact  that  two  persons  are  named  together  as  choregoi. 
A  passage  in  the  Scholia  to  Aristophanes'  Frogs,  406,12  informs  us  that, 
in  the  archonship  of  Kallias  (406  B.  c.),  it  became  customary  for  two 
persons  to  act  together  as  choregoi  for  the  tragic  and  comic  choruses 
at  the  Dionysia.  This  passage  is  the  authority  for  the  statement,  fre- 
quently made  (as  in  Boeckh,  Staatsh.,(3)  I,  p.  538),  that  synchoregia  was 
one  of  the  stages  of  the  general  system  of  choregia ;  but  the  words  of 
Aristotle  quoted  by  the  Scholiast,  which  limit  it  to  the  dramatic  chorus, 
are  supported  by  the  fact  that  it  is  not  mentioned  in  any  of  the  inscrip- 
tions relating  to  the  lyric  chorus,  while  in  the  two  inscriptions  just 
given,  referring  to  the  drama,  it  is  found  in  use.  However,  the  law 
under  Kallias  embodied  only  a  permission  for  two  choregoi  to  bear  the 
expense  of  the  chorus  in  common,  not  a  command,  as  is  proved  by 
Lysias,  xxi.  4,  Demosthenes,  Meid.  59  and  156  (  of.  C.  I.  A.,  n,  1275), 
where  the  choregos  serves  alone,  though  all  three  cases  fall  later  than  the 

uHermes,  n,  p.  23 ;  c/.  REISCH,  p.  44. 

12  eTrl  yovv  rov  KoAAiov  TOVTOV  ^rifflv  'Apt(TTOT€\T)S  '6n  ffvvfivo  e5o£e 
vvffia  TOLS  Tpaycpdols  Kal  Kto/j.cpSo'is. 


24  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCH^EOLOG  Y. 

archonship  of  Kallias.  In  this  respect,  a  precedent  had  already  been 
established  as  early  as  411—10  B.  c.,  when  two  trierarchs  are  found 
serving  together  (Lysias,  xxxn.  24)  ;  but  instances  occur  later  of  the 
individual  trierarchy  (Boeckh,  Staatsh.^  I,  p.  638). 

The  second  point  to  be  observed  in  connection  with  the  two  inscrip- 
tions given  above  is  the  fact  that  there  is  no  evidence  that  the  stone 
upon  which  they  are  inscribed  ever  bore  a  tripod.  On  the  other  hand, 
there  is,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  positive  evidence  that  it  did  not  ;  and 
as  this  is.  an  inscription  with  the  official  phraseology,  if  we  feel  com- 
pelled to  believe  that  all  choregoi  received  the  same  prize,  we  must 
believe  also  that  this  stone  held  a  tripod.  Now  Plutarch  (Them.,  5) 
states  that  Themistokles  gained  a  victory  as  choregos  for  a  tragic 
chorus,  and  set  up  a  irlva%  of  victory  with  the  inscription, 


is  an  extraordinary  word  to  use,  if  it  was  literally  a  tripod  which  The- 
mistokles set  up.13  The  inscription  given  in  the  text  is  probably  a  copy 
of  a  genuine  inscription  (the  manuscripts,  of  course,  retain  no  sign  of 
the  pre-Eukleidean  alphabet),  since  an  inscription  on  a  choregic  monu- 
ment dedicated  by  a  certain  Aristeides  and  quoted  by  Plutarch  (Aris- 
teid.  1)  has  actually  been  found,  and  it  agrees  word  for  word  with  the 
text.  We  learn  also,  from  Plutarch's  remarks  on  this  inscription, 
that  it  was  customary  even  in  his  time  to  pay  very  careful  attention 
to  both  the  phraseology  and  the  palaeography  of  an  inscription,  using 
these  as  criteria  for  dating  them,  just  as  is  the  practice  now.  Accept- 
ing it,  then,  as  a  genuine  inscription,  we  observe  that  it  presents  the 
same  phraseology  as  the  two  given  above,  except  that  here  the  archon's 
name  is  added  for  the  purpose  of  dating  it.  As  it  belongs  to  the  period 
before  the  archonship  of  Kallias,  one  choregos  only  is  mentioned.  Here, 
then,  are  three  inscriptions  set  up  by  dramatic  choregoi,  as  to  two  of 
which  there  is  no  evidence  that  they  were  on  a  monument  supporting 
a  tripod,  while,  as  to  the  third,  it  seems  certain  that  the  object  dedi- 
cated was  not  a  tripod.  Is  there  anything  in  literature  to  show  that 
dramatic  choregoi  received  tripods  as  prizes  ?  Theophrastos  charac- 
terizes a  mean  man  as  one  who,  when  he  had  gained  a  victory  with  a 
tragic  chorus,  would  dedicate  a  wooden  taenia  to  Dionysos  and  put  his 
name  upon  it.14  This  seems  to  imply  that  it  was  optional  with  a  tragic 

13  [It  may  have  been  a  relief  representing  a  tripod,  in  marble  or  in  bronze.    Cf.  G. 
I.  A.,  n,  766,  835,  680,  683  c;  LOEWY,  Inschriften  gr.  Bildhauer,  No.  533;  ARISTOT., 
Pol,  viii.  6  (1341  a).—  T.  W.  L.] 

14  [olos  viK-fia-as  t  payySols  TCUVICLV  £U\(J/TJJ/  avaOfTwai  T$  Aiovtcry.     Character.  22.     This 


THE  CHOEEGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKARIA.  25 

choregos  what  kind  of  a  thank-offering  he  should  make.  But  those 
choregoi  who  received  a  tripod  as  a  prize  were  certainly  expected  to  dedi- 
cate this,  though  there  is  no  record  that  such  dedication  was  required  by 
an  actual  law.  The  speaker  in  Lysias,  Orat.  xxi.  4,15  after  a  victory 
with  a  comic  chorus,  dedicates  apparently  the  costumes  and  other  prop- 
erties used  in  the  play,  though  the  exact  sense  in  which  he  uses  cvcey?}? 
may  be  doubtful.  Among  all  the  references  to  choregic  tripods  which 
I  have  been  able  to  find  (the  twelve  given  by  Brinck,  p.  12,  and  three 
additional  ones),  there  is  not  one  as  to  which  it  can  be  affirmed  that  the 
chorus  was  dramatic.  In  nine  instances  the  chorus  is  expressly  described 
as  lyric,  and  in  the  other  six  cases  there  is  nothing  to  define  the  kind 
of  chorus  referred  to.  The  force  of  these  facts  has  been  admitted  by 
Bergk,16  and  is  strongly  put  by  Brinck  in  the  dissertation  referred  to 
above.  Lolling  also,  in  speaking  of  the  Street  of  the  Tripods,  says17 
that  it  is  named  from  the  small  temple-like  structures,  welche  zum  Anden- 
ken  an  die  mit  lyrischen  Choren  davongetragenen  Siege  errichtet  warden. 
To  return  to  the  two  inscriptions  under  discussion ;  we  observe  a  third 
peculiarity,  namely,  that  no  mention  is  made  of  the  tribe,  the  same  thing 
holding  true  of  the  inscription  quoted  by  Plutarch.  Also  in  two  frag- 
ments 18  belonging  to  a  list  of  the  choregic  victors,  both  musical  and 
dramatic,  it  is  to  be  noted  that  in  the  case  of  lyric  choruses  the  name 
of  the  choregos  is  preceded  by  the  name  of  the  tribe,  while,  in  the  case 
of  tragic  and  comic  choruses,  there  is  no  mention  of  the  tribe.  This 
seems  very  peculiar  if  the  dramatic  choregos  was  appointed  by  his  tribe 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  others.  But  does  the  common  statement,  that 
the  choregos  was  appointed  by  his  tribe,  necessarily  imply  that  every 
choregos  was  so  appointed  ?  Let  us  briefly  review  the  authorities  for 
the  tribal  appointment  of  the  choregos.  Two  of  these19  are  mere  casual 
statements,  and  give  no  evidence  as  to  the  kind  of  chorus  referred 
to.  The  passage  of  Ulpian  (quoted  above,  Note  7)  seems,  to  be  sure, 
to  speak  in  a  general  way  of  the  tribal  appointment  of  the  choregos. 

is  probably  the  victor's  taenia  (ARISTOPH.,  Ran.,  393),  represented  in  relief  or  other- 
wise, and  would  form  part  of  the  (r/cet^  mentioned  by  LYSIAS,  xxi.  4. — A.  C.  M.j 

15  cTri  8e  EvKXeiSov  &pxovros  icwfJupSo'is  x°P"ny^v  K-r](j)i<ToS6pCf}  eviKcav,  /col  avJi\coffa  ffvv  rfj 
rrjs  ffK€V7)S  avaOecrei  eKKaiSeKO.  fj.vas. 

16  Griechische  Literaturgeschichte,  in,  p.  60,  note. 

17  Hellenische  Landeskunde  und  Topographic,  in  MULLER,  Handbuch  d.  klass.  Alter- 
thumswissenschaft,  in,  p.  326. 

18  C.  I.  A.,  n,  971  a,  971 6  =  DiTT.,  405,  406. 

19  DEM.,  Philip.  I.  36;  PLTJT.,  Quaest.  conviv.  I.  x.  1. 


26  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  AEGHMOLOG  Y. 

The  speaker  in  Antiphon's  speech  on  the  chorus-boy 20  was  choregos 
for  two  tribes  at  the  Thargelia ;  but  the  chorus  was  lyric,  not  dramatic. 
The  chief  authority,  however,  is  the  oration  of  Demosthenes  against 
Meidias,  where  he  graphically  describes  his  offer  of  himself  as  choregos 
to  his  own  tribe,  that  it  might  not  be  for  a  third  time  without  a  rep- 
resentative ;  but  he  expressly  states  that  he  was  choregos  for  a  lyric 
as  contrasted  with  a  dramatic  chorus.21  Of  the  two  arguments  to  this 
oration,  written  by  Libanios,  the  first  speaks  of  both  lyric  and  dramatic 
choruses  contesting  at  the  Dionysia,  and  immediately  upon  this  states 
that  the  tribes  furnish  the  choruses  and  that  the  choregos  is  the  one  who 
pays  the  expenses  in  connection  with  the  choregia.  This,  it  must  be 
acknowledged,  would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  dramatic  were  appointed 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  lyric  choregoi.  But  the  second  argument, 
which  is  longer  and  more  specific,  states  that  a  choregos  was  appointed 
from  each  tribe,  TT/JO?  TO  rpefaw  ^opov^  nraiSwv  re  KOI  avbp&v,  and 
adds,  eXd/jiftave  Be  ^p^ara  et?  rpotyrjv  rcov  rov  %opov.  eTna-rdo-rjs  Se 
T?)?  eoprris  rj<ya)vi£ovTO  777305  a\\rj\ov<;  ol  %op??7ol  KOI  rjpifyv,  V/JLVOV? 
et?  rov  kiovva-ov  aSovres,  KOL  rc3  VIKWWTI  rpiirov^  TO  a&Kov  r)V,  KT\. 
Now,  we  have  seen  that  the  choregia  in  the  case  of  dramatic  differs  in 
some  respects  from  the  choregia  in  case  of  lyric  choruses.  The  prize 
was  not  the  same  in  both  cases,  and  an  important  change  in  the  dra- 
matic choregia  was  introduced  without  affecting  the  system  of  the  lyric 
choregia.  It  is  true  that  the  appointment  of  the  choregoi  is  a  more 
important  feature,  but,  if  we  can  rid  our  minds  of  the  presumption 
that  the  choregia  was  a  consistently  invariable  institution,  the  same 
for  choregoi  of  both  kinds,  we  see  how  little  evidence  there  is  to  show 
that  dramatic  choregoi  were  appointed  in  any  way  by  the  tribe. 

Having  thus  stated  the  most  important  features  of  the  choregia  for 
the  city  festivals,  we  may  ask,  What  do  we  know  of  the  choregia  for  the 
rural  festivals?  Especially  for  the  Rural  Dionysia,  the  most  ancient  of 
all  the  festivals  of  Dionysos,  celebrated  during  the  month  of  Poseideon 
(Dec.-Jan.)  in  the  various  country  denies,  and  perhaps  nowhere,  except 
at  Peiraieus,  with  so  much  brilliancy  as  at  Ikaria,  so  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  myth  of  Dionysos,  the  birthplace  of  Thespis  and  the 
primitive  home  of  both  tragedy  and  comedy. 

The  meagre  information  which  we  possess  on  this  point  has  been  col- 
lected by  Haussoullier.22  Two  decrees  of  the  deme  of  Aixone,  in  praise 

207repl  rov  xopevrov,  11. 

31  $  156,  rpaytpftols  Kexop^rj/ce  iroff  OUTOS,  eyci)  Se  ouA.7jTO?s  avSpdffiv. 

22  La  Vie  Municipale  en  Attique,  p.  169. 


THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IK  ARIA.  27 

of  their  two  choregoi  for  having  performed  their  duties,  constitute  the 
sum  total  of  the  epigraphic  material  which  M.  Haussoullier  found  at 
his  disposal  ;  and  from  this  he  concludes  that  two  choregoi  were  regu- 
larly appointed  each  year,  in  exactly  what  manner  he  does  not  attempt  to 
say,  but  probably  from  the  few  wealthy  citizens,  and  without  any  special 
formalities.  He  then  raises  the  question,  whether  there  was  a  contest 
between  the  choregoi,  and  answers  this  in  the  negative,23  stating,  as  his 
reasons  for  this  belief,  that  the  choregoi  at  the  city  festivals  contested 
as  representatives  of  their  respective  tribes,  while  in  the  country  festi- 
vals all  the  choregoi  were  members  of  the  same  deme,  and,  being  com- 
paratively few  in  number,  would  be  likely  to  make  common  cause  in 
giving  as  brilliant  a  spectacle  as  possible.  This  view  of  Haussoullier 
simplifies  matters  considerably;  but,  if  we  should  find  that  there  actu- 
ally was  a  contest,  many  questions  would  spring  up.  Was  there  any 
distinction  between  official  and  private  dedications?  Was  there  any  dis- 
tinction between  monuments  dedicated  by  dramatic  choregoi  and  those 
dedicated  by  lyric  choruses  ?  .  Indeed,  were  there  in  the  rural  demes 
both  dramatic  and  lyric  choruses  ?  What  was  the  object  dedicated  ? 
In  one  of  the  inscriptions  of  Ikaria  already  published,24  the  deme 
praises  its  two  choregoi,  as  is  done  in  the  two  Aixonean  decrees,  and 
thus  adds  nothing  to  our  information.  The  following  three  inscrip- 
tions are,  however,  the  first  of  their  kind,  and  constitute  an  important 
addition  to  our  material. 

INSCRIPTIONS   FROM    IKARIA. 
NO.   5. 

Upon  the  edge  of  a  marble  slab  (indicated  in  Figure  #),  found  in 
the  wall  of  the  church  :  height  of  letters,  0.012.  They  are  roughly  cut, 
and  the  f  has  an  apex  giving  it  somewhat  the  appearance  of  P.  This 
is  seen  also  in  the  inscription  of  the  Lysikrates  monument. 


ev/ca. 

"  Mnesilochos  son  of  Mnesiphilos  won  the  victory  as  choregos  for 
the  tragic  chorus." 

No.  6. 

Marble  base  found  in  the  church  wall  :  height,  0.53  m.;  width,  0.43 
m.  ;  thickness,  0.225.     The  front  is  finished  perfectly  smooth  except 

23  So  also  MiJKLER,  Lehrbuch  der  gr.  Buhnenalierthumer,  p.  327. 
uAm.  Journal  of  Archaeology,  vol.  iv,  No.  4,  pp.  421-3. 


28 


AMERICAN  JO  UENAL  OF  ARCHMOLOG  Y. 


about  0.09  m.  at  the  bottom,  which  has  been  left  rough,  as  when  in  posi- 
tion this  would  be  concealed  by  earth.  In  the  top  are  three  holes  for 
securing  the  object  dedicated,  the  middle  one  being  0.065  m.  X  0.05  m., 
and  0.05  m.  deep  ;  the  smaller  holes  at  the  two  sides,  0.045  m.  deep. 
Height  of  letters,  0.029  m. 


"  Archippos  son  of  Archedektes  dedicated  [this]  to  Dionysos.  Nikos- 
tratos  was  didaskalos." 

No.  7. 

Marble  stele  found  lying  upon  a  wall  of  a  late  period,  running  in  a 
southeasterly  direction  from  the  N.  w.  corner  of  the  peribolos  wall  of 
the  precinct.  Height,  1  .70  m.  ;  width,  0.40  m.  ;  thickness,  0.33  m.  A 
moulding  runs  around  the  top,  of  which  the  surface  is  perfectly  smooth, 
and  thus  affords  no  evidence  of  what  object  was  dedicated  upon  it. 
Height  of  letters,  0.02  m.  in  first  three  lines,  0.015  in  the  others. 

EPrA3034>AMOMAXO     "Epyaa-os  ^avo^a^o 

'E/oya<ro 


"Ergasos  son  of  Phanomachos,  Phanomachos  son  of  Ergasos,  Diog- 
netos  son  of  Ergasos,  having  won  the  victory  as  choregoi  for  the  tragic 
chorus,  dedicated  [this]." 


THE  CHOEEGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKARIA.  29 

Now,  all  these  inscriptions  show  conclusively  that,  contrary  to  the 
view  of  Haussoullier  and  Miiller,  there  was  actually  a  contest  between 
the  choregoi,  and  that  the  victors  were  accustomed  to  dedicate  some 
object  to  commemorate  their  victory.  There  appears  to  be  the  same 
distinction  as  at  Athens  between  official  and  private  dedications ;  for 
the  first  inscription  lacks  aveO^Ke,  and  the  object  dedicated  was  a  tripod, 
as  is  proved  by  the  cuttings  in  the  top  of  the  slab,  while  in  the  two 
other  inscriptions  aveOrj/ce  and  aviOeaav  are  used,  and,  so  far  as  the 
evidence  goes,  the  object  dedicated  was  not  a  tripod.  This  distinction 
of  official  and  private  dedications  may  seem  uncalled  for  in  a  country 
deme ;  and  we  may  conjecture  that  it  was  simply  an  imitation  of  the 
custom  in  the  city. 

These  inscriptions  tell  us  only  of  dramatic  choruses,  Nos.  5  and  7 
referring  to  tragic  choruses,  and,  if  the  identification  of  Nikostratos 
suggested  below  be  accepted,  No.  6  to  a  comic  chorus.25  The  phrase 
TpayauSols  %opr)ya)v  is  found  elsewhere  in  inscriptions,  and  we  may 
compare  the  passage  of  Demosthenes  quoted  in  Note  21  with  Lysias 
xxiv.  9.  We  also  learn  from  No.  5,  which  belongs  in  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, but  is  later  than  Nos.  6  and  7,  that  at  Ikaria  a  tragic  choregos 
made  in  his  official  capacity  a  dedication  of  a  tripod.  So  it  seems 
that  a  tripod  was  the  prize  for  the  dramatic  chorus  here,  though  this 
was  not  the  case  in  Athens.26  In  No.  6,  it  is  remarkable  that  xopTjywv 
is  not  expressed,27  but  the  eSi&acrKe  of  the  last  line  is  sufficient  to 
show  that  the  inscription  is  choregic.  In  the  first  line,  'Ap^e&e  is  a 
part  of  no  name  to  be  found  in  Pape-Benseler 28  or  in  Fick,29  but 
would  be  a  correctly  formed  name  (after  the  analogy  of 
,  TIoXvSeKrrjs,  Fick,  p.  110),  and  the  perpendicular  stroke 
after  the  E  may  well  belong  to  a  kappa.  As  there  would  be  room  on 
the  stone  for  only  three  letters,  we  must  read  genitive  in  omicron.  This, 

25  It  is  possible  that  theatrical  and  musical  performances  were  so  intimately  con- 
nected at  Ikaria  that  there  were  no  choruses  distinctively  and  solely  musical;  but  it 
would  be  rash  to  assert  this  merely  on  the  negative  evidence  of  three  inscriptions. 

26  [It  is  hardly  probable  that  the  practice  in  Athens  and  Ikaria  would  differ  so  essen- 
tially; and  Koehler's  explanation  of  C.  LA.,  n,  1298  (KAIBEL,  Epigram.  Gr.,  924; 
LOEWY,  Inschr.  Sild.,  533)  seems  reasonable  enough  to  justify  the  assumption  that 
tripods  might  be  dedicated  at  times,  for  dramatic  victories,  in  Athens  as  well  as  in 
the  country.     More  than  this  can  hardly  be  affirmed  in  the  present  dearth  of  posi- 
tive evidence  either  way. — A.  C.  M.] 

27  [<7.  7.  A.,  n,  1248  and  1283  have  the  same  omission.— A.  C.  M.] 

28  Worterbuch  der  griechischen  Eigennamen. 

29  Die  griechischen  Personennamen. 


30  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

together  with  the  forms  of  the  other  letters,  places  the  inscription  in  the 
early  part  of  the  fourth  century.30 

Can  the  Nikostratos  of  the  last  line  be  identified  with  any  person 
known  to  us  in  literature?  Amongthe  numerous  Athenians  of  this  name 
connected  with  the  stage,  we  find  a  tragic  actor  who  lived  about  420  B.  c. 
(Xen.,  Sympos.,  6.  3 ;  Plutarch,  Glor.  Athen.,  6),  and  the  youngest 
son  of  Aristophanes,  referred  to  by  Athenaios  (xin.  587)  as  a  poet  of 
the  middle  comedy.  The  date  of  the  actor  is  too  early  to  admit  of 
identifying  him  with  the  Nikostratos  of  our  inscription.  With  regard 
to  the  son  of  Aristophanes  little  is  definitely  known,  and  we  must 
resort  to  comparisons  to  arrive  at  an  approximation  to  his  date.  Ari- 
stophanes' death  is  usually  placed  at  380  or  376  B.  c.,  but  there  is  nothing 
to  show  how  long  he  lived  after  his  last  extant  work,  the  second  edition 
of  the  Plutus,  which  was  brought  out  in  388  B.  c.,  except  that  he  seems 
to  have  done  a  portion  at  least  of  the  work  on  two  plays  which  appeared 
in  the  name  of  his  son,  Araros.  Araros  first  exhibited  under  his  own 
name  in  375  B.  c.,  but  must  have  been  active  under  his  father's  guidance 
for  some  time  previous  to  this.  It  is  reasonable  to  believe  that  Niko- 
stratos made  his  first  essays  during  the  last  years  of  his  father's  life, 
and  a  rural  deme  would  aiford  a  young  poet  an  excellent  field  for  the 
bringing  out  of  his  youthful  productions,  before  he  had  acquired  repu- 
tation enough  to  secure  admission  to  the  great  contests  in  the  city.  So 
it  seems  plausible,  and  even  probable,  that  the  Nikostratos  of  our  in- 
scription was  the  son  of  Aristophanes. 

In  No.  6,  the  dedicators  are  Ergasos  and  his  two  sons,  one  of  whom 
is  named  after  his  grandfather  Phanomachos.  With  this  we  should 
compare  the  inscription  quoted  above  (Note  9)  belonging  to  about  the 
same  date,  and  in  which  the  dedication  is  also  by  a  father  and  his  two 
sons.  Koehler,  in  publishing  this  inscription  (Mitth.,  1 878,  p.  229),  does 
not  express  an  opinion  as  to  how  three  persons  can  be  named  as  victorious 
choregoi,  but  perhaps  holds  the  same  opinion  as  Reisch  (De  MiLsieis,  p. 
46),  who  believes  that  the  inscription  does  not  refer  to  a  single  victory, 
but  was  dedicated  in  commemoration  of  several  different  victories.31 

30  The  form  of  the  omega  with  its  side  lines  nearly  parallel  is  precisely  that  found 
in  Ionic  inscriptions  of  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century  and  later,  but  this  is,  I  think, 
a  coincidence  rather  than  a  survival.    However,  this  form  is  characteristic  of  the 
early  part  of  the  fourth  century.     The  sporadic  examples  of  omega  in  Attic  inscrip- 
tions of  the  fifth  cent,  already  show  a  tendency  to  become  rounder,  though  the  legs 
are  very  flaring,  even  throughout  most  of  the  fourth  century. 

31  [Of-  LYSIAS,  xix.  42:  'Apia-To^avris  roivvv  yrjv  pey  Kal  oliciav  e'/cT^o-aro  ir\4ov  %  irevre 
TO\dt>T(ov,  KaTfx0P'f)yT1o'*  8e  inrep  aurov  Kal  TOV  -irarpbs  irevTaKiffx^ias  Spax/ids. — A.  C.  M.] 


THE  CHOREOIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IKAEIA. 


31 


But  a  more  plausible  explanation,  in  my  opinion,  is  that  the  three 
persons  from  one  family  joined  in  the  expense  of  furnishing  a  chorus, 
and  so  in  a  private  dedication  called  themselves  victors  in  common 
although  one  of  their  number  must  have  been  the  official  choregos,  and 
his  name  alone  would  appear  on  a  monument  of  the  official  class. 
Ergasos  is  a  name  found  twice  in  an  Eleusinian  inscription  of  329/8 
B.  C.,  and  is  probably  the  short  form  of  ^pyacrlcw,  the  name  of  a  coun- 
tryman mentioned  by  Aristophanes  (Vesp.y  1201).  The  inscription 
belongs  to  the  early  decades  of  the  fourth  century. 

A  cut  of  the  tripod-base  of  inscription  No.  5  is  given  (Figure  3)  inas- 
much as  bases  for  choregic  tripods  which  show  clearly  the  holes  for 
setting  in  the  tripod  are  not  common,  and  as  this  base  presents  a  few 
variations  from  those  known  already.  Of  the  tripods  set  up  by  victo- 
rious choregoi  at  Athens  no  fragment  of  any  value  is  known,  and,  to 
form  an  idea  of  the  shape  of  such  tripods,  we  are  dependent  on  the 
innumerable  instances  in  vase-paintings  and  reliefs, 
on  the  fragments  of  bronze  tripods  found  in  other 
parts  of  Greece,  and  on  the  bases  for  tripods  which 
are  known.  In  vase-paintings  and  reliefs,  the  tripod 
is  usually  represented  without  any  central  support, 
though  there  are  instances  in  which  this  feature 
appears.  The  legs  are  commonly  represented  as 
plain  upright  pieces  ending  in  animals'  feet.  The 
fragments  of  the  large  tripods  discovered  at  Olympia  FlG-  3— Tripod-base 

show  no  trace  of  a  central  support,  and  the  legs  are      /0^  at  *karia>  ™ 

&  which  is  Inscription 

simple  uprights,  not  ending  in  animals   feet.    The       jy0>  5 

miniature  tripods,  however,  which  have  been  found 
there,  and  must  serve  as  the  standard  for  completing  the  fragments  of 
the  large  ones,  have,  in  some  instances,  a  small  central  support  of  inter- 
twining wires.  The  diameter  of  the  bowl  is  about  equal  to  the  height 
of  the  legs;  but  all  these  Olympian  examples  belong  to  a  very  early 
period,  and  we  know,  from  the  representations  on  vases  and  reliefs,  that 
the  ratio  of  proportion  was  ordinarily  nothing  like  this;  the  diameter  of 
the  bowls  so  represented  would  be  less  than  half  the  height  of  the  legs. 
Of  bases  of  actual  tripods,  two  are  represented  in  cuts  by  Fabricius.32 
One  of  these  is  in  situ  on  the  Akropolis  behind  the  Propylaia,  near 
the  fragment  of  wall  belonging  to  the  old  Propylaia,  and  dates  at 
least  from  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century  B.  c.  The  three  holes 
for  the  feet  of  the  tripod  are  perfectly  round,  but  cut  deeper  near 

32  Das  platdische  Weihgeschenk,  in  Jahrbuch  d.  deutsch.  archdol.  Instiluts,  1886,  p.  187. 


32 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


the  edge,  leaving  a  kind  of  knob  in  the  middle.  Betvreen  the  three 
holes,  a  circular  area  is  left  rough,  showing  that  a  cylindrical  central 
support  was  here  present.  The  second  base  given  by  Fabricius  has  also 
a  circular  space  in  the  middle  left  rough,  but  the  cuttings  for  the  legs 
are  in  this  example  not  round  but  u  shaped.  The  tripod  on  the  Lysi- 
krates  monument  also  had  a  central  support,  as  is  shown  by  the  deep 
central  hole  in  the  top  of  the  anthemion.33  The  famous  serpent-column 
in  the  Atmeidan  at  Constantinople  was  the  central  support  between  the 
three  legs  of  the  Plataean  tripod,  as  is  clearly  shown  by  Fabricius  in  the 
article  referred  to  above.  But  the  most  interesting  base  for  comparison 

with  our  own  is  a  circu- 
lar slab34  found  in  1878 
near  the  bank  of  the  Ilis- 
sos ;  and  a  cut  of  it  is  here 
given  (Figure  4).  In  the 
same  place  as  the  slab, 
were  found  three  cylin- 
drical bases  with  choregic 
inscriptions 3S  of  the  first 
half  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tury; and  this  slab  must 
have  formed  the  cap  of  a 
similar  base,  it  being  too 
large  to  belong  to  any  of 
those  actually  found.  In 
this  slab  the  central  circle 
is  not  merely  a  place  left 
FIG.  4.— Tripod  base  found  near  the  Missos.  rough,  but  an  actual  de- 

pression   0.02  m.    deep. 

For  the  support  of  the  legs  there  are  holes,  about  0.05  m.  square,  cut 
to  the  depth  of  0.07  m.;  and  an  irregularly  shaped  area  extending 
from  these  holes  nearly  to  the  outer  circumference  of  the  slab  is  slightly 
cut  away  (greatest  depth,  0.015).  This  irregular  cutting  is  held  by 
Koumanoudes  to  indicate  that  the  legs  of  the  tripod  ended  in  the  feet  of 
animals.  In  the  base  found  at  Ikaria,  precisely  the  same  arrangement 
appears  for  the  support  of  the  legs.  There  are  square  holes  cut  to  the 

33  STUART  and  EEVETT,  Antiquities  of  Athens,  vol.  I,  chap,  iv,  pi.  9. 
3*  KOUMANOUDES,  'A0^j/otoj/,  i,  p.  170. 

v,  i,  p.  169  =  DiTT.,  411,  412,  413. 


THE  CHOREGIA  IN  ATHENS  AND  AT  IK  ARIA.  33 

depth  of  0.055  m.,  and,  inclosing  these,  irregular  areas  cut  out  to  a  slight 
depth;  so  that  the  tripod-legs  must  here,  too,  have  ended  in  feet.  The 
central  hollow  is  0.05  m.  deep,  and  radiating  from  it  are  three  narrow 
cuttings  of  the  same  depth.  Exactly  in  the  middle  is  a  small  square 
hole  running  through  the  whole  thickness  of  the  slab,  and  apparently 
intended  for  the  passage  of  a  rod  to  secure  the  central  member  more 
firmly.  The  inscription  is  on  the  side  CD  (Figure  3\  close  to  the 
upper  edge. 

Athens,  GAEL  D.  BUCK, 

December  12,  1888.  Member  of  the  American  School 

of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens. 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


VIII.     "HUMAN  SACRIFICES"  ON   BABYLONIAN   CYLINDERS. 

In  a  chapter  on  "  Human  Sacrifices,"  in  his  Recherches  sur  la  Glyp- 
tique  orientate  (vol.  I,  pp.  150-58),  M.  Menant,  to  whom  we  are  so  much 
indebted  for  the  classification  and  interpretation  of  Oriental  cylinders, 
describes  the  scenes  in  which  a  naked  man,  on  one  knee  and  with  his 
hands  raised  in  an  attitude  of  fear  and  supplication,  is  seized  by  a 
"  pontiff,"  whose  right  hand  is  raised  to  kill  him  with  a  weapon.  This 
"  pontiff,"  thus  officiating  in  a  "  human  sacrifice,"  he  identifies  with 
another  of  the  most  frequent  figures  on  the  cylinders — that  in  which 
a  bearded  personage,  also  in  a  short  robe  which  leaves  both  legs  free, 


FIG.  5. 


FIG.  6. — Metrop.  Museum. 


has  one  arm  hanging  down  by  his  side,  or  a  little  withdrawn  behind 
him,  and  holds  in  his  left  hand,  which  is  lifted  across  his  waist,  a  sort 
of  baton  (Fig.  5).  There  are  slight  variations  of  this  figure,  such  as 
his  holding  a  basket  in  his  right  hand,  but  the  general  character  is 
always  preserved  so  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  his  identity. 

If  M.  Me"nant  be  correct  in  identifying  these  two  figures,  then  the 
latter,  which  is  found  many  scores  of  times  on  hematite  seals,  is  a  con- 
ventionalized form  of  the  personage  who  is  represented  in  a  more  active 
attitude  on  the  other  cylinders.  I  wish  to  offer  a  study  on  this  scene, 
that  we  may  decide  whether  or  not  we  have  here  a  pontiff  offering  a 
human  sacrifice.  My  own  study  of  the  cylinders  has  convinced  me  that 
M.  Lajard's  notion  of  initiations  and  mystic  scenes  must  be  given  up, 
and  that  M.  M6nant  is  often  misled  by  a  similar  tendency  to  discover 
ceremonies  of  worship,  where  the  deities  themselves  are  really  repre- 
sented. The  large  majority  of  cylinders  contain,  I  think,  chiefly  fig- 
34 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


35 


ures  of  gods.  Where  human  figures  appear,  they  are  to  be  distinguished 
sometimes  by  their  nudity,  sometimes  by  their  simple  garments  and  bare 
heads,  and  sometimes  by  their  attitude  of  worship  and  their  presenta- 
tion of  offerings.  Generally,  more  than  one  deity  appears  on  a  cylin- 
der, and  these  deities  have  their  conventional  attitude  and  dress ;  and, 
except  in  the  earlier  cylinders,  no  freedom  is  allowed  in  drawing  them 
so  as  to  represent  a  scene  that  is  taking  place  between  them  and  their 
worshippers  :  but  the  design  is,  rather,  to  bring  together  the  figures  of 
a  number  of  protecting  deities  and  thus  strengthen  the  talismanic  vir- 
tue of  the  seal.  The  later  seals,  even  the  common  hematite  ones,  are 
of  comparatively  little  value  for  the  identification  of  the  figures,  and 
we  must  go  back,  when  we  can,  to  the  earlier,  unconventional,  and  artis- 
tically freer  and  better  cylinders  of  serpentine,  agate,  and  jasper,  pro- 
duced near  the  time  of  Sargon  I  and  Dungi.  Thus,  it  is  these  earlier 


FIG.  7.—Menant,  fig.  95. 


FIG.  8.— Menant,fig.  96. 


cylinders  that  show  us  Isdubar  and  Hea-bani  in  company,  in  various 
attitudes,  fighting  the  bull  and  the  lion.  The  later  hematites  have  re- 
duced the  various  free  representations  of  these  demigods  to  a  fixed  form, 
omitting  the  animals  with  which  they  fought.  So,  also,  the  scene  on  the 
earliest  large  serpentine  cylinders,  where  Samas  is  represented  as  hav- 
ing come  out  of  the  gate  of  the  East,  which  the  porter  has  opened  to 
him,  and  as  mounting  up  over  the  hills  of  Elam  (see  explanation  of 
these  seals  in  Am.  Journal  of  Archaeology,  1887,  pp.  50-56),  has  been 
reduced,  on  the  common  later  hematite  cylinders  of  the  period  between 
2000  and  1000  B.  c.,  to  a  single  changeless  figure  of  a  bearded  person 
in  a  long  robe,  with  one  foot  on  a  stool,  and  a  notched  sword  in  one 
hand.  Unfortunately,  we  get  less  help  than  we  might  hope  for,  in  the 
investigation  now  in  hand,  from  the  older  seals,  inasmuch  as  the  scene 
under  discussion  is  chiefly,  or  wholly,  found  on  the  hematite  cylinders. 
So  far  as  I  know  them,  the  cylinders  which  present  this  scene  in  full 
are  the  following. 


36 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


1.  A  hematite  cylinder  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  New  York, 
obtained  by  me  in  Baghdad,  and  provisionally  numbered  G  1  (Fig. 
6).  I  mention  this  first,  because  the  group  is  more  complete  than  in 
any  other  that  I  know,  as  it  adds  an  attendant  holding  the  "  victim  " 
who  is,  according  to  M.  Me"nant,  being  slain  for  sacrifice.  A  small 
naked  figure,  on  one  knee,  turns  his  head  back,  and  lifts  one  hand  over 
his  head  in  imploring  terror.  Behind  this  victim  stands  the  usual  "pon- 
tiff," or  sacrificing  priest,  of  M.  Me"nant,  clad  in  a  short  skirt,  with  one 
foot  advanced  toward  his  victim.  He  holds  in  his  left  hand  what  ap- 
pears to  be  a  club,  or  mace,  while  his  right  hand  holds  a  curved  weapon 
lifted  over  his  head,  with  which  he  seems  about  to  strike  the  suppliant. 
In  front  of  the  victim  stands  another  figure,  dressed  in  a  short  skirt, 
carrying  a  bow  (or  shield)  over  his  left  shoulder,  while  with  his  right 


FIG.  9. — Lajard,  xxxu. 


FIG.  10. — Menant,  iv.  5. 


hand  he  holds  down  the  head  of  the  imploring  victim.    Two  other  con- 
ventional figures  need  no  description. 

2.  MENANT,  Recherehes  sur  la  G-lyptique  orientale,  i,  p.  152,  fig. 
95  :  a  hematite  cylinder  (Fig.  7).     The  naked  victim  is  in  the  same 
attitude,  except  that,  while  one  hand  is  lifted  over  his  head,  the  other 
is  grasped  by  the  left  hand  of  the  god  (or  "pontiff")  who,  in  the  same 
dress  and  attitude  as  on  the  previous  cylinder,  lifts  his  curved  weapon 
over  his  head.     There  are  four  other  figures  whose  connection  with  the 
scene  is  doubtful,  although  one  of  them  is  the  seated  goddess  in  full 
front  face,  whom  Menant  calls  Beltis,  and  to  whom  he  regards  this 
human  sacrifice  as  being  offered.    The  common  flounced  beardless  fig- 
ure, with  both  hands  lifted,  when  seen,  as  here,  with  Samas,  is  proba- 
bly his  wife  Aa,  although  she  may  be  the  female  complement  of  other 
gods.     The  two  other  figures  are  Samas  and  a  worshipper. 

3.  Ibid.,  p.  153,  fig.  96 :  a  "  basalt"  cylinder  (probably  a  small  black 
serpentine  cylinder,  of  the  same  period  as  the  hematites)  (Fig.  8).    The 
scene  is  precisely  the  same  as  on  the  last,  except  that  the  "  victim  "  is  of 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


37 


full  size,  and,  as  drawn  by  M6nant,  the  "  pontiff"  holds  his  weapon  in 
his  left  hand.    The  other  figures  are  a  griffin  attacking  a  wild-goat. 

4.  LAJARD,  Culte  de  Mithra,  pi.  xxxn,  fig.  2  :  material  not  stated 
(Fig.  9).     The  same  "pontiff,"  as  above,  holds  the  same  weapon  over 
his  head ;  but  his  left  hand  holds  a  bunch  of  eight  radiating  objects  shaped 
like  a  slender  nail  with  two  heads.     Before  him  cowers  the  victim  in 
the  usual  attitude.     There  are  two  other  figures,  one  apparently  a  god 
holding  an  emblem,  and  the  other  a  man  pouring  a  libation. 

5.  MENANT,  op.  cit.,  i,  pi.  iv,  fig.  5  :  material  not  stated  (Fig.  10). 
The  same  scene  as  the  last,  except  that  the  six  radiating  objects  held  in 
the  hand  have  but  one  head  each.     There  is  not  room  for  the  victim 
to  hold  his  hand  over  his  head,  and  it  is  pressed  against  his  side.    There 
are  three  other  figures  on  this  cylinder,  the  one  to  the  right  being  Samas. 


FIG.  11. — Lajard,  LIV.  A.  5. 


FIG.  12. — Lajard,  LIV.  B.  5. 


In  the  next  two  cylinders,  the  god  rests  his  foot  upon  the  victim. 

6.  LAJARD,  op.  eit.,  pi.  LIV-A,  fig.  5 :  hematite  cylinder  (Fig.  11).  The 
same  god  (or  "  pontiff")  with  his  left  hand  lifted,  holding  the  weapon 
over  his  head,  and  with  a  bunch  of  nine  radiating  objects  in  his  right 
hand,  as  in  Figure  9,  but  looking  more  like  flowers  held  by  the  stems, 
rests  his  foot  on  the  prostrate  body  of  the  small  naked  victim,  who 
holds  up  one  deprecating  hand.    There  are  three  other  figures,  two  of 
them  apparently  duplicates  of  the  god  represented  in  Figure  5. 

7.  Ibid.,  LIV-B,  fig.  5 :  hematite  cylinder  (Fig.  12).    The  same  scene, 
except  that  the  radiating  star-like  object  in  one  hand  is  not  fully  de- 
veloped, and  that  the  victim  is  not  entirely  naked.     There  are  three 
other  figures  on  this  cylinder,  but  quite  unconnected  with  the  scene. 

8.  DE  CLERCQ,  Catalogue  raisonne,  fig.  167 :  hematite  cylinder  (Fig. 
13).     The  same  scene,  except  that  the  figures  have  been  so  conven- 
tionalized, or  are  so  imperfectly  drawn,  that  the  weapons  and  objects  in 
the  hands  of  the  god  have  disappeared,  and  the  victim  has  no  arms. 

9.  Hematite  cylinder  belonging  to  me  (Fig.  14).    This  cylinder  has 


38 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 


suffered  the  loss  of  two  or  three  millimeters  at  the  top.  The  god  (or 
"  pontiff"),  in  a  long  robe,  holds  one  hand  lifted,  though  the  weapon 
held  over  his  head  has  disappeared  with  the  mutilation  of  the  stone. 
In  his  other  hand  he  holds  an  emblem  which  forks  into  a  double  zigzag. 
Before  him  cowers  the  kneeling  naked  victim,  who  is  also  attacked  from 
behind  by  a  composite  winged  animal,  with  open  mouth,  having  the  head 
and  body  of  a  lion  and  the  legs  of  a  cock.  The  victim  is  very  pecu- 
liarly provided  with  three  arms,  two  being  presented  to  the  griffin,  and 
one  directed  toward  the  "pontiff."  Although,  so  far  as  I  know,  this  is 
the  only  case  in  which  a  double  relation  has  given  three  arms  to  a  figure, 
the  principle  is  one  known  to  Babylonian  art.  On  six  or  eight  cylinders, 
a  figure  is  represented  with  two  faces  to  indicate  that  he  is  paying  atten- 
tion both  to  the  god  before  him  and  to  the  personages  behind,  whom  he 


FIG.  13.— De  Clercq,  fig.  167. 


FIG.  14.— Collection  W.  H.  Ward. 


is  leading  to  the  god.  For  a  similar  reason,  the  colossal  Assyrian  lions 
and  bulls  have  five  legs.  But,  for  our  purpose,  it  is  more  important 
to  notice  that  the  "pontiff"  may  be  represented  as  clad  in  a  long  robe 
instead  of  in  the  customary  short  one,  and  that  the  attack  may  be  also 
made  by  this  composite  mythological  creature. 

All  these  cylinders  show,  almost  beyond  question,  the  same  god,  or 
"pontiff"  (although  his  dress  is  varied  in  Figure  14),  and  also  the  same 
victim.  Other  cylinders  have  reduced  the  scene  still  more.  The  god 
appears  alone,  as  in  CULLIMORE,  Oriental  Cylinders,  No.  19 ;  and  DE 
CLERCQ,  Catalogue  raisonne,  Nos.  232,  271 ;  both  rudely  drawn.  A 
cylinder  brought  from  Kypros  by  General  Di  Cesnola  (Transactions  of 
the  Society  of  Biblical  Archeology,  vol.  v,  p.  442)  contains  both  the  god 
and  the  crouching  figure,  but  separated  from  each  other  by  another  figure. 
To  these  I  add  two  others,  which  vary  from  the  usual  figures  of  the  god 
already  described  only  in  having,  instead  of  the  short  robe,  the  long  open 
robe  of  Samas,  with  one  naked  leg  advanced.  These  are,  MENANT, 
op.  cit.,  vol.  i,  p.  147,  fig.  90,  where  this  god,  with  his  weapon  over  his 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES. 


39 


head,  cannot  easily  be  Samas,  because  Samas  appears  in  his  own  form  on 
the  same  cylinder.  The  other,  CULLIMORE,  op.  tit.,  fig.  119,  is  a  very 
interesting  one  (Fig.  15)  :  here  the  god  holds  in  one  hand  the  bifur- 
cated zigzag  emblem,  and  in  the  other  his  characteristic  weapon  lifted 
over  his  head ;  before  him  three  victims  lie  slain  on  the  ground.  One 
can  hardly  help  seeing  here  such  a  god  as  Ram  man,  holding  a  thun- 
derbolt and  destroying  his  enemies.  It  is  true  that  the  god  has  his 
foot  lifted  on  an  animal,  as  Samas  is  sometimes  drawn ;  but  the  god 
(or  "pontiff")  whom  we  are  now  considering,  also,  as  we  have  seen, 
has  his  foot  lifted  and  advanced  and  sometimes  resting  on  his  prostrate 
victim. 

The  naked  cowering  victim  occasionally  appears  alone,  as  in  DE 
CLERCQ,  op.  tit.,  figs.  139,  179.     Perhaps  the  small  naked  kneeling 


FIG.  15—Cullimore,  fig.  119. 


FIG.  16.— Collection  W.  H.  Ward. 


figure  in  LAJARD,  pis.  xvin-6,  xxiv-3,  and  in  CULLIMORE,  figs. 
95, 135,  is  the  same  victim.  More  frequently,  the  same,  or  a  similar, 
cowering  naked  figure  appears  attacked  only  by  the  winged  composite 
creature  mentioned  above,  or  by  a  simple  upright  lion,  as  in  LAJARD, 
pi.  xm,  fig.  5 ;  DE  CLERCQ,  figs.  73,  75 ;  on  no  less  than  three  in  the 
Metropolitan  Museum,  New  York ;  and  on  a  fourth  hematite  cylinder 
lately  acquired  by  me.  The  last  (Fig.  16)  is  interesting  because  the 
victim  carries  a  shield. 

I  have  said  that  the  older  cylinders  are  apt  to  show  less  conven- 
tionalized and  more  instructive  types  than  do  the  hematite  seals.  If 
this  group  has  yet  been  found  clearly  marked  on  the  older  Babylonian 
seals,  I  am  not  aware  of  it.  It  may  be,  however,  that  a  considerably 
different  type  on  the  older  cylinders,  in  which  also  Me"nant  sees  the 
human  sacrifice,  is  the  source  of  the  representation  we  have  been  con- 
sidering. MENANT  gives  a  single  example  of  it  (vol.  I,  p.  158,  fig. 
98)  on  a  carnelian  (Fig.  17).  A  more  complete  example  is  a  green 
jasper  figured  in  LAJARD,  pi.  XL,  fig.  4  (Fig.  18).  In  both  of  these, 


40 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


one  personage,  in  a  two-horned  cap,  attacks  and  puts  his  foot  upon  a 
second  figure  who  falls  on  one  knee,  and  who  wears  a  similar  hat.  An 
impression  which  I  have  of  a  large  archaic  lapis  lazuli  cylinder  that 
belonged  to  M.  Siouffi,  French  Consul  at  Mosul  in  1884,  also  shows 
the  same  scene.  The  last  two  are  also  allied,  through  their  accom- 
panying fighting  figures,  with  cylinders  classed  by  MSnaiit  as  repre- 
senting human  sacrifices,  in  DE  CLERCQ  (Catalogue  raisonn^,  figs.  176, 
177, 180, 181).  I  would  incline  more  confidently  to  Menant's  opinion, 
that  these  represent  the  same  scene  that  appears  on  the  later  hematite 
cylinders  already  mentioned,  were  it  not  that  the  personage  whom  the 
victor  steps  upon  also  wears  the  divine  horned  cap.  We  must  remem- 
ber, however,  that  the  distinction  in  the  head-dress  between  gods  and 
men  does  not  seem  to  be  so  clearly  drawn  in  the  earlier  seals,  in  which 
the  head-dress  of  the  god  was  doubtless  drawn  from  that  ordinarily 


FIG.  17  — Menant,  fig.  98. 


FIG.  18. — Lajard,  XL.  4. 


worn,  and  which  later  became  obsolete,  but  was  continued  in  art  for 
the  gods,  as  their  representation  became  fixed. 

The  same  god  (or  "  pontiff")  whom  we  have  been  considering,  with 
his  weapon  lifted  over  his  head,  and  wearing  indifferently  either  the 
usual  short  dress  or  the  long  open  robe  which  leaves  one  leg  exposed, 
seems  to  appear  on  a  number  of  cylinders,  leading  by  a  cord  a  bull  or 
a  composite  winged  animal.  In  many  of  these  cases,  the  god  carries 
in  the  other  hand  the  zigzag  forked  object  which  we  have  already  ob- 
served, or  the  cord  seems  to  end  with  this  bifurcated,  or  trifurcated,  or 
even  quadri furcated  emblem.  One  example  (Fig.  19)  is  in  CULLI- 
MORE,  Oriental  Cylinders,  fig.  132 ;  also  given  in  LAJARD,  Quite  de 
Miihra,  pi.  xxxvii,  fig.  1.  Other  examples  are  in  CULLIMORE,  figs. 
96,  107 ;  DE  CLERCQ,  Catalogue  raisonne,  figs.  153,  175;  and  in 
LAJARD,  pis.  xvi,  fig.  1 ;  xxvin,  figs.  5,  9 ;  xxxv,  fig.  2.  On  two 
cylinders  belonging  to  the  Metropolitan  Museum,  the  god  holds  the 
zigzag  emblem  on  the  bull,  but  does  not  lead  the  bull  by  a  cord,  he 
simply  stands  on  him.  This  scene  is  reduced,  in  a  number  of  cases, 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES.  41 

to  the  forked  zigzag  alone  on  the  bull,  as  in  CULLIMORE,  figs.  60,  67 ; 
LAJARD,  pi.  xvm,  fig.  5;.DE  CLERCQ,  figs.  169,  173,  230. 

I  have  given  this  exhaustive  account  of  the  class  of  cylinders  identi- 
fied by  M.  Me"nant  as  representing  a  human  sacrifice,  and  of  the  others 
which  contain  similar  or  related  figures,  that  we  may  judge,  by  as  full 
an  induction  as  possible,  what  they  signify.1 

We  have,  then,  the  characteristic  figure  of  a  personage,  generally 
short-skirted,  with  a  weapon  generally  held  over  his  head,  sometimes 
threatening  a  naked  man,  sometimes  leading  a  dragon  or  a  bull  by  a 
thong,  in  one  case  (though  here  he  wears  a  long  skirt)  with  three 
victims  of  his  fury  before  him,  whom  he  has  hurled  to  the  earth; 
sometimes  represented  alone,  that  is,  unrelated  to  other  figures  on  the 
cylinder ;  sometimes  carrying  in  his  other  hand  before  him  a  cluster 


FIG.  19.—  Cullimore,  fig. 


of  radiating  objects,  and  sometimes  an  emblem  with  two,  three,  or  four 
zigzagging  forks.  The  naked  cowering  figure  appears  not  only  before 
him,  but  also  alone,  and  before  a  lion  or  a  composite  monster  with 
mouth  open  to  devour  him.  In  one  case,  he  is  before  a  lion,  and  the  hand 
over  his  head  holds  a  shield  ;  and  in  one  case,  in  which  he  is  threat- 

1  1  have  omitted  several  of  a  very  different  character,  gathered  under  this  head  and 
described  by  MENANT,  in  DB  CLERCQ,  Catalogue  raisonne,  because  they  cannot  come 
under  this  class.  Thus,  figs.  176  and  181,  Which  evidently  present  the  same  scene, 
show  one  personage,  armed  with  a  club,  pushing  another  against  what  seems  to  be  a 
hill.  But,  in  one  of  these  cases,  the  attacking  personage  has  what  look  like  flames 
radiating  from  his  whole  body,  and,  in  the  other  case,  he  has  evident  wings,  and  is 
therefore  clearly  a  divine  personage  and  not  a  pontiff.  Besides,  fig.  ISlbis  shows  the 
same  winged  figure  stabbing,  with  a  dagger,  a  human-headed  bull  —  certainly  not  a 
case  of  human  sacrifice.  In  fig.  177,  the  personages  attacked  have  the  heads  of  birds, 
as  in  LAJARD,  Culte  de  Mithra,  pi.  xxxui,  fig.  3  1,  and  pi.  XL,  fig.  4,  which  proves  the 
group  in  all  these  cases  to  be  mythological.  In  fig.  178  we  have  the  sun-god  rising 
over  the  mountains  ;  and  what  M.  Menant  regards  as  the  victim  may  be  a  worshipper 
kneeling  before  him.  In  figs.  180  and  180  bis,  we  have  one  personage  vanquished  by 
another,  but  no  indication  of  a  sacrifice. 


42  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ened  by  the  usual  god,  or  "pontiff,"  his  head  is  held  by  a  second  figure 
carrying  a  bow.  In  yet  another  case,  he  is  attacked  in  front  by  the 
god  and  behind  by  the  composite  monster. 

All  these  circumstances  do  not  suggest  a  sacrificing  priest,  but,  as 
seems  clear  to  me,  a  god  of  anger  or  vengeance.  There  would  be  no 
evident  reason  for  sometimes  representing  the  priest  alone ;  there  would 
be  the  god.  The  attendant  of  the  sacrificing  priest  would  hardly  carry 
a  bow  on  his  shoulder;  a  divine  attendant  of  an  armed  god  might  him- 
self be  armed.  The  peculiar  emblems  in  the  left  hand,  the  radiating 
objects,  or  the  zigzag  object,  seem  certainly  to  belong  to  a  god.  The 
only  suggestion  of  a  human  sacrifice,  that  I  discover,  is  on  the  cylinder 
(Fig.  7)  where  the  victim  is  before  a  seated  goddess  ;  but  it  is  so  com- 
mon to  have  several  gods  represented  on  the  cylinders  that  this  has  no 
weight  against  the  other  indications. 

Assuming,  then,  the  figure  with  hand  uplifted,  threatening  his  vic- 
tim, to  be  a  god,  the  question  follows,  Who  is  this  god  ?  The  indi- 
cations are  not  fully  satisfactory.  The  sickle-like  weapon  held  over 
his  head  is  the  same  as  Merodach  carries  by  his  side  in  his  pursuit  of 
Tiamat ;  but  this  can  hardly  be  Merodach.  He  must  be  one  of  those 
gods  that  are  represented  as  the  destroyers  of  wicked  men,  such  are 
Ramman,  Adar,  and  Nergal.  If,  as  is  not  impossible,  the  upright 
lion,  or  lion  with  the  legs  of  a  cock,  which  we  have  often  seen  attack- 
ing the  same  victim,  is  Nergal,  then  the  other  god,  whom  we  are  now 
considering,  cannot  be  Nergal,  as  they  both  appear  in  Figure  14-  The 
rabbins  say  that  the  Nergal  of  Kutha  had  the  form  of  a  cock,  but  it 
is  doubtful  if  they  have  any  foundation  for  it  except  the  conceit  of 
the  connection  of  Nergal  with  tarnegol,  "a  cock."  On  a  cylinder  in  De 
Clercq's  collection  (Catalogue  raisonne,  fig.  76)  Hea-bani  appears  fight- 
ing this  composite  creature,  which  militates  against  its  being  Nergal. 

If  we  exclude  Nergal,  the  emblem  in  the  left  hand  of  the  god,  either 
radiating  or  zigzag,  might  very  well  be  the  thunderbolt,  as  the  zigzag 
is  called  by  Lenormant  (Berose,  p.  94).  In  that  case,  the  god  would 
appear  to  be  Ramman,  who  may  thus  be  represented  destroying  his 
enemies,  or  wicked  men,  with  his  peculiar  weapon.  So,  also,  in  his 
Histoire  andenne  de  I' Orient  (vol.  I,  p.  62),  Lenormant  gives  a  figure 
of  this  god  (in  a  long  robe)  with  the  zigzag  emblem,  as  a  figure  of 
Ramman  taken  from  a  cylinder.  The  bull,  however,  which  he  often 
leads,  would  seem  to  point  to  Adar,  if  it  be  Adar  who  is  represented 
on  Assyrian  seals  (LAJARD,  Culte  de  Mithra,  pis.  xxxv,  fig.  9 ;  LIV 
A,  fig.  10)  adorned  with  a  star,  or  ball,  on  his  helmet,  standing  on  a 


NOTES  ON  ORIENTAL  ANTIQUITIES.  43 

bull,  and  often  accompanied  by  the  goddess  Istar  similarly  adorned 
with  stars.  But  it  may  be  worth  mentioning  that  the  inscription  on 
fig.  153  in  DE  CLECRQ,  Catalogue  raisonne,  where  we  see  the  god  lead- 
ing the  bull,  makes  the  owner  a  worshipper  of  the  god  Ramman.  Still, 
we  can  put  little  weight  on  this  indication  alone.  I  do,  however,  very 
decidedly  incline  to  see  Ramman  in  the  god  whom  Me"nant  calls  "  the 
pontiff."  I  am  not  quite  sure  that  I  am  not  in  error  in  supposing  that 
the  long-robed  god  with  the  zigzag  emblem  is  the  same  as  the  god  in 
the  short  robe  who  also  threatens  the  victim.  I  also  add  that  it  is  pro- 
bable that  Me"nant  is  right  in  identifying  his  short-robed  "  pontiff/7 
attacking  the  naked  victim,  with  the  conventional  form  of  the  short- 
robed  "pontiff"  in  Figured.  While  the  inscriptions  on  cylinders  are 
very  frequently  quite  unrelated  to  the  gods  figured  upon  them,  yet,  as 
I  observe  a  predominance  of  the  inscription  Samas,  Act,  on  cylinders 
which  show  the  god  with  foot  lifted,  and  the  flounced  goddess,  I  seem 
to  find  a  predominance  of  the  names  of  Ramman  and  Sala  on  cylin- 
ders that  bear  Figure  5  with  the  same  flounced  form  of  goddess,  who 
may  be  the  female  complement  to  any  god. 

In  order  to  settle  these  and  many  other  identities  connected  with  the 
cylinders,  it  is  essential  that  we  have  a  more  careful  study  of  the  attri- 
butes and  descriptions  of  the  gods  as  recorded  on  the  tablets.  We  know 
that  Merodach  carries  his  sickle-shaped  scimetar,  and  that  Samas  car- 
ries a  notched  sword :  but  the  hatchet  (probably  of  Adar),  the  zigzag 
fork,  the  bundle  of  radiating  objects,  the  light  baton  carried  across  his 
breast  by  the  short-robed  Ramman  (?)  of  Figure  5,  the  mace  or  club, 
the  ring  (probably  agu),  need  to  be  fully  identified  through  the  inscrip- 
tions, and  thus  the  gods  who  carry  them  made  known.  Until  then, 
perhaps  our  conclusions,  in  the  case  of  the  cylinders  now  under  discus- 
sion, will  remain  rather  negative  than  positive,  showing  the  failure  of 
the  evidence  for  M.  Me"nant's  very  seductive  theory,  which  would  illus- 
trate not  only  the  translation  of  a  hymn  on  human  sacrifice  offered  by 
Professor  Sayce,  but  also  II  Kings,  xvn.  31,  where  we  are  told  that 
the  men  of  Sepharvaim,  settled  in  Samaria,  burnt  their  children  to 
Adrammelech  and  Anammelech,  that  is,  Adar  and  Anu,  the  gods  of 
Sepharvaim.2 

WILLIAM  HAYES  WARD. 

New  York  CUy. 

2  The  great  debt  we  owe  to  M.  Mdnant  for  his  laborious  classification  and  explana- 
tion of  the  Oriental  cylinders  will  allow  some  correction  of  his  results  by  other  stu- 
dents, without  at  all  discrediting  the  value  of  his  original  investigations. 


A  SMALL  COLLECTION  OF  BABYLONIAN  WEIGHTS. 


A  brief  description  of  a  small  collection  of  objects  of  antiquity, 
believed  to  belong  to  the  Babylonian  system  of  weights,  will  be  found 
to  possess  a  certain  degree  of  interest. 

TABULAR  LIST  OF  THE  WEIGHTS  AND  THEIR  RELATIVE  VALUES. 


No. 

Object. 

Grammes. 

Grains 
Troy. 

Denomination. 

1. 

Lion  of  lead. 

569. 

8,780 

One  Mana. 

2. 

Tablet  of  Lead. 

67.45 

1,041 

3  Double  Staters. 

3. 

Hematite  Stone. 

154.75 

2,388 

f  £   of  Mana. 

4. 

Fusiform  hematite  stone,  in-"" 

} 

scribed,  in  cuneiform  char- 

123.33 

1,902 

4*    "       " 

acters,  "  fifteen  measures." 

\ 

5. 

Hematite  stone,  without  mar] 

t. 

14.58 

235 

T¥        "          " 

6. 

Hematite  Conoid,  marked  on 

Q  I  A 

1  9^ 

1        (i          (( 

the  base. 

O.lvJ 

LAO 

~5TJ 

7. 

Hematite  Spheroid,  marked 
on  the  base. 

6.31 

97.4 

rt§TT    "          " 

8. 

Duck  of  white  chalcedony, 

with  winged  human  figure 

5.25 

81 

20        ((           (( 

in  intaglio  on  bottom. 

9. 

Hematite  Spheroid,with  duck  | 

7  98 

1         ((           11 

cut  on  face. 

i  •  t7O 

•5W 

10. 

Square  lead,  with  design  on  face. 

1467. 

22,636 

Three  Mana. 

11. 

Square  lead,  with  figure  of 
elephant. 

i 

1012. 

15,615 

One 

Nos.  1  and  2  are  of  lead,  and,  although  of  Greek  origin,  yet,  as 
coming  from  Kyzikos,  they  have  a  place  here,  as  it  is  well  known  that 
the  early  coinage  of  Kyzikos  was  based  upon  the  Babylonian  standard. 
No.  1  is  a  square  piece  of  lead  bearing,  in  high  relief,  the  figure  of  a 
lion,  and  under  the  forepaws  the  mark  I.  Its  weight  is  569  grammes 
or  8,780  grains  Troy.  It  represents  the  Mana  of  Kyzikos,  and  is  but 
little  heavier  than  the  heaviest  of  the  lighter  Mana  weights  (561  grs.) 
published  by  Brandis.1  It  is  possible  that  by  oxidation  its  present 

1  Das  Miintz,  Mass  und  Gewichtswesen,  p.  100. 

44 


A  SMALL  COLLECTION  OF  BABYLONIAN  WEIGHTS.          45 

weight  exceeds  slightly  its  original  weight.  No.  2  is  a  small  square 
lead  tablet  bearing  the  letters  KYZ  and  TPI^  with  the  club  of  Hera- 
kles  between  them.  Its  weight  is  67.45  grammes  =  1041  grains  Troy. 
It  represents  three  double  staters,  and  shows  the  later  Babylonian 
division  by  50  instead  of  by  60.  Dividing  the  No.  1  by  50,  we  have 
W  =  11.38  gram.,  i.  e.,  175  grains ;  doubling  that,  11.38  x  2  =  22.76 
gram.  =  350  grains,  as  the  double  stater,  three  of  which  would  weigh 
1050  grains  —  68.28  gram.  The  difference  of  nine  grains  might  have 
been  caused  by  wear  and  perforation. 

No.  3  is  an  irregular  semicylindrical  hematite  stone,  polished  on  one 
side  and  perforated  near  the  end.  It  bears  no  marks  save  two  strokes 
(II)  at  the  larger  end.  Its  weight  is  154.75  gram.,  i.  e.,  2,388  grains 
Troy.  It  is  the  one  third,  or  IS,  of  a  Mana  of  7,164  grains  Troy  = 
464.25  gram.2 

No.  4  is  one  of  special  interest.  It  is  a  fusiform  hematite  stone, 
and  bears,  in  cuneiform  characters,  the  inscription  <V7 J£=T,  "fifteen 
measures  "  (or  units  of  measure).  It  is  slightly  chipped,  but,  upon 
carefully  filling  out  the  fracture  and  calculating,  by  displacement,  its 
original  weight  has  been  very  closely  ascertained.  It  has  weighed 
123.33  gram.,  i.  e.,  1902  grains  Troy.  Taking  the  unit  to  be  A  of  the 
Mana,  this  weight  represents  H,  or  one  fourth,  of  a  Mana  of  493.33 
gram.  =  7,608  grains  Troy. 

No.  5  is  similar  to  No.  4  in  shape,  but  smaller,  without  inscription, 
apparently  perfect,  save  a  slight  crack,  and  weighs  14.58  gram.  —  235 
grains  Troy ;  corresponding  very  closely  to  the  Sacred  Shekel,  or  jh  of 
the  Lighter  Mana. 

No.  6  is  a  small  hematite  conoid,  perforated,  and  marked  on  the 
base  LIJ*  and  Qfto.  Its  weight  is  8.10  gram.  =  125  gr.  Troy,  and 
is  eV  of  a  Mana. 

No.  7  is  a  small  hematite  spheroid,  perforated,  marked  on  the  base 
<sf<*Jf ,  which  I  am  as  yet  unable  to  explain  satisfactorily.  Its  weight 
is  6.31  gram.  =  97.4  gr.  Troy.  It  shows  the  secondary  division  of 
the  unit,  <n>  of  the  *o,  representing  the  rffo  of  the  Mana. 

No.  8  is  a  pretty  little  white  chalcedony  stone  duck,  perforated,  and 
having  on  the  base  the  winged  human  figure,  in  making  which  the 
lapidary  has  evidently  had  reference  to  bringing  the  stone  to  the  exact 
weight.  It  is  in  perfect  preservation,  and  I  think  may  be  taken  as  a 

2  A  green  basalt  weight  in  the  Brit.  Mus.  with  a  trilingual  inscription,  described  by 
Mr.  Budge  in  Proceedings  of  Soc.  of  Bib.  Arch.,  June  1888,  weighs  2,573  grains  Troy. 


46  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

standard  weight.     It  weighs  5.25  gram.  =  81  gr.  Troy.     It  would  be 
the  yHfo  of  a  Mana,  weighing  472.50  gram.  =  7,280  gr.  Troy. 

No.  9  is  a  small  spheroidal  perforated  hematite  stone,  with  the  en- 
graved figure  of  a  duck  or  bird,  and  some  marks  which  are  not  very 
plain.  I  am  not  quite  sure  that  it  is  a  weight/  but,  as  it  weighs  very 
nearly  8  gram.=  123.4  gr.  Troy,  and  represents  the  i?V  of  the  Mana, 
I  have  given  it  a  place  here. 

No.  10  is  a  large  square  lead,  bearing,  upon  the  face,  some  design 
which  it  is  difficult  with  certainty  to  determine ;  and,  on  the  reverse, 
two  dots,  one  larger  than  the  other.  Its  weight  is  about  1467  gram. 
=  22,636  gr.  Troy. 

No.  11  is  a  square  lead  bearing  the  figure  of  an  elephant,  but  with- 
out any  numeral  marks.  Its  weight  is  about  1,012  gram.  =  15,615  gr. 
Troy.  It  thus  corresponds  very  closely  to  the  Mana  derived  from  the 
"  Talent  of  the  King,"  as  given  by  Brandis  (op.  tit.,  p.  100) ;  and  the 
preceding  one  (No.  10)  is  so  nearly  three  times  this  weight  that  I  con- 
clude this  to  be  the  meaning  of  the  large  and  small  dot  upon  the  base. 
This  seems  to  be  very  nearly  the  normal  Mesopotamian  Mana,  and 
No.  10,  the  «&  or  &  of  the  "  Talent  of  the  King." 

The  above  described  eleven  weights,  although  presenting  the  usual 
variations,  may  serve  to  throw  some  light  upon  the  subject  of  the  rela- 
tive standards  of  Assyria,  Babylonia,  Mesopotamia,  and  Asia  Minor, 
a  subject  by  no  means  exhausted. 

ALBERT  L.  LONG. 

Robert  College,  Constantinople, 
November  15,  1888. 


NOTES. 


INSCRIPTION   FROM    KORMASA;    RAMSAY  No.  7. 

Ramsay  theilt  oben  (American  Journal  of  Archaeology,  iv,  s.  265)  eine 
Inschrift  aus  Kormasa  mit,  die  er  zweifelnd,  und  f iir  einiges  auf  Deu- 
tung  verzichtend,  so  liess :  fE/>yu%  AOVKLOV  THAAOTTOY  yvveicl  /ce 
'E/o/i-5  £&>  TTpo/jiOLptt)  dvecTTrjcre  fAvrjfjLTjs  xdpuv  '  el  jjuev  ISia  ^oiprj,  &  <j)i\e 
NEIAEXEPEI  SwXoTTOfcot?  rj\i,e  /SXeVe.  Fiir  den  Namen  der  Frau 
weiss  auch  ich  nichts  vorzuschlagen  ;  den  Schluss  mochte  ich  so  lesen  : 
el  jjuev  ISia  jjuoipr)  •  axj)ei\ev,  el  Se  ^epal  SoXoTrotofc '  rjXte  (SKeire.  " Wenn 
er  im  Folge  seiner  fj,oipr)  starb,  so  musste  es  sein,  und  wir  miissen  uns 
zufrieden  geben,  starb  er  aber  durch  Morderhand,  dann  mfe  ich  die 
allessehende  Sonne  an/7  AoXoTroto?,  das  ich  nur  aus  Sophokles  (Trachi- 
nierinnen,  832)  belegt  finde,  steht  hier  fur 


Athens,  Greece. 


PAUL  WOLTERS. 


THE  ARCHITECTURAL  INSCRIPTION  FOUND  AT  EPIDAUROS  IN  1885. 

Mr.  J.  C.  ROLFE,  a  member  of  the  School  at  Athens,  recently  read 
a  paper  there  upon  some  peculiarities  of  the  architectural  inscription 
from  Epidauros,  of  which  a  summary  has  already  been  given  in  this 
Journal,  vol.  in,  pp.  319-20.  The  stone  is  inscribed  on  both  sides, 
and,  as  a  narrow  column  is  written  beside  the  main  column  on  each 
face,  Mr.  Rolfe  concludes  that  the  whole  account  existed  in  some 
written  form  (?)  before  it  was  inscribed  on  the  marble.  He  observes 
six  divisions  in  the  document,  with  the  following  characteristics : 


i.  Lines     1—  31,  verb  form  ?}\6To ;  spurious  diphthong  ov=ou}  5  times 


23 

0 

21 

1 


ii.  Lines   31-  54, 

1 

e'Aero  ; 

i 

in.  Lines   54-  88, 

1 

e'/Aero  ; 

i 

iv.  Lines  89-112, 

1 

e  Aero  ; 

( 

v.  Lines  113-271, 

i 

e'/Aero  ; 

t 

VI.  Lines  271-305, 

i 

eAero  ; 

( 

0=0  u,  11  times. 


2 

13 
1 

16 


No.  iv  is  also  characterized  by  0=  0  15  times  out  of  76,  No.  v  by 
0=02  times  out  of  131,  No.  vi  by  0  =  0  28  times  out  of  106  ;  and 
No.  I  by  the  ethnikon  of  the  contractors  being  employed,  though  not  so 
in  the  other  divisions.  The  six  divisions  seem  to  show  a  change  of 
scribe  for  each,  and  this  change  coincides  with  periodical  payments  made 

47 


48  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

to  the  architect  at  lines  32,  54, 11 1,  but  not  at  88,  where  the  record  of  a 
payment,  Mr.  Rolfe  thinks,  may  have  been  omitted.  Another  payment 
in  line  10  would  necessitate  a  minor  division  of  No.  I  at  that  point. 


EARLY   BRONZES   DISCOVERED    IN  THE   CAVE  OF  ZEUS  ON 
MOUNT   IDA   IN    KRETE. 

The  following  notes  were  made  too  late  for  insertion  in  my  article 
in  the  last  number  of  the  Journal  (iv,  pp.  431-49). 

In  a  late  number  of  the  Journal  Asiatique  (Nov.— Dec.  1888,  p.  517), 
M.  Hal6vy  calls  attention  to  a  passage  in  a  Babylonian  hymn  to  the 
sun,  in  which  he  finds  the  Babylonian  original  of  the  Hebrew  word 
for  ark,  rDfl.  It  is  also  interesting  as  giving  a  description  of  the 
Babylonian  Sacred  tree,  from  which  the  Assyrian  tree  was  doubtless 
derived :  it  shows  that,  while  with  the  latter  it  was  especially  connected 
with  Assur,  with  the  Babylonians  it  was  connected  with  Samas,  the 
sun-god.  The  lines  are  translated  as  follows  : 

"  I  invoke  thee,  o  sun-god  in  the  midst  of  the  clear  heavens, 
Thou  restest  in  the  shade  of  the  cedar ; 
Thy  feet  (=  thy  rays)  rest  on  the  cypress  chest  (=  ark)." 

It  would  be  interesting  to  collect  the  passages  in  Babylonian  litera- 
ture that  refer  to  the  Sacred  tree. 

The  peculiarity,  noted  on  p.  444,  in  the  Shield  of  the  Goats,  of  revers- 
ing the  animals  in  each  zone  so  that  half  have  their  backs  and  half  the 
feet  turned  toward  the  centre  of  the  shield,  had  already  been  noted  by 
Perrot,  in  the  votive  shield  from  Lake  Van  which  he  reproduces  in 
fig.  225  of  vol.  ii.  He  speaks  of  it  as  aa  curious  arrangement  of  which 
we  can  point  to  no  other  example."  Perhaps  Perrot's  theory  of  the 
Assyrian  origin  of  this  class  of  objects  is  the  one  which  has  the  great- 
est probability. 

Another  example  where  Izdubar  holds  the  lion  over  his  head  is  on 
a  cylinder  published  in  Lajard,  Quite  de  Mithra,  pi.  xxv,  No.  3. 

A.  L.  FEOTHINGHAM,  JR. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 


ORIENTAL   ARCHEOLOGY. 

EENEST  BABELON.  Manuel  d' Archeologie  Orientate.  Chaldee — Assy- 
rie — Perse — Syrie  — Judee — Phenicie — Carthage.  [Biblioth£que 
de  TEnseignement  des  Beaux-Arts]  8vo,  pp.  318.  Paris,  1888, 
Quantin. 

About  a  year  ago,  M.  Maspero  published,  in  this  excellent  series,  a  volume 
on  Egyptian  Archseology :  the  present  volume  is  its  fellow,  and  the  two 
together  cover  the  entire  history  of  art  before  the  rise  of  Greece.  M. 
Babelon  has  been  well  prepared  for  the  task  by  special  studies,  as  shown 
in  his  extremely  competent  revision  and  continuation  of  Lenormant's  great 
work :  Histoire  aneienne  de  V  Orient.  As  he  remarks,  there  were  two  artistic 
currents  in  the  ancient  East,  one  originating  in  Egypt,  the  other  in  Meso- 
potamia ;  in  them  all  other  minor  streams  of  artistic  development  have 
their  source.  M.  Babelon  here  treats  of  the  second  of  these  great  currents 
in  all  its  ramifications. 

i.  Babylonian  art.  In  this  chapter,  the  writer  founds  himself  almost 
entirely  on  the  results  of  the  excavations  by  M.  de  Sarzec  at  Telloh,  and 
discusses  the  subject  under  the  heads  of  (a)  architecture,  (b)  statues  and 
reliefs,  (c)  small  sculpture  and  industrial  arts,  (d)  glyptics.  A  careful 
description  is  given  of  the  palace  at  Telloh,  and  the  theory  of  the  invention 
and  use  of  the  dome  and  vault  by  the  Babylonians  is  adopted,  on  grounds 
which  to  us  are  quite  inconclusive.  It  appears,  however,  that  in  its  ground- 
plan  at  least  the  Babylonian  royal  palace  was  the  prototype  of  the  Assyrian. 
The  various  stages  in  the  development  of  early  Babylonian  sculpture  from 
about  3000  to  2000,  as  shown  by  the  Telloh  sculptures,  are  clearly  given, 
as  well  as  the  later  style  during  the  period  of  decline. 

ii.  Assyrian  art.  Under  (a)  architecture,  we  have  chapters  on  the  ele- 
ments of  construction,  showing  how  the  Assyrians,  having  stone  quarries 
near  at  hand,  made  a  considerable  use  of  stone  to  face  their  brick  walls,  and 
so  had  the  advantage  over  the  Babylonians,  who  were  confined  to  bricks 
and  could  procure  stone  only  from  foreign  quarries ;  and  that  the  usual 
method  of  covering  spaces  was  by  vaults  and  domes,  both  Babylonians  and 
Assyrians  making  but  a  sparing  use  of  free  supports.  Sargon's  palace  is 
naturally  taken  as  the  type,  but  other  phases  of  Assyrian  architecture  are 
treated  under  the  heads  of  many-storied  temples  and  towers,  and  cities  and 
their  fortifications.  In  his  treatment  of  (b)  statuary  and  sculpture  in  relief, 
4  49 


50  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

the  writer  is  at  home  in  the  characteristics  of  the  different  periods  and  in 
the  general  style,  but  is  somewhat  prone  to  minimize  its  excellencies  and 
enlarge  on  its  defects.  There  are  other  chapters  on  works  in  metal;  works 
in  wood  and  ivory ;  on  leather  and  stuffs ;  and  on  jewelry  and  cylinders. 

in.  Persian  art.  For  Persian,  as  for  Babylonian  art,  perhaps  the  most 
important  studies  and  excavations  have  been  made  by  a  Frenchman.  The 
writer's  review  of  this  branch  of  his  subject  is  founded  in  great  part  on  M. 
Dieulafoy's  Art  Antique  de  la  Perse  and  his  excavations  at  Susa,  as  well  as 
the  great  worl£  of  Flandin  and  Coste.  There  are  chapters  on  civil  archi- 
tecture, on  sculpture,  on  painting  and  enamel  work,  on  religious  and  sepul- 
chral monuments,  and  on  engraved  stones  and  jewelry. 

IV.  The  Hittites.  In  treating  of  Hittite  archaeology,  the  writer  divides 
it  into  (a)  the  monuments  of  Syria,  a  mere  barbarous  reproduction  of  Assyr- 
ian art ;  (6)  those  of  Kappadokia,  which  show  a  compromise  between  the 
influences  of  Egypt  and  Assyria,  though  the  latter  is  especially  strong ;  and 
(c)  those  of  Asia  Minor. 

v.  Jewish  art.  The  temple  of  Jerusalem  is  restored  according  to  M.  de 
Vogue's  theories,  which  are  closely  followed  in  every  respect.  The  decora- 
tion and  furniture  of  the  temple,  the  civil  architecture  and  the  tombs,  are 
treated  separately. 

vi.  Phoenician  and  Kypriote  art.  The  temples,  of  which  so  little  is  known , 
the  better-known  civil  architecture,  the  tombs,  sculpture  in  its  different 
phases  and  periods,  especially  in  Kypros,  and  keramics,  glass,  bronzes,  jew- 
elry and  engraved  stones,  are  summarily  exhibited  in  as  many  chapters. 

The  method  of  the  book  is  clear,  the  style  pleasant,  the  erudition  sure,  the 
correspondence  of  parts  good,  and  the  illustrations  numerous,  well-chosen, 
and,  though  small,  are  executed  with  accuracy  and  artistic  delicacy.  It 
will  serve  admirably  as  a  text-book. 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 

ISAAC  BLOCK.    Inscriptions  tumulaires  des  anciens  cimetidres  Israelites 

d'Alger.     8vo,  pp.  ni-142.     Paris,  1888. 

The  first  three  chapters  are  devoted  to  an  historical  account  of  the  Jewish 
cemeteries  of  Algiers.  These  are  followed  by  a  description  of  forty-eight 
sepulchral  slabs  with  the  text  and  translation  of  their  inscriptions,  which 
are  sometimes  bilingual,  Hebrew  and  Spanish.  To  this  is  added  a  full  bio- 
graphy and  bibliography  of  the  persons  buried  under  these  slabs,  beginning 
in  the  xm  century. — H.  D.  DE  GRAMMONT  in  Revue  Critique,  1889,  No.  3. 

GUIL.  BUECHNER.  De  Neocoria.  8vo,pp.l32.  Giessen,  1888,  Kicker. 

This  is  a  treatise  on  the  obscure  question  of  the  Asiatic  cities  called,  on 

inscriptions  or  coins,  neocoria,  because  they  possessed  one  or  more  temples 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  51 

of  the  Caesars.  The  writer  studies  the  relation  between  the  neocoriat  and 
the  provincial  cultus.  A  double  list  of  cities  called  neocoria  and  of  metro- 
fpolia  shows  many  names  in  common :  the  writer  concludes  that  every  neo- 
coriat city  must  have  had  a  temple  for  provincial  cultus.  Sometimes  the 
title  of  neocoria  indicated  not  imperial  worship  but  that  of  some  local 
divinity.  A  careful  and  tedious  examination  of  the  coins  enables  the 
writer  to  settle  approximately  the  time  when  the  Asiatic  cities  became 
neocoria.  An  appendix  is  devoted  to  the  priests  of  the  provinces  of  Asia. 
Contrary  to  Waddington  and  Marquardt,  he  proves  that  there  was  not  one 
high-priest  of  Asia  with  delegates  in  all  the  cities  of  the  KOLVOV  'Ao-i'as,  but 
as  many  high-priests  as  there  were  provincial  temples.  The  work  is  care- 
ful and  solid. — S.  REINACH,  in  Revue  Critique,  1889,  No.  3. 

W.  M.  FLINDERS  PETRIE,  with  chapters  by  A.  S.  MURRAY  and  F. 
LL.  GRIFFITH.  Tanis.  Part  II,  1886.  Nebesheh  (Am)  and  Defen- 
neh  (Tahpanhes).  Fourth  memoir  of  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund. 
4to,  pp.  44  with  xn  pis.;  and  pp.  vm-116  with  LI  pis.  London, 
1888,  Triibner. 

The  first  part  of  this  memoir,  on  Tanis,  is  a  continuation  of  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  monuments,  commenced  in  Tanis  I,  and  there  discontinued  in 
the  midst  of  the  monuments  of  Ramessu  II.  The  descriptions  are  minute 
and  careful,  and  include  monuments  of  Merenptah,  Ramessu  III,  Siamen, 
Sheshonk  III,  Taharka,  and  the  Ptolemaic  period.  A  chapter  by  Mr. 
Griffith  is  devoted  to  translations  of  the  inscriptions  published  in  both  Tanis 
volumes.  Nos.  1-65  are  from  Tanis  I,  and  include  Pepi  I  (vi  dynasty), 
Amenemhat  I  (on  his  statue),  Usertesen  I  (on  his  statues),  Usertesen  II, 
Amenemhat  II  (all  of  the  xn  dynasty) ;  Sebekhetep,  Mermashau  (xin 
dyn.),  Apepi,  the  Hyksos ;  a  quantity  of  inscriptions  of  Ramessu  II  and 
Merenptah.  Nos.  66-174  are  given  in  the  plates  of  this  volume.  This 
series  of  inscriptions  forms  almost  a  corpus  of  the  inscriptions  of  the  great 
temple  of  Tanis.  From  them  Mr.  Griffith  draws  conclusions,  (1)  as  to 
the  local  worship  of  Tanis,  (2)  as  to  the  position  of  Tanis  in  the  political 
geography  of  Egypt,  (3)  as  to  the  history  of  the  kings. 

The  succeeding  monograph  is  on  Tell  Nebesheh.  Chapter  i  deals  with 
its  position  and  history.  It  borders  on  the  salt  swamps  which  surround  the 
marshes  of  lake  Menzaleh,  8  miles  s.  E.  of  San  =  Tanis,  and  is  on  land  which 
has  been  so  lowered  and  denuded  by  the  wind,  in  the  course  of  ages,  that 
in  most  cases  the  foundations  of  subterranean  tombs  have  been  carried 
away.  This  fact,  common  throughout  this  low  region  of  Egypt,  accounts 
for  the  absence  of  early  monuments,  as  the  level  has  been  lowered  some- 
times as  much  as  15  feet.  The  monuments  of  the  vi  and  xn  dynasties 


52  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

have  usually  been  swept  away  many  centuries  ago,  as  those  of  the  xix  and 
even  of  the  xxvi  dynasty  are  often  entirely  destroyed.  The  name  of  the 
ancient  city  was  Am,  capital  of  the  xix  nome  (Am  Pehu)  of  Lower  Egypt. 
It  seems  to  have  been  settled  at  the  same  time  as  its  neighbor  Tanis,  un- 
der the  xu  dynasty,  Am  being  perhaps  the  legal  and  religious  capital, 
while  Tanis  was  superior  in  size  and  civic  importance.  The  temple  of 
Am,  founded  in  the  xu  dynasty  or  earlier,  was  completely  rearranged  by 
Ramessu  II,  who  reestablished  there  the  worship  of  Uati,  dedicating  a 
beautiful  statue  of  that  goddess  and  a  pair  of  colossi  of  himself,  covering 
the  walls  with  inscriptions,  and  erecting  clustered  columns  like  those  of 
Gurneh.  The  general  resemblance  between  these  two  temples  is  remarkable. 
Tanis  and  Am  alternated  in  favor.  Tanis  was  neglected  during  the  Renas- 
cence, but  rose  under  the  Boubastites ;  while  Am  was  then  neglected,  but 
recovered  under  the  Saites,  when  Tanis  was  neglected ;  while,  under  the 
Ptolemies  and  Romans,  Tanis  nourished  and  Am  fell  to  ruin.  Chapter  n  is 
devoted  to  the  temples,  of  which  there  are  two,  one  large  and  one  small. 
In  front  of  the  propylon  of  the  temenos  stood  a  monument  of  Merenptah, 
unique  in  being  a  column  of  red  granite  around  which  were  carved  scenes 
of  adoration  and  offering,  while  on  its  summit  stood  a  group  of  the  king 
kneeling  overshadowed  by  a  hawk.  The  smaller  temple  was  built  by 
Aahmes  II.  There  are  some  inscriptions  of  the  "  chief  of  the  chancellors 
and  royal  seal-bearer,"  who  have  a  series  of  scarabs  like  those  of  the  kings 
of  the  xn-xiv  dynasties :  these  viceroys  occupy  a  unique  position  in  Egyp- 
tian history  and  were  probably  the  native  viziers  of  Hyksos  kings.  This 
is  used  to  explain  the  appointment  of  Joseph,  which  "  was  not  an  extra- 
ordinary act  of  an  autocrat,  but  the  filling  up  of  a  regular  office  of  the 
head  of  the  native  administration."  Chapter  in  is  on  the  cemetery.  The 
earliest  tombs  were  of  the  xix  and  xx  dynasties,  the  latest,  of  the  Persian 
period.  The  tombs  belong  to  two  if  not  three  classes :  (1)  the  great  hashes 
or  chamber-tombs,  built  on  the  surface  and  rising  to  a  height  of  10  or  15 
feet,  the  earliest  of  which  appear  to  belong  to  the  xxvi  dynasty  ;  (2)  sub- 
terranean tombs,  with  wells  of  access  ;  (3)  a  development  of  the  subter- 
ranean tombs,  consisting  of  large  square  hollows  lined  with  brick  walls 
and  having  stone  chambers  built  in  the  space.  Among  the  later  tombs  are 
two  important  contemporary  but  extremely  distinct  classes — the  Kypriote 
and  the  Saitic.  The  former  are  so  called  from  the  pottery  found  in  them. 
Chapter  iv  treats  of  the  town,  in  which,  though  several  long  lines  of  street 
may  be  followed,  the  houses  are  mostly  separate  insulae.  Chapter  v,  by  Mr. 
Griffith,  analyses  the  inscriptions,  and  describes  the  ushabti  or  figurines 
of  limestone,  sandstone,  red  pottery  and  glazed  ware ;  the  statuary  and 
sarcophagi.  In  Chapter  vi,  Mr.  Griffith  gives  an  account  of  the  excava- 
tions at  the  small  mound  of  Gemaiyemi,  3?  miles  N.  w.  of  Nebesheh,  where 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  53 

a  temenos  and  temple  were  found  with  foundation  deposits,  vases,  bronzes, 
models,  etc.,  of  Ptolemaic  or  Roman  periods.  It  was  evidently  the  place 
of  residence  of  a  group  of  artistic  workers  whose  unfinished  and  less  port- 
able work  has  here  been  discovered.  Chapters  vii-xin  are  devoted  to 
Defenneh.  "In  the  sandy  desert  bordering  on  Lake  Menzaleh,  some 
hours  distant  on  the  one  hand  from  the  cultivated  Delta  and  on  the 
other  hand  from  the  Suez  canal,  stand  the  ruins  of  the  old  frontier  for- 
tress of  Tahpanhes,  Taphne,  Daphnai,  or  Defenneh,  built  to  guard  the 
highway  into  Syria,"  where  the  fort  still  remaining  was  built  by  Psamtik  I 
of  the  xxvi  dynasty,  and  garrisoned  by  the  Ionian  and  Karian  merce- 
naries. It  was  built  c.  664  B.  c.  It  became  the  rallying  place  for  the 
Jewish  emigrants  fleeing  from  Judaea  and  the  Babylonian  king,  the  great- 
est emigration  being  recorded  in  the  well-known  text  of  Jeremiah.  Here 
Nebuchadnezzar  spread  his  royal  pavilion  at  the  time  of  his  invasion, 
on  the  vast  platform,  or  surrounding  open  court,  at  the  place  where  Jere- 
miah, at  the  command  of  Jehovah,  had  taken  great  stones  and  hidden  them 
in  the  mortar.  Chapter  vm  treats  of  the  Kasr  and  camp.  The  ruined 
mass  of  the  fort  is  popularly  known  by  the  name  of  Kasr-el-bint-el- 
Yehudi,  "  the  palace  of  the  Jew's  daughter,"  and  is  another  instance  of  the 
exactness  and  long  continuance  of  popular  traditions,  as  it  reminds  us  that 
the  "  king's  daughters  "  dwelt  there.  The  most  important  find  in  the  fort 
was  that  of  the  foundation  deposits  of  Psamtik  I,  the  oldest  and  finest  yet 
discovered.  Chapter  ix,  on  the  pottery,  is  pf  unusual  interest,  as  it  is  the 
complement  of  the  work  at  Naukratis,  and  is  important  for  the  history  of 
Greek  painted  pottery.  The  types  most  usual  at  Naukratis  are  absent  at 
Defenneh,  and  vice  versa ;  and  there  seems  good  reason  to  believe  that 
several  classes  of  the  pottery  of  Defenneh  were  made  in  the  country.  Their 
age  is  certain :  it  is  included  within  the  hundred  years  which  elapsed  between 
the  foundation  of  the  fort,  c.  665,  and  the  complete  removal  of  the  Greeks 
by  Aahmes,  c.  565.  The  dates  given  to  varieties  of  the  Naukratis  ware, 
between  565  and  595,'  are  sustained  by  corresponding  varieties  at  Defen- 
neh, which,  as  seen  above,  must  date  from  the  same  period.  Mr.  Murray 
publishes,  in  Chapter  x,  some  interesting  observations  on  some  of  the  Defen- 
neh vase-paintings,  mostly  of  the  archaic  black-figured  ware.  One  frag- 
ment is  noticed  in  detail  as  having  a  striking  likeness  to  scenes  on  the 
Francois  vase.  Chapter  xi  is  devoted  to  the  small  antiquities,  and  Chap- 
ter xn  to  the  weights.  In  the  latter,  a  very  important  general  study  of 
ancient  weights  is  made,  accompanied  by  elaborate  catalogued  tables.  At 
Naukratis,  874  were  found ;  at  Nebesheh,  only  21 ;  while,  at  Defenneh, 
the  supply  was  inexhaustible.  In  all,  over  4000  weighings  were  performed. 
Some  of  the  weights  were  of  stone,  but  the  great  majority  were  of  metal. 
The  standards  used  were  found  to  be  the  following :  Egyptian  kat  standard  ; 


54  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Assyrian  shekel  standard ;  Attic  drachma  standard ;  Aiginetan  drachma 
standard ;  Phoenician  shekel  standard ;  Eighty-grain  standard ;  Persian 
siglos  standard  ;  Koman  uncia  standard  ;  Arab  dirhem  standard.  There 
are  three  interesting  plates  of  curves.  PI.  XLVIII  shows  the  "  Naukratis 
curves  of  weights,  1885  and  1886  " :  pi.  XLTX  the  "  Defenneh  curves  of 
weights,"  and  pi.  L  the  "comparisons  of  curves"  (1)  of  (a)  Naukratis,  (6) 
Defenneh,  and  (c)  all  previous  collections ;  (2)  of  the  (a)  Naukratis  Assyr- 
ian X  -1/,  (6)  Asiatic  Assyrian  X  -V6-,  (c)  Naukratis  Phoenician,  (d) 
Asiatic  Phoenician ;  and  (3)  of  the  (a)  Naukratis  Assyrian  X  |,  (6)  the 
Asiatic  Assyrian  X  f ,  and  the  (c)  "  Eighty  grain."  The  conclusion  is 
drawn,  that,  for  the  later  periods  of  Egyptian  history,  there  were  different 
families  of  kat  weights,  perpetuated  and  transmitted  without  their  arche- 
types ever  being  quite  masked  in  the  process,  and  that  these  families  were 
distributed  throughout  the  country.  The  origin  of  the  different  standards 
is  discussed  in  detail.  The  last,  Chapter  xm,  is  on  the  site  called  Qan- 
tarah,  by  Mr.  Griffith.  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 

H.  POGNON.  Les  Inscriptions  Babyloniennes  du  Wady  Brissa.  Ou- 
vrage  accompagne"  de  14  planches.  R.  8vo,  pp.  22  and  199.  Paris, 
1887,  Vieweg. 

For  the  past  ten  years,  M.  Pognon  has  been  a  constant  contributor  to 
Assyriological  study  and  literature.  His  government  positions  in  the  East 
have  given  him  exceptional  opportunities  for  study  and  original  investiga- 
tion in  this  line.  Previous  to  the  publication  of  the  work  in  hand,  he  has 
given  us  LJ  Inscription  de  JSavian  (1879)  and  Inscription  de  Merou-Nerar 
Ier  (1884).  Both  of  these  works  were  close  critical  studies  of  the  inscriptions 
named,  and  were  contributions  of  a  very  decided  nature  to  Assyriology. 

This  new  work  contains  inscriptions  which  are  now  published  for  the 
first  time.  Their  originals  are  found  in  the  Lebanon  Mountains,  about 
two  days'  march  east  of  Tripoli  of  Syria.  Two  hours  north  of  the  village 
of  Hermel,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Orontes  river,  is  found  Wady  Brissa. 
One  and  one-half  hours  up  this  wady  brings  one  to  the  Babylonian  inscrip- 
tions published  by  M.  Pognon.  On  the  right  side  of  the  wady,  upon  the 
rock-wall,  the  inscription  is  written  in  archaic  Babylonian  characters.  On 
the  left  side  of  the  wady,  the  inscription,  not  identical  with  that  of  the 
right  side,  is  written  in  the  cursive,  or  later,  Babylonian  characters.  On 
the  right  side,  a  rectangular  space  about  16  ft.  X  10  ft.  had  been  chiselled 
out  and  polished  down  to  a  smooth  surface,  to  receive  the  inscription.  Upon 
this  surface,  however,  are  seen  the  remains  of  a  basrelief.  The  dim  out- 
lines of  a  man  in  an  erect  position,  seizing  an  animal,  probably  a  lion, 
which  stands  on  his  hind  feet  and  raises  one  paw  to  strike  his  adversary, 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  55 

are  readily  discernible.  This  relief  occupies  the  extreme  left  of  prepared 
space.  Over  and  under  this  figure,  and  filling  all  the  available  space,  are 
found  nine  columns  of  inscriptions.  The  entire  surface  has  been  badly 
mutilated  by  the  natives,  supposing  that  it  marked  hidden  treasures.  In 
fact,  the  lower  border  of  rough  rock  which  encloses  the  whole  space  has 
been  entirely  cut  away,  even  below  the  level  of  the  ground.  The  entire 
inscription  contains  291  lines  and  parts  of  lines. 

On  the  left  side  of  the  wady,  the  rock-wall  had  been  prepared  in  like 
proportions.  Upon  the  surface  is  found  the  Babylonian  inscription  in 
cursive  characters.  It  is  in  a  much  better  state  of  preservation  than  its 
mate.  Upon  this  surface  also,  one  notes  the  remains  of  a  basrelief.  It 
seems  to  have  been  a  man  standing  before  a  leafless  tree.  The  remaining 
fragments  of  the  relief  are  simply  the  top  of  the  tree,  and  the  tiara  of  the 
man.  The  scribe  of  this  inscription  had  miscalculated.  The  inscription 
not  only  covers  all  the  prepared  rectangle  at  his  disposal,  but,  of  its  ten 
columns,  between  three  and  four  are  written  upon  the  rock  outside  of  the 
originally  prepared  space.  Of  this  inscription  we  have  intact  420  lines 
and  parts  of  lines :  so  that  the  two  inscriptions  give  us  about  700  lines 
of  additional  Babylonian  inscriptions  from  the  time  of  Nebuchadnezzar. 

The  archaic  inscription  contains  very  little  that  will  add  to  our  knowl- 
edge of  Nebuchadnezzar.  The  principal  theme  is  his  loyalty  to  the  gods, 
in  worship,  festivals,  and  restoration  of  temples,  palaces,  and  Babylon. 
In  the  third  column  there  is  a  digression  for  Nebuchadnezzar,  in  that  men- 
tion is  made  of  an  expedition  over  difficult  ways  and  across  the  desert. 
The  cursive-character  inscription  repeats  somewhat  from  the  archaic.  But 
there  is  a  considerable  amount  of  material  found  only  here.  Nebuchad- 
nezzar constructed  a  levee  between  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates.  He  made 
an  expedition  into  the  mountains  of  Lebanon — and  here  the  inscription  is 
too  mutilated  to  be  made  out.  Undoubtedly,  if  the  inscription  were  intact, 
we  should  here  find  an  exception  to  Nebuchadnezzar's  supposed  rule  in 
his  inscriptions.  We  should  discover  a  detailed  account  of  his  sieges  and 
victories  in  the  West. 

In  his  translation,  M.  Pognon  leaves  large  numbers  of  ideograms  unread 
and  unpronounced,  especially  in  the  enumeration  of  the  articles  received 
as  tribute,  and  the  offerings  to  the  gods.  This  method  is  rather  more  com- 
mendable than  that  employed  by  the  Rev.  C.  J.  Ball,  M.  A.,  in  his  trans- 
lations of  the  Nebuchadnezzar  inscriptions  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society 
of  Biblical  Archceology  (vol.  x,  No.  2,  pp.  87-129 ;  No.  3,  pp.  215-30 ;  No. 
4,  pp.  290-99 ;  No.  7,  pp.  359-68).  M.  Pognon  asserts  his  substantial  agree- 
ment with  M.  Halevy  in  the  belief  that  there  is  no  such  language  as  the 
Accadian.  This  belief  is  gaining  ground  constantly,  and  counts  among  its 
adherents  to-day  even  the  learned  author  of  the  new  Assyrisches  Wb'rterbuch, 
Professor  Friedrich  Delitzsch  of  Leipzig. 


56  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The  first  22  pages  of  our  work  are  printed  and  contain  the  author's  trans- 
lations. Next  follow  123  pages  of  philological  notes  on  the  inscription. 
The  most  uncommon  ideograms  then  follow  on  20  pages.  The  phonetic 
words  expressed  in  cuneiform  characters  are  then  arranged,  on  53  pages, 
after  the  order  of  the  Hebrew  and  Arabic  alphabet.  This  arrangement 
and  expression  of  the  words  is  too  mechanical  and  stilted.  It  would  be 
much  more  simple  and  plain  to  every  one,  and  serve  all  its  ends  as  well, 
if  expressed  in  Latin  characters.  All  the  foregoing,  except  22  pages,  is 
autographed  in  a  clear  and  beautiful  hand.  Four  phototype  plates  then 
follow,  giving  two  views  of  each  side  of  the  wady  where  the  inscriptions 
are  found.  They  are  not  first-class  in  workmanship,  and  give  one  but  a 
poor  idea  of  the  things  they  attempt  to  present.  Ten  folding  autograph 
facsimile  plates  give  us  in  a  clear,  steady,  strong  hand  the  whole  body  of 
inscriptions,  both  archaic  and  cursive.  They  are  a  real  and  valuable  con- 
tribution to  the  already  large  number  of  inscriptions  belonging  to  the  time 
of  Nebuchadnezzar. 

IRA  M.  PRICE. 

Morgan  Park,  III. 

CLASSICAL  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

P.  H.  ANTICHAN.    Grands  voyages  de  decouvertes  des  Anciens.     8vo, 

pp.  318.     Delagrave,  Paris. 

The  first  half  of  the  volume  deals  with  mythical  voyages,  the  Argonauts, 
the  Odyssey,  the  Aeneid — the  second  half  deals  with  Alexander's  Journey 
to  India,  the  voyages  of  the  Phoenicians,  Himilco,  Pytheas,  Hanno,  the 
voyage  under  Necho,  Sataspes'  travels,  Skylax,  Eudoxos,  Polybios,  the 
Ptolemaic  geography,  and  the  traditions  of  the  Atlantidai.  By  no  means 
uncritical,  the  little  volume  is  simple,  intelligible  and  well-written. — Berl. 
phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  52. 

HUGO  BLUMNER.    Uber  die  Bedeutung  der  antiken  DenJcmdler  als  Jcul- 
turhistorische.    Rede,  gehalten  am  28  April  1888  beim  Antritte  des 
Rektorats.    R.  8vo,  pp.  28.    Meyer  u.  Zeller,  Zurich,  1888. 
Following  his  predecessor's  energetic  appeal  for  the  retention  of  the 
ancient  languages  in  the  gymnasial  curriculum,  Dr.  Bliimner  emphasizes 
the  importance  of  the  study  of  ancient  art  in  connection  with  the  literary 
and  historical  study  of  ancient  authors.     To-day,  when  discoveries  are 
being  made  in  Greece  which  give  new  solutions  to  old  problems  and  raise 
new  questions,  no  philologist  can  deny  that  the  monuments  are  of  the  high- 
est importance  in  furnishing  material  in  the  departments  of  political  his- 
tory, religion,  and  mythology,  and,  more  than  all,  in  the  history  of  culture. 
—OTTO  KERN  in  Woch.f.  Uass.  Phil,  1889,  No.  4. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  57 

HEINRICH  BRUNN.  Geschichte  der  grieehischen  Kunstler.  Zweite 
Auflage.  Vollstandig  in  circa  fiinfzehn  Lieferungen.  Ebner  und 
Seubert,  Stuttgart,  1889. 

This  is  a  reproduction  of  the  first  edition  without  changes,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  a  new  paging  and  the  introduction  of  a  few  typographical  errors. 
It  will  place  the  book  on  the  market  for  less  money,  but  otherwise  interests 
no  one.  The  ground  broken  by  Brunn  thirty  years  ago  has  produced  so 
much  fruit  in  the  knowledge  of  Greek  art  and  artists  that  it.is  greatly  to 
be  regretted  that  the  history  of  art,  for  which  his  history  of  artists  was 
considered  only  as  preparatory,  has  not  yet  made  its  appearance.  If,  in 
the  new  edition,  merely  the  names  of  artists  recently  discovered  or  a  com- 
pendium of  recent  literature  were  given,  these  would  be  additions  of  value. 
— F.  KOEPP  in  Berl  phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  49. 

ROBERT  BURN.  Roman  Literature  in  relation  to  Roman  Art.  Pp.  x— 
315,  with  illustrations.  London,  1888,  Macmillan. 
The  object  of  the  author  is  to  show  how  some  of  the  erroneous  tendencies 
in  Roman  history  and  glyptic  art  had  their  origin  in  the  national  charac- 
ter and  circumstances.  There  are  five  essays,  on  (1)  Portraiture ;  (2)  His- 
torical and  National  Tendencies ;  (3)  Composite  and  Colossal  Art ;  (4) 
Technical  Finish  and  luxurious  Refinement;  (5)  Romano-Greek  archi- 
tecture. The  conclusion  is,  to  find  in  the  Romans  extreme  realism,  a  pon- 
derous love  of  detail,  a  tendency  towards  the  colossal,  and  over-refinement 
and  the  display  of  technical  skill.  The  final  chapter  on  architecture  is 
good,  and  taken  mostly  from  the  author's  previous  work,  Rome  and  the 
Campagna. — CECIL  SMITH  in  Classical  Review,  Nov.  1888. 

HANS  DROYSEN.  Kriegsaltertkumer.  I  Halfte.  Aus  Hermann's  Lehr- 
buch  der  griech.  Antiquitaten.  n.  2,  1.  pp.  184.  Neuhersg.  von 
Bliimner  u.  Dittenberger.  Freiburg  in  B. 

This  work  is  distinguished  from  other  treatises  on  the  subject,  except 
Riistow  u.  Kochlys's  Geschichte  des  grieehischen  Kriegswesens,  in  making 
the  art  of  war  of  primary  and  political,  and  other  issues  of  secondary,  im- 
portance. The  first  book  treats  of  weapons,  classes  of  troops,  and  elementary 
tactics  of  the  Greeks  ;  the  second,  of  the  art  and  conduct  of  war  until  the 
time  of  Philip  of  Macedon  ;  the  third,  from  Philip  to  Pyrrhos  ;  the  fourth, 
of  the  Hellenistic  period.  It  is  more  comprehensive  and  more  critical  than 
Riistow  and  Kochlys. — ADOLF  BAUER  in  Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  40. 

C.  HASSE.    Wiederherstellung  antiker  Bildwerke.    Zweites  Heft.    Mit 
7  lithographierten  Tafeln.    Fol.,  pp.  21.    Jena,  1888,  G.  Fischer. 
It  is  a  cause  for  congratulation  when  an  anatomist  undertakes  recon- 
structions of  ancient  sculpture,  as  he  is  usually  in  a  better  position  than 


58  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

an  artist  or  an  archaeologist  to  determine  from  the  muscular  indications  how 
the  original  design  was  executed.  Such  attempts,  however,  made  upon 
anatomical  considerations  alone  are  not  always  successful,  as,  for  instance, 
the  reconstruction  of  the  Aphrodite  of  Melos,  suggested  by  Hasse  himself 
in  1882.  It  were  better  also  in  the  present  attempts,  if  our  author  had 
made  more  careful  use  of  archaeological  literature.  For  the  reconstruction 
of  the  Ilioneus,  he  brings  forward  no  new  material,  and  acknowledges  his 
incapacity  to  determine  it  in  the  absence  of  the  head.  In  restoring  the 
Torso  Belvidere,  anatomical  considerations  determine  the  position  as  one 
of  rest,  but  do  not  afford  a  basis  for  placing  in  the  left  hand  of  the  Hera- 
kles  the  apple  of  the  Hesperides. — P.  WEIZSACKER  in  Woch.  f.  klass.  Phil., 
1888,  No.  51. 

RODOLFO  LANCIANI.     Ancient  Rome  in  the  light  of  recent  discoveries. 

With  100  illustrations.    8vo,  pp.  xxix-329.   New  York,  1888. 

All  those  who  were  privileged  to  listen  to  Comm.  Lanciani's  course  of 
lectures  on  Rome,  delivered  in  this  country  during  the  winter  of  1886-87, 
will  enjoy  seeing  them  in  book  form  in  this  elegant  volume.  It  is  divided 
into  the  following  chapters :  i.  Renaissance  of  archaeological  studies.  II. 
Foundation  and  prehistoric  life  of  Rome.  in.  Sanitary  condition  of  ancient 
Rome.  iv.  Public  places  of  resort,  v.  The  Palace  of  the  Caesars,  vi. 
The  House  of  the  Vestals,  vn.  The  public  libraries  of  ancient  and  mediceval 
Rome.  vin.  Police  and  fire  department  of  ancient  Rome.  ix.  The  Tiber 
and  the  Claudian  Harbor,  x.  The  Campagna.  xi.  The  disappearance  of 
works  of  art,  and  their  discovery  in  recent  years.  Under  these  headings  the 
widest  possible  field  is  covered.  In  Rome's  history,  we  pass  from  the  time 
previous  to  its  foundation,  through  all  the  various  periods,  to  that  of  the 
present  modernizations :  we  are  also  led,  step  by  step,  not  only  through  all 
the  sections  and  groups  of  important  buildings  of  ancient  Rome,  but  to 
the  port  of  Ostia  and  over  the  Campagna.  Certain  subjects  are  dwelt  upon 
at  especial  length,  because  illustrated  by  the  more  recent  discoveries,  as, 
for  instance,  the  House  of  the  Vestals,  the  police,  the  bronze  statues,  and 
the  harbor  of  Ostia,  the  excavation  of  which  Professor  Lanciani  is  himself 
directing. 

There  is  no  claim  in  this  book  to  absolute  novelty  of  material  or  of 
opinion :  it  professes  to  be  simply  a  popular  presentation  of  the  latest 
results.  As  such  it  is  extremely  attractive  from  the  easy  style  of  the  prose, 
the  excellence  of  the  illustrations,  and  the  general  typographical  elegance. 
The  greater  part  of  the  preface  is  devoted  to  an  apology  for  the  present 
condition  of  Rome,  the  rebuilding  of  the  city  and  the  consequent  damage 
to  monuments.  It  is  no  doubt  true  that  much  exaggeration  has  been  shown 
in  the  attacks  on  the  municipality  and  the  government,  and  that  a  great 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  59 

part  of  the  harm  done  is  a  private  account  to  be  settled  between  the  specu- 
lative building  associations  and  private  owners.  In  this  part  of  his  work 
and  in  the  interesting  chapter  on  the  renaissance  of  archaeological  study, 
the  author,  through  a  tendency  to  view  the  Italian  Middle  Ages  through 
exclusively  Koman  glasses,  not  only  falls  into  the  injustice  of  stigmatizing 
the  entire  period  previous  to  the  Renaissance  as  one  of  "  barbarism " 
whose  "  poverty  and  ignorance  "  "  made  the  raising  of  new  structures 
either  difficult  or  impossible,"  thus  ignoring  even  the  share  in  an  early 
Renaissance  (of  which  Frederick  II  was  the  central  figure)  taken  by  the 
Roman  school  which  we  are  accustomed  to  individualize  under  the  name 
of  the  "  Cosmati " — but  he  also  is  led  into  giving  to  the  Tribune  Cola  di 
Renzo  the  title  of  the  first  archaeologist,  a  title  to  which  our  learned  friend 
M.  Miintz  would  probably  not  agree,  as  it  does  not  accord  with  the  mass 
of  material  which  he  has  brought  forward  to  prove  a  Renaissance  in  North 
Italy  during  the  xiv  century.  But  it  would  be  hardly  fair  to  seriously 
raise  a  question  with  the  author  regarding  a  period  which  he  has  not  made 
his  special  study.  Several  corrections  regarding  the  chapter  on  the  Pre- 
historic life  of  Rome  have  recently  appeared  in  the  N.  Y.  Nation  from  the 
pen  of  Mr.  Henry  W.  Haynes  and  others,  especially  in  regard  to  the  mis- 
take of  attributing  the  earliest  tombs  to  a  period  anterior  to  the  use  of  iron, 
i.  e.,  to  the  bronze  age.  Lanciani  is  quite  right,  according  to  the  best  evi- 
dence, in  denying  Middleton's  assertion  of  the  preexistence  of  an  Etruscan 
city  on  the  site  of  Rome,  and  in  supporting  its  Alban  origin,  so  completely 
proved  by  the  recent  discoveries  in  the  archaic  necropolis.  In  his  chapter 
on  the  obscure  question  of  the  sanitary  conditions  of  ancient  Rome,  he  is 
obliged  to  resort  to  the  vague  hypotheses  of  the  "  purifying  action  of  tel- 
luric fires,  of  sulphuric  emanations,  and  of  many  kinds  of  healing  mineral 
springs,"  in  order  to  explain  the  better  sanitary  condition  of  the  entire 
region  in  the  earliest  period  of  the  city ;  and  he  considers  the  change  for 
the  worse  to  be  due  to  the  extinction  of  volcanic  life  in  Latium.  Professor 
Lanciani  might,  however,  on  this  subject  have  used  the  results  of  the  recent 
interesting  investigations  of  the  well-known  French  archaeologist,  M.  Rene 
de  la  Blanch  ere,1  into  the  entire  system  of  drainage  of  the  region  of  the  Cam- 
pagna  in  the  neighborhood  of  Velletri  and  a  great  part  of  Latium,  employed 
by  the  pre-Roman  tribes  to  drain  off  the  infiltrating  waters  from  the  high 
lakes  into  the  sea.  In  Imperial  Rome  Professor  Lanciani  is  thoroughly  at 
home :  no  one  knows  it  better  in  a  practical  way,  through  the  experience  of 
many  years  of  personal  work,  and  the  picture  he  gives  us  of  it  is  wonder- 
fully graphic  and  real. 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 

1 A  brief  summary  of  these  investigations  is  given  in  the  Journal  of  Archaeology, 
vol.  iv,  pp.  211-12. 


60  AMERICAN  JO  UENAL  OF  AEGH^OLOQ  Y. 

MAX  MAYER.  Die  Giganten  und  Titanen  in  der  antiken  Sage  und 
Kunst.  Berlin,  1887,  Weidmann'sche  Buchhandlung. 
This  book  intends  to  be  a  contribution  to  the  study  of  Greek  religion 
and  archaeology.  It  is  ingenious  but  paradoxical,  and  unsatisfactory  from 
both  lack  of  clearness  and  narrow  range  of  hypotheses — chiefly  solar.  He 
expounds  the  myth  of  the  giant  satisfactorily,  although  he  does  not  suffi- 
ciently emphasize  their  character  as  elemental  forces.  His  chapter  on  the 
character  and  myth  of  the  Titans  contains  many  unproved  conclusions 
and  unreal  arguments.  The  writer  denies  any  early  worship  anterior  to  or 
separate  from  that  of  Zeus  as  chief  god,  and  considers  the  Titanic  person- 
ages as  hypostases  of  Zeus,  Poseidon,  or  Helios.  A  large  part  is  occupied 
with  attempts  at  a  philological  analysis  of  names  for  which  the  author 
shows  no  special  acquirements  :  he  emphasizes  unreal  contradictions,  makes 
much  of  apparent  verbal  connections,  and  attempts  to  crystallize  what  is 
vague.  Although  little  independent  archaeological  judgment  is  shown,  the 
latter  part  contains  a  valuable  compendium  of  monuments  relating  to  the 
gigantomachy. —  Classical  Review,  Nov.,  1888. 

WALTHER  MULLER.    Die  Theseusmetopen  vom  Theseion  zu  Aihen  in 
ihrem  Verhdltniss  zur  Vasenmalerei.  Ein  arehdologischerJBeitrag.  8vo, 
pp.  63.    Gottingen,  1888,  Akad.  Buchhandlung. 
After  having  compared  the  metopes  of  the  Theseion  with  the  painted 
representations  of  the  deeds  of  Theseus  by  Euphronios  and  his  school, 
Gurlitt  concluded  that  not  the  metopes  but  an  older  monumental  work, 
possibly  a  frieze  in  the  temple  of  Theseus,  afforded  the  prototype  for  the 
vase-painters.    W.  Klein,  in  his  Euphronios,  considered  these  metopes  the 
first  monumental  expression  of  the  deeds  of  Theseus,  to  which  Euphronios 
and  his  school  were  immediately  indebted.     W.  Muller  now  takes  up  the 
subject  as  a  special  question,  collects  a  large  number  of  examples  from 
vase-paintings,  and,  comparing  them  with  the  eight  metopes,  reaches  a  con- 
clusion which  coincides  with  that  of  Gurlitt. — M.  GURLITT  in  Berl.  phil. 
Woeh.,  1888,  No.  46. 

L.  PRELLER.     Griechische  Mythologie.      Vierte  Auflage  von  CARL 

EGBERT.    Bd.  I,  erste  Halfte. 

This  fourth  edition  is  a  far  greater  improvement  on  the  third  than  that 
was  on  its  predecessor,  in  thorough  revision,  alteration  and  enlargement, 
thus  increasing  the  usefulness  of  the  work  and  placing  it  abreast  of  recent 
advance  in  the  subject.  These  improvements  are  due  to  Professor  Kobert. 
His  changes  are  of  several  kinds,  e.  g. :  (1)  the  frequent  elimination  of  the 
naturalistic  origin  assigned  to  Greek  gods  by  Preller ;  (2)  a  greater  com- 
pleteness in  the  history  of  the  artistic  representation  of  each  deity ;  (3) 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  61 

the  remodelling  of  many  passages  with  fuller  literary  references  and  more 
precise  knowledge ;  (4)  the  recognition  that  cultus  does  not  change  like 
mythology,  and  is  consequently  important  for  the  study  of  early  mytho- 
logical conditions ;  (5)  numerous  additions  from  the  cults  of  Asia  Minor, 
and  a  fuller  recourse  in  general  to  the  historical  method. — W.  M.  RAMSAY 
in  Classical  Review,  Nov.,  1888. 

OTTO  PUCHSTEIN.  Das  lonische  Capitell.  Siebenundvierzigtes  Pro- 
gramm  zum  Winckelmannsfeste  der  arch.  Gesell.  zu  Berlin. 
This  is  a  critical  treatise  in  which  the  Ionic  capitals  hitherto  brought  to 
light  are  classed  according  to  the  age  and  geographical  distribution  of  the 
various  types.  Great  success  is  shown  in  the  strict  classification  into  groups, 
thus  making  evident  the  separate  influence  of  certain  forms  of  the  capital 
through  long  periods,  as  shown  in  successive  monuments.  The  writer,  how- 
ever, seems  seriously  at  fault  in  his  references  to  the  history  of  the  early 
development  into  the  perfected  Greek  Ionic  capital,  especially  in  attributing 
a  totally  different  origin  to  the  horizontal  and  vertical  spirals,  considering 
the  first  to  be  a  purely  linear  ornament,  and  the  second  a  floral  form  in 
linear  presentation. — J.  T.  CLARKE,  in  Classical  Review,  Oct.,  1888. 

ETTORE  DE  RUGGIERO.    Dizionario  epigrafico  di  antichitd,  romane. 

Fasc.  1-10  ( Abacus- Aeternus).     Roma,  Pasqualucci. 

The  first  ten  parts  form  only  the  beginning  of  this  extensive  work,  in 
which  Ruggiero  is  accomplishing  even  more  than  he  promised.  Instead 
of  the  brief  explanations  with  which  he  wished  to  accompany  the  inscribed 
monuments,  he  furnishes  us  with  thorough-going  treatises,  which  not  only 
illustrate  but  advance  the  present  condition  of  our  knowledge.  If  merely 
all  public  and  private  legal  relations  should  be  treated  with  the  same  elab- 
oration as  in  the  article  Aedilis,  divided  as  it  is  into  many  divisions  and 
subdivisions,  it  is  questionable  if  the  author  would  live  to  complete  the 
task.  Such,  however,  is  the  care  with  which  Ruggiero  has  gathered  and 
managed  his  materials,  that  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  he  will  himself  do  as 
much  of  the  work  as  is  possible.  Not  only  Italian,  but  other  epigraphical 
and  archaeological  sources  have  been  freely  utilized.  The  work  will  be 
specially  valuable  for  the  history  of  Roman  law. — A.  CHAMBALU  in  Berl. 
phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  51. 

BRUNO  SAUER.  DieAnfdngederstatuarischenGruppe.  Ein  Beitrag  zur 
Geschichte  der  griechischen  PlastiJc.     8vo,  pp.  82.    Leipzig,  1887, 
Seemann. 
After  a  brief  introduction,  the  author  considers  Greek  statuary  groups 

prior  to  the  time  of  Myron,  and  promises  to  continue  the  subject  in  a  sub- 


62  AMERICAN  JO  UENAL  OF  ARCH^EOLOG  Y. 

sequent  work.  It  is  unfortunate  that  he  leaves  out  of  sight  statuettes  and 
relief  sculpture,  and  confines  his  attention  exclusively  to  larger  sculpture 
in  the  round,  as  archaeology  has  already  suffered  sufficiently  from  the  exclu- 
sive consideration  of  the  larger  as  distinguished  from  smaller  works  of  art. 
Gable  sculptures,  for  example,  are  not  properly  understood  except  as  the 
limit  in  the  development  of  gable  reliefs.  This  should  not  be  forgotten  when 
they  are  considered  with  sculptures  which  stand  in  the  line  of  development 
of  independent  groups.  His  treatment  of  individual  groups,  especially 
that  of  the  Tyrannicides,  is  at  once  thorough  and  sympathethic. — O.  BIE 
in  Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  48. 

OTTO  SCHTJLTZ.    Die  Ortsgottheiten  in  der  grieehischen  und  roemischen 

Kunst.    8vo,  pp.  84.    Berlin,  1889,  Calvary. 

The  great  majority  of  Hellenic  divinities  preserved  to  the  end  their 
primitive  local  character,  in  particular  the  divinities  of  the  earth,  sea, 
mountains,  rivers,  and  springs.  It  is  difficult  to  recognize  them  in  works 
of  art.  The  author  distinguishes  rightly  between  personifications  of  local- 
ities (e.  g.,  river  Kladeos)  and  local  divinities  (demon  Sosipolis  in  Elis). 
Representations  of  local  divinities  increase  greatly  after  the  time  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great  with  the  increasing  taste  for  personifications  and  the 
picturesque.  The  author  makes  a  special  study  of  the  river-gods,  and 
enumerates,  to  illustrate  them,  a  quantity  of  reliefs,  paintings,  and  coins ; 
this  latter  part  being  somewhat  confused  on  account  of  a  lack  of  classifi- 
cation.— S.  REINACH  in  Revue  Critique,  1889,  No.  3. 

L.  UELICHS.    Tiber  grieehisehe  Kunstschriftsteller.   8vo,  pp.  48.   Wurz- 

burg,  1887. 

This  pamphlet  treats  of  Greek  writers  on  art  and  artists :  (1)  of  artists 
like  Polykleitos  and  Pamphilos,  who  wrote  systematic  and  technical  in- 
structions for  their  pupils ;  (2)  of  lay  writers  on  art  and  artists,  as  Duris 
of  Samos,  Xenokrates,  Antigonos  and  Polemon.  The  meaning  of  the  author 
is  not  always  clearly  expressed,  but  his  work  exhibits  sound  critical  judg- 
ment and  acquaintance  with  his  subject. —  Wocli.f.  Mass.  Phil.,  1888,  No.  44. 

MAX  ZOEKLER.    Grieehisehe  und  romisehe  Privatalterthumer.   K.  8vo, 

pp.  427.    Breslau,  1887,  Koebner. 

The  favorable  reception  given  to  the  author's  Romische  Staats-undRechts- 
alterthumer  led  to  the  publication,  two  years  later,  of  this  compendium  of 
Greek  and  Roman  private  antiquities.  The  work  shows  a  clever  arrange- 
ment of  material,  but  lacks  accuracy  and  completeness.  As  a  text-book 
it  cannot  replace  H.  Bliimner's  edition  of  K.  F.  Hermann's  Lehrbuch  der 
grieehischen  Privatalterthumer,  and  A.  Mau's  edition  of  Marquardt's  Privat- 
leben  der  Romer. — O.  SCHULTHESS  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  Phil.,  1888,  No.  44. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  63 

CHRISTIAN   ARCHEOLOGY. 

RUDOLF  EITELBERGER-ALBERT  ILG.  Quettenschriften  fur  Kunst- 
geschichte  und  Kunsttechnik  des  Mittelalters  und  der  Neuzeit.  Begrun- 
det  von  Rudolf  Eitelberger  von  Edelberg.  Fortgesetzt  von  Albert  Ilg. 
Neue  Folge.  I.  Band.  Der  Anonimo  Morelliano.  I.  Abiheilung.  Text 
und  ijbersetzung  von  Dr.  THEODOR  FRIMMEL.  8vo,  pp.  126.  Wien, 
1888,  Carl  Graeser. 

In  1871,  Rudolph  Eitelberger  began  to  publish  a  collection  of  original 
documents  illustrating  the  history  of  art  during  the  Middle  Ages  and  the 
Renaissance,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Austrian  Ministry  of  Worship 
and  Public  Instruction.  Of  this  useful  and  important  publication  eighteen 
volumes,  edited  by  various  writers,  had  appeared  in  1882  before  the  death 
of  the  general  editor.  These  included  Cennino  Cennini's  treatise ;  the 
early  mediaeval  writers,  Heraclius  and  Theophilus ;  documents  for  Byzan- 
tine art  collected  by  linger ;  Condivi's  life  of  Michelangelo ;  Leonardo  da 
Vinci's  Book  of  Painting ;  and  the  writings  of  Dolec,  Albrecht  Diirer, 
Biondo,  Alberti,  and  others.  Dr.  A.  Ilg,  a  pupil  of  Dr.  Eitelberger,  has 
now  been  charged  with  the  continuation  of  this  task  on  the  same  plan, 
except  that  the  period  succeeding  the  Renaissance  is  included.  It  is  with 
great  pleasure  that  we  find  that  those  works  which  had  remained  incom- 
plete will  be  finished,  as  this  will  involve  the  continuation  of  Dr.  Unger's 
important  collection  of  Byzantine  documents.  Among  the  works  to  be 
published  in  the  new  series  the  following  are  announced :  (1)  Morelli's 
Anonimo,  by  Dr.  Th.  Frimmel ;  (2)  Filarete's  Trattato,  by  Dr.  W.  von 
Oettingen  ;  (3)  Piero  della  Francesca's  Trattato,  by  Dr.  Sitte ;  etc. 

The  volume  before  us  includes  the  Italian  text  with  a  page-for-page 
German  translation  of  Morelli's  Anonimo,  otherwise  termed  Marcanton 
Michiel's  Notizia  d'opere  del  disegno.  This  edition  shows  a  careful  study 
of  the  one  MS.  of  the  text,  later  additions  and  corrections  being  carefully 
noted,  as  well  as  all  the  points  in  which  the  readings  differ  from  those 
adopted  in  Morelli's  and  Frizzoni's  editions.  Part  n  will  doubtless  soon 
follow  with  a  critical  treatment  of  the  text  and  its  contents,  and,  perhaps, 
interesting  attempts  at  identifications. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  book  of  the  Anonimo,  written  in  the  first  half 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  is  one  of  the  most  precious  records  of  Italian 
art  and  art  collections.  It  professes  to  be  nothing  more  than  a  summary 
description  of  monuments,  and  a  catalogue  of  works  of  art  seen  by  the 
writer ;  but  the  very  period  in  which  it  was  written  shows  its  value ;  in 
fact,  it  comes  next  to  Vasari  in  point  of  interest.  The  cities  visited  are 
Padova  (careful  descr.  of  everything  in  S.Antonio),  Cremona,  Milano,  Pavia, 


64  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Bergamo,  Crema,  and  Venezia,  the  descriptions  of  the  first  and  the  last  being 
especially  full.  The  works  of  art  in  churches  and  in  the  hands  of  private 
individuals  are  described  with  dates,  names  of  authors,  and  details  of  sub- 
ject :  whenever  the  object  was  considered  antique  it  was  so  noted.  It  will 
be  seen  that  the  theatre  of  the  author's  visits  was  North  Italy  exclusively. 
The  visits  are  sometimes  dated :  those  in  Venice  being  of  different  dates, 
in  the  years  1512,  1521,  1525,  1528,  1529, 1530,  1531,  1532,  1543. 

A.  L.  F,  JR. 

HEINRICH  HOLTZINGEE.  Handbuch  der  altchristlichen  Architektur. 
Form,  Einriehtung  und  Ausschmuckung  der  altchristlichen  Kirchen, 
Baptisterien  und  Sculptur-Bauten.  Mit  circa  180  Illustrationen. 
Vollst.  in  ca.  8  Ifgn.  Erste  Lieferung.  8vo,  pp.  48.  Stuttgart,  1889, 
Ebner  &  Seubert. 

Only  the  first  number  of  this  work  has  been  issued,  so  that  a  full  notice 
of  it  will  be  deferred  to  a  future  date.  In  the  interest,  however,  of  those 
who  are  seeking  for  a  clear,  simple,  systematic  and  masterly  exposition  of 
the  subject  of  early-Christian  architecture,  these  few  lines  are  written  in 
recommendation  of  this  book.  It  can  already  be  said  of  it,  as  is  claimed 
by  the  author,  that  here  the  subject  is  for  the  first  time  treated  from  the 
archaeological  (instead  of  from  the  purely  historical  or  aesthetic)  standpoint. 
In  this  number  we  have :  i.  Position  and  Orientation  of  the  churches,  n. 
Peribolos,  Atrium  and  Narthex,  considered  under  the  headings  of  (a)  name, 
(6)  origin,  (c)  form.  in.  The  main  building :  A.  Basilicas;  1.  The  body; 
(a)  position;  (6)  proportions;  (c)  ground-plan;  (d)  cross-section, including 
lighting,  galleries,  iv.  Single  members  of  the  construction,  such  as  piers, 
cross-arches,  columns,  columnar  orders,  shafts,  capitals,  imposts.  The  sub- 
ject is  not  only  subdivided  with  judgment  and  ingenuity,  but  is  treated  with 
clearness  and  with  a  touch  that  shows  a  thorough  mastery  of  the  material. 
In  previous  works  on  this  subject,  even  if  a  good  acquaintance  be  shown  with 
existing  monuments  not  only  in  Italy  but  in  Syria  and  Africa,  no  account 
is  taken  of  literary  sources.  This  very  important  side  of  the  subject  is  one 
to  which  Dr.  Holtzinger  has  given  great  attention  and  for  which  he  has 
collected  abundant  material.  He  makes  use  not  only  of  such  well-known 
works  as  those  of  Optatus,  Prokopios,  Eusebios,  Sokrates,  Paulinus,  the 
Liber  Pontificalis  of  Rome,  but  of  more  unusual  sources,  such  as  Coricius 
of  Gaza,  Tertullian,  many  inscriptions,  the  Liber  Pontificalis  of  Ravenna. 

This  method  makes  the  work  invaluable :  (1)  for  a  guide  in  class-room 
instruction ;  (2)  as  a  skeleton  for  the  specialist,  who  can  classify  his  notes 
under  these  headings.  Finally,  for  any  one  desiring  to  learn  about  the 
subject;  this  is  the  clearest  form  of  presentation,  though,  for  questions  of 


RE 'VIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  65 

style  and  historic  sequence,  the  reading  of  it  should  be  supplemented  by 
that  of  Reber's  handbook  or  Schnaase's,  Liibke's,  or  Kugler's,  larger  works. 

A.  L.  F.,  JR. 

CARL  NEUMANN.  Griechische  Geschichtechreiber  und  Geschichtsquetten 
im  zwolften  Jahrhundert.  8vo,  pp.  vi-105.  Leipzig,  1888,  Duncker 
u.  Hurnblot. 

The  main  object  of  this  book  is  to  give  an  account  of  the  historical  works 
of  Anna  Komnena,  of  Theodores  Prodromes,  and  of  Johannes  Kinnamos  ; 
but  the  author  also  touches  upon  many  interesting  points  of  Byzantine  his- 
tory and  literature.  His  attempt  to  define  Byzantine  civilization  is  helpful, 
but  should  be  accepted  as  a  provisional  definition  only.  Amongst  the  results 
of  his  investigations  may  be  cited  the  proof  that  there  were  two  writers  of 
the  name  Prodromos,  and  that  in  the  text  of  Johannes  Kinnamos  we  have 
only  an  epitome  of  the  original  work.  An  interesting  parallel  is  found 
between  the  poems  of  Ptochoprodromos  and  those  of  Walther  v.  d.  Vogel- 
weide.— WASCHKE  in  Berl  phil  Woch.,  1888,  No.  49. 

OTTO  POHL.    Die  afcchristliche  Fresko-  und  Mosaik-Malerei.    8vo,  pp. 

203.    Leipzig,  1888,  Hinrichs. 

The  book  is  divided  into  five  sections :  1.  Relation  of  the  Christians  to 
the  art  of  the  ancient  world.  2.  Monuments :  (a)  Catacomb-pictures ;  (6) 
Mosaics.  3.  Documents.  4.  Interpretation  of  early-Christian  paintings.  5. 
Decadence  of  early-Christian  painting.  In  the  second  section,  the  existing 
early-Christian  pictures  are  mentioned  in  chronological  order,  and  refer- 
ences are  given  to  the  catacombs,  churches,  etc.,  when  they  are  found,  and 
to  the  books  in  which  they  are  reproduced.  In  the  fourth  section,  he  opposes 
the  extreme  Catholic  position  of  E.  Frantz  (Geseh.  d.  christl.  Malerei),  that 
these  pictures  arose  under  clerical  guidance  in  illustration  of  Catholic 
dogmas,  and  also  the  extreme  classical  view  of  A.  Hasenclever  (Altchristl. 
Grdberschmuck),  who  sees  in  early-Christian  art  nothing  more  than  a  soul- 
less imitation  of  the  antique.  The  style  of  the  work  is  fascinating  and  will 
win  for  the  author  many  adherents  to  his  views. — F.  W.  SCHWARZLOSE  in 
Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1888,  No.  36. 

THE    RENAISSANCE. 

EUGENE  MUNTZ.  Histoire  de  PArt  pendant  la  Renaissance  [tome] 
I.  Italie.  Les  Primitifs.  Ouvrage  contenant  cinq  cent  quatorze 
illustrations  inserts  dans  le  texte,  quatre  planches,  etc.  4to,  pp. 
744.  Paris,  1889,  Hachette. 

Finally,  we  are  to  have  a  general  history  of  art  during  the  period  of  the 
Renaissance,  covering  not  only  every  one  of  its  branches  but  all  the  various 
5 


66  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

countries  in  which  it  developed  under  different  forms  and  aspects.  It  is 
by  a  writer  in  whom  we  may  have  perfect  confidence,  for  he  has  shown 
himself  by  previously  published  works 1  a  thorough  master  of  the  subject 
and  the  period.  This  is  the  first  of  several  bulky  quarto  volumes.  It  is 
devoted  to  Italy  and  to  its  early  Renaissance  of  the  xv  century.  It  can- 
not be  expected  that  a  full  idea  be  given  of  its  contents  in  this  short  notice. 
In  the  introduction,  M.  Miintz  gives  a  short  but  graphic  picture  of  the  broad 
features  of  Italian  society  in  the  xv  century,  its  classes  and  its  tendencies, 
of  the  condition  of  literature  and  of  the  general  role  of  art  as  connected 
with  the  public  and  private  life  of  the  period,  and  of  the  general  periods 
into  which  the  art  of  the  Renaissance  may  be  divided.  Before  attacking 
the  history  of  art  proper,  the  writer  studies  the  various  factors  which 
determined  its  development.  He  has  adopted  the  following  sequence:  (1) 
the  patrons  (lords,  communes,  and  private  individuals)  who  directed  and 
encouraged  the  efforts  of  artists,  grouped  according  to  regions  and  accom- 
panied by  a  map  of  artistic  Italy  in  the  xv  century — a  life-like  sketch  of 
the  society  in  which  the  artists  lived  ;  (2)  the  sources  and  constituent  ele- 
ments of  the  early  Renaissance — antiquity  on  the  one  hand  and  nature 
and  contemporary  society  on  the  other,  with  especial  stress  on  the  realistic 
side,  i.  e.,  on  the  elements  taken  from  the  life  of  the  day  ;  (3)  the  body  of 
the  work,  treating  of  the  arts  in  themselves,  divided  into  (a)  Architecture, 
from  Brunellesco  to  Bramante  (book  in) ;  (6)  Sculpture,  from  Donatello  to 
Verrocchio  (book  iv) ;  (c)  Painting,  from  Masaccio  to  Mantegna  (book  v) ; 
(d)  Engraving  and  the  decorative  arts  (book  vi). 

This  first  volume  embraces,  then,  the  whole  of  the  early  Renaissance  in 
Italy,  finishing  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  xv  century.  The  subject  is  well 
adapted  to  a  separate  treatment,  and  the  treatment  is  clear  and  systematic. 
The  varwus  points  made  by  the  text  are  fully  supported  by  admirably 
chosen  illustrations,  done,  for  the  great  part,  in  the  new  half-tone  process 
which  is  becoming  so  deservedly  popular  in  all  countries.  A  rapid  glance 
is  sufficient  to  bring  out  certain  general  qualities  of  excellence  running 
through  the  book.  We  notice,  for  example,  a  broad  acquaintance  with 
the  literature  of  the  Renaissance  and  with  contemporary  documents ;  an 
element  which  contributes  to  round  out  a  picture  which  otherwise  would 
be  incomplete.  Besides,  M.  Miintz  has  not  the  fault  of  so  many,  a  con- 
temptuous ignoring  of  the  Middle  Ages,  with  which  he  is  thoroughly  in 
touch,  and  so  is  able  to  better  appreciate  the  transition  to  the  Renaissance. 
In  handling  the  vast  accumulation  of  material  which  he  has  been  col- 
lecting with  marvellous  industry,  he  shows  the  skill  in  arrangement,  the 

1  Les  Precurseurs  de  la  Renaissance,  2  vols ;  Les  Arts  d  la  Cow  des  Papes  ;  La  Renais- 
sance en  Italie  et  en  France  d  I'epoque  de  Charles  VIII;  Donatello  (in  Les  Artistes  Ce- 
lebres) ;  Les  Collections  des  Medicis  au  XV*  siecle;  Raphael:  Sa  vie  et  ses  ceuvres. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  67 

lightness  of  touch,  and  clearness  of  exposition  that  characterize  the  best 
French  writers.  The  interest  of  the  reader  is  kept  unflagging  by  the  con- 
stant introduction  of  ideas,  inferences,  deductions  and  analogies  suggested 
by  the  facts.  The  writer's  optimism  is  evident ;  he  is  himself  conscious  of 
of  it,  and  administers  every  now  and  then  an  antidote,  exposing  some  of 
the  evident  weaknesses  or  errors  of  the  Renaissance. 

M.  Mu'ntz  thus  resumes,  at  the  close,  his  own  impressions  of  this  period : 
"  The  multiplicity! of  thej  means  of  expression  chosen  or  discovered  by  the 
artists  and  Maecenases  of  the  fifteenth  century  would  alone  be  sufficient 
to  show  to  what  degree  the  quattrocentists  possessed  plastic  sense,  and  how 
far  this  faculty  predominated  over  all  others — over  the  literary  sense,  the  sci- 
entific sense,  and  even  the  moral  sense.  They  sought  after  progress  and  per- 
fection anywhere,  among  the  ancients  as  well  as  among  the  Germans  or  the 
Eastern  nations;  they  opened  their  souls  .  .  to  every  thrilling  impression 
that  could  be  expressed  by  the  arts  of  design,  united  the  ardent  worship  of 
nature  with  an  almost  superstitious  respect  for  classic  tradition,  and,  by 
combining  these  very  distinct  elements,  produced  a  style  less  pure  and  less 
powerful  than  that  of  the  following  period,  but  certainly  more  picturesque, 
vigorous,  characteristic,  and  life-like." 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


REPORT  ON  RECENT  EXCAVATIONS  AND  EXPLORATIONS  IN 
EGYPT  DURING  THE  SEASON  OF  1888-89. 

During  the  winter  just  past,  the  soil  of  Egypt  has  yielded  to  the  ever- 
busy  villagers  the  usual  abundance  of  saleable  antiquities ;  and  the  decree 
that  these  may  not  be  exported  without  consent  from  the  museum  at  Bfil&q, 
is  not  so  uniformly  enforced  as  to  prevent  smuggling.  Instead  of  being 
put  on  public  sale,  which  is  now  permitted  everywhere,  the  best  small  ob- 
jects are  apt  to  go,  as  soon  as  found,  into  private  collections,  at  prices  vary- 
ing from  5  to  50  dollars.1  On  the  other  hand,  those  who  dig  to  interpret 
what  they  find  have  also  made  progress,  though  the  results,  taken  together, 
correspond  rather  to  the  lowness  of  the  Nile  this  year,  though  they  should 
have  been  favored  by  it. 

TELL  BASTA=BOUBASTIS. — M.  Naville,  with  whom  I  have  stayed,  com- 
pleted here,  between  Feb.  4  and  Mar.  30,  the  third  and  last  season  of  work 
for  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund  upon  this  important  site.  [At  the  Gen- 
eral Meeting  in  London  on  April  12  M.  Naville  is  to  make  a  brief  report.] 

The  previously  exposed  area  of  the  temple,  which  was  densely  strewn 
from  1  to  4  met.  below  the  surface  with  granite  blocks,  has  been  extended 
lengthwise  by  several  meters,  and  a  few  more  fragments  have  thus  been 
revealed.  The  use  of  the  fallen  pile  as  a  mill-stone  quarry,  and  the  soft- 
ness of  the  mud  beneath  it,  have  made  it  impossible  to  trace  angles  or 
foundations.  Fragments  of  a  pavement  of  basalt  are  found  on  all  sides, 
but  there  is  no  certain  trace  of  the  low  surrounding  wall  mentioned  by 
Herodotos.  The  small  lotus-bud  columns  of  a  gateway  (?)  lie  north  of  the 
western  end,  six  or  seven  rods  from  where  the  blocks  are  most  thickly 
strewn ;  but  the  remains  of  the  once  lofty  eastern  entrance  are  too  frag- 
mentary to  be  of  use. 

The  general  depression  of  the  temple  site,  the  level  bed  of  the  surround- 
ing lake,  and  the  strata  of  ruined  dwellings  rising  high  on  every  side, 

1  Nevertheless,  the  Museum  is  rapidly  growing,  and  the  removal  to  the  spacious 
quarters  at  Gizeh  will  perhaps  be  welcome.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  all  its  treasures 
will  then  become  available  to  students,  and  that  it  will  be  able  to  carry  out  its 
own  or  some  other  system  of  labelling.  The  Budget  already  contains  an  item  of 
£1000  towards  the  expense  of  the  transfer.  If  other  foreign  schools  be  established 
here  upon  a  plan  similar  to  that  of  the  Mission  Fran$aise  en  Egypte,  to  afford  facilities 
for  the  study  of  Egyptology  in  Eygpt,  it  may  be  expected  that  the  student-colony 
will  be  forced  to  remove,  build,  and  reside  near  the  Gizeh  palace. 

68 


CORRESPONDENCE.  69 

accord  precisely  with  the  description  that  Herodotos  wrote  after  he  had 
looked  down  upon  "  the  most  beautiful  temple  in  Egypt,"  where  70,000 
persons  assembled  to  do  homage  to  the  goddess.  Like  most  mounds  in 
the  Delta,  this  ancient  town,  which  covers  about  three-fourths  of  a  square 
mile,  is  gradually  being  carried  away  to  be  spread  upon  the  fields  of  the 
villagers.  Corners  and  sections  of  mud-brick  walls  still  rise  irregularly 
above  the  layer  of  potsherds  that  have  been  sifted  out ;  but  old  street-lines 
are  rarely  traceable,  and  ultimate  levelling  is  almost  certain  to  follow. 

The  finding,  last  year,  of  many  statues  of  all  periods,  especially  while 
rolling  the  blocks  of  the  second  hall — the  Festival  Hall  of  Osorkon  II — 
gave  promise  of  similar  rewards  for  work  to  be  done  in  the  eastern  and 
western  ends :  but  the  famous  Hyksos  heads  remain  incomplete,  and  no 
more  examples  of  the  broad  face  and  crisped  hair  of  the  Ancient  Empire 
have  appeared.  All  the  stones  of  the  first  hall  have  been  turned,  and  a 
careful  search  has  been  made  among  the  less-frequently  inscribed  remains 
covering  the  great  area  in  which  were  the  fragments  of  the  shrine  to  the 
west  of  the  hypostyle  hall.  It  is  only  the  number  of  inscribed  and  sculp- 
tured blocks  that  has  been  materially  increased.  One  of  these  shows  the 
original  red  paint  upon  the  red  granite  throughout  the  deep  carving  of  a 
full-length  figure,  with  accompanying  words ;  and  on  another  fragment  of 
basalt  the  figure  of  Nefer  Turn  is  still  distinctly  yellow.  Further,  the  num- 
ber of  kings  who  left  their  names  at  Boubastis  has  risen  to  twenty-six. 

The  high  antiquity  of  the  temple,  and  the  extended  influence  of  the 
fourth  dynasty  within  the  Delta  are  made  clear  by  the  recent  discovery, 
in  the  eastern  hall,  of  the  standards  of  Khufu  and  of  Khefren  (the  pyra- 
mid kings)  deeply  and  carefully  cut  and  perfectly  preserved.  That  Khu- 
fu's  block,  a  heavy  architrave,  shows  the  usurpation  of  Rameses  II  is  only 
one  of  many  signs  that  the  temple  had  been  more  than  once  ruined 
and  rebuilt.  The  cartouches  of  Pepi  of  the  vi  dynasty  were  the  oldest 
that  had  already  been  found  :  now,  Amenemhat  I  appears  in  addition  to 
Usertesen  I  and  II  of  the  xn  dynasty,  under  which  the  temple  seems  to  have 
been  increased  upon  the  grandest  scale.  Here  belong  the  massive  lotus- 
bud  capitals  and  columns  and  the  Hathor-head  capitals2  of  the  hypostyle 
hall ;  and  the  deep  cutting  characteristic  of  the  period  is  traceable  even 
upon  blocks  imperfectly  erased  in  later  times.  Next  comes  a  rare  monu- 
ment of  the  xin  dynasty  with  the  cartouche  of  Sebekhotep  I. 

The  presence  of  colossal  Hyksos  statues  five  or  six  meters  high,  the 
architrave  of  Apepi,  and  the  statue  of  Khian,  argue  that  these  rulers  must 
have  found  the  temple  in  reasonably  good  repair ;  and  they  must  have  left 
it  so,  for  Amenhotep  II  and  Amenhotep  III  and  the  reformer  Khuenaten 

*  A  specimen  of  each  of  these  enormous  monuments — a  matter  of  30  or  40  tons — 
lias  lately  been  sent  to  Boston. 


70  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of  the  xvni  dynasty  also  inscribed  their  names  at  this  point,  so  far  to  the 
north.  It  was  after  Seti  I  that  the  great  period  of  usurpation  came,  marked 
by  the  work  of  Rameses  II,  who  rudely  erased  the  inscriptions  of  his  prede- 
cessors, appropriated  their  statues,  reconstructed  fundamentally,  and  spread 
the  monotony  of  his  signature.  Memorials  of  Merenptah  and  of  Rameses 
III  were  afterwards  erected,  and  it  will  be  remembered 'that  many  statues 
of  Rameses  VI  have  been  found  at  Boubastis. 

The  temple  may  well  have  been  in  ruin  after  the  wars  that  intervened 
about  this  time.  The  Hathor  capitals  must  have  fallen,  for  Osorkon  II 
has  inscribed  his  name  on  the  under  side  of  one  in  putting  it  to  some  dif- 
ferent use.  This  xxn  dynasty  rebuilt  Boubastis.  It  is  only  a  fragment 
that  bears  Sheshonk's  name :  the  great  builders  were  the  Osorkons  I  and 
II,  who  renewed  and  practically  appropriated  the  first  and  the  second 
halls.  The  name  of  Achoris  alone  succeeds  until  the  xxx  dynasty,  when 
Nectanebo  I  enlarged  the  western  hall  and  built  the  shrine,  upon  which 
the  most  delicate  of  carving  has  scarcely  been  affected  by  time.  With 
Hophra,  Nectanebo  II,  and  Ptolemy  Euergetes,  the  list  of  kings  is  ended. 

During  Roman  times  the  eastern  end  of  the  temple  site  seems  to  have 
served  other  than  religious  uses.  Fragments  of  statues  were  built  into  a 
low  wall  at  the  southeast  corner,  near  which  there  ran  a  small  limestone 
water-conduit  emptying  into  a  cistern.  Below  the  present  water-line  an 
upright  column  and  a  few  rude  slabs  or  blocks,  also  of  limestone,  were  all 
that  remained  of  another  late  construction.  It  was  above  some  Roman 
bricks,  near  the  middle  of  the  eastern  hall,  that  was  found  one  of  the  two 
granite  blocks  that  alone  had  remained  horizontal.  On  it,  above  a  thin 
layer  of  bronze  and  resting  upon  an  inverted  saucer  of  bronze,  there  was  set 
in  metallic  cement  and  bound  by  granite  wedges  a  concave-sided  eight- 
inch  cube  of  bronze  with  a  hemispherical  socket  above  (corresponding  to 
one  below)  as  for  a  pivotal  hinge.  The  other  horizontal  block  (of  about 
two  cubic  meters)  appeared  to  have  served  at  a  doorway  at  the  western 
end.  The  name  of  Nectanebo  I  was  written  on  it,  upside  down. 

From  about  a  meter  and  a  half  below  the  surface  and  near  what  was 
probably  the  eastern  gateway,  comes  a  fine  alabaster  copy  of  the  Melian 
Aphrodite,  though  also  the  head  and  the  feet  are  gone.  The  fragment  is 
between  three  and  four  decimeters  high. 

The  site  of  the  temple  of  Thoth  was  next  sought  out.  Herodotos  says 
that  it  lay  three  stadia  to  the  eastward  along  the  market  street.  This 
thoroughfare  is  still  easy  to  trace  between  the  bordering  ruins,  but  the 
direction  is  more  nearly  s.  E.  by  s.,  like  the  fronting  of  the  greater  tem- 
ple. Less  than  half  a  mile  away,  where  the  mound  slopes  off  to  the  allu- 
vial level,  a  few  granite  blocks  were  seen  cropping  out  in  a  clover-field. 
Fragments  large  and  small  were  all  that  could  be  found.  They  lay,  near 


CORRESPONDENCE.  71 

the  surface,  scattered  within  a  small  area  and  resting  on  a  natural  stratum 
of  sand.  A  ponderous  architrave  bore  the  cartouche  of  the  Great  Rameses, 
but  the  most  of  the  inscriptions  were  due  to  Osorkon  I.  A  valuable  sta- 
tistical tablet  records  great  donations  of  gold,  silver,  and  other  metals, 
made  to  different  temples  of  Egypt.  As  the  owner  of  the  field  would  have 
made  this  tablet  cost  something  like  £15,  it  was  left  to  the  Egyptian  gov- 
ernment to  arrange  with  him  for  its  preservation.  Here  may  indeed  have 
been  a  treasure  temple  that  Herodotos  attributed  to  Hermes,  but  unfortu- 
nately the  name  of  Thoth  seems  nowhere  to  have  survived.  The  stones 
are  now  again  buried  more  deeply  than  we  found  them,  but  paper-casts  of 
all  have  of  course  been  made. 

Boubastis  was  one  of  the  most  populous  towns  in  the  Delta,  but  all  at- 
tempts to  find  where  its  dead  were  buried  have  thus  far  failed.  A  few 
bone-pits  have  been  found  here  and  there  beneath  the  houses,  and  a  few 
interments  were  made  in  brick,  and  in  wooden  or  terracotta  coffins,  near 
the  enclosure- wall  of  the  town — but  at  a  comparatively  late  period.  The 
desert  is  many  miles  away :  but,  unless  the  tombs  have  disappeared  in  the 
cultivated  lands  about  the  town,  it  is  somewhere  in  the  desert  that  the 
search  must  be  continued.  The  famous  Necropolis  of  Cats  in  the  N.  E. 
part  of  the  town — now  tenanted  by  rats  and  ranged  by  dogs — extends 
over  many  acres  and  has  been  largely  worked  out,  and  practically  ex- 
hausted, by  the  natives  in  their  search  for  antiquities.  A  considerable 
amount  of  time  has  now  been  given  to  exploration  here,  and  a  number  of 
unrifled  bone-pits  in  different  parts  of  the  cemetery  have  been  carefully 
emptied.  Often  marked  on  the  surface  by  enclosure  or  district  walls,  they 
lie  from  three  to  six  meters  below,  and  are  sharply  defined  by  the  hard 
Nile-mud  in  which  they  were  sunk.  They  are  always  more  than  a  meter 
wide,  from  one  to  two  meters  deep,  and  of  various  lengths,  sometimes  ex- 
ceeding nine  meters.  They  are  filled  with  the  partially  burned — some- 
times previously  mummified — bones  of  cats,  or  of  other  small  animals  not 
yet  determined.  The  most  of  the  skulls  appear  to  belong  to  the  wild-cat 
of  Africa,  not  to  the  domestic  cat.  The  bones  are  often  interspersed  with 
some  embalming  or  other  material  that  was  buried  with  them,  and  they 
almost  always  contain  a  few  objects  in  porcelain  or  bronze,  not  well  pre- 
served, in  the  pits  that  remain  untouched.  Bronze  heads  or  images  of 
cats,  of  the  goddess  Bast,  of  Nefer  Turn,  or  of  Osiris,  occur  most  frequently  ; 
but  in  porcelain  Isis  and  Horus  and  other  divinities  are  represented  along 
with  the  usual  variety  of  beads  and  other  small  ornaments.  The  pits  ap- 
pear to  have  had  some  temporary  covering,  and,  when  very  long,  to  have 
been  partially  filled  through  successive  openings,  now  marked  by  the  pres- 
ence of  bones  in  the  form  of  extremely  sharp  cones  running  up  toward  the 
surface  from  the  general  level  of  the  deposit.  There  are  several  enclosures 


72  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

of  burned  bricks  near  the  surface,  in  which  the  bones  may  have  first  been 
burned,  for  a  shorter  or  longer  time,  and  have  assumed  the  colors  of  brown, 
black,  red,  and  white,  which  they  present  in  different  pits.  Of  the  bronzes 
found  here  this  year  none  have  greater  interest  than  a  rare  and  beautiful 
standing  figure,  about  ten  inches  high,  of  the  Cat-headed  goddess  holding 
the  sistrum  and  the  lustral  basket,  and  with  four  kittens  sitting  rather  de- 
murely and  quadrangularly  before  her. 

Although  the  sculptures  remaining  upon  the  temple  site  will  almost  cer- 
tainly be  destroyed  if  left  there  long,  little  has  yet  been  taken  away  this 
year  except  the  hinge  above  mentioned ;  a  small  fragment  of  a  stele  of 
Ptolemy  Euergetes ;  and  a  large  fragment  of  a  black  granite  stele,  found 
deep  in  the  mud  of  the  eastern  hall,  and  containing  a  colloquy  of  recip- 
rocal praises,  as  upon  the  tablet  at  Abu  Simbel,  between  Rameses  II  and 
Bast — the  selection  of  Bast  in  this  case  being  certainly  due  to  the  local  cult. 
The  task  of  removing  the  heavy  monuments  selected  after  the  excavations 
of  the  previous  season  proved  to  be  a  most  laborious  and  expensive  one  ; 
and  it  has  only  lately  been  completed.  It  required  several  months  to  box 
up  and  transfer  to  canal  boats  one  or  two  hundred  tons  of  granite,  and  the 
personal  supervision  of  Count  d'Hulst  lasted  through  the  worst  part  of  the 
Egyptian  summer  in  a  treeless  malarial  region. 

The  Division  of  Antiquities. — The  Buldq  Museum  receives  the  broken 
statue  of  the  new  king  Khian  ;  the  head  and  leg  of  one  of  the  other  large 
Hyksos  statues ;  a  statue  of  Rameses  III,  and  part  of  a  Rameses  VI  in  red 
sandstone ;  a  large  cartouche  of  Pepi  and  one  of  Khuenaten ;  one  of  the 
scribes  of  Amenhotep  III ;  a  part  of  the  shrine  of  Nectanebo  I ;  an  historical 
inscription  ;  and  a  Greek  dedication  of  a  statue  from  Cleopatra  and  Apol- 
lonios  to  Ptolemy  Euergetes.  I  am  told  that  the  British  Museum  is  to 
receive  the  other  Hyksos  statue ;  a  palm  column  and  capital ;  a  large  head 
with  crisped  hair,  usurped  (?)  by  Rameses  II ;  a  standing  figure  and  also  a 
head  of  Bast ;  several  sculptured  blocks,  including  one  from  the  Festival 
Hall  and  three  from  the  shrine ;  a  Greek  torso  in  white  marble ;  and,  in 
black  granite,  a  Roman  torso  wearing  a  peculiar  dress.  The  Boston  Museum 
of  Fine  Arts  receives  a  highly  polished  lotus-bud  column  and  capital  two- 
thirds  complete ;  a  large  Hathor-head  capital  without  the  column,  which 
seems  to  have  been  entirely  quarried  away ;  a  large  head  with  crisped  hair, 
the  counterpart  of  that  sent  to  London ;  a  crouching  statue  of  a  son  of 
Rameses  II ;  one  of  the  sculptured  blocks  of  the  Festival  Hall  portraying, 
in  low-relief,  Osorkon  II  and  his  wife  Karoama.  The  limestone  blocks 
which  Mr.  Griffith  brought  from  the  Hathor  temple  at  Terraneh  have  been 
divided  between  these  three  museums. 

HAWARA. — Mr.  Petrie's  work  here  has  already  been  reviewed  (Aeademy, 
Jan.  26,  March  16 :  see  News,  pp.  81-3).  He  tells  me  that  there  were 


CORRESPONDENCE.  73 

recovered,  from  under  the  water  in  one  deep  tomb,  twelve  bodies  wearing 
sets  of  amulets,  the  position  of  which  was  noted  so  as  to  be  able  to  repro- 
duce the  arrangement  of  them.  He  also  discovered  in  this  tomb  many 
fine  ushabti  of  a  noble  Horuta,  which  were  built  up  in  recesses  within  the 
masonry-filling  around  his  sarcophagus.  And  he  reports  having  found — 
carefully  wrapped  up  and  buried  in  a  jar — three  large  papyri  of  the  fifth 
century  A.  D.,  being  Greek  deeds  concerning  monastic  property,  quite  com- 
plete and  in  good  condition ;  two  large  iron  rings  of  the  modern  barrel 
pattern ;  a  very  fresh  and  perfect  glass  lens — a  bull's  eye  for  condensing 
light — likewise  of  Roman  age  ;  and,  from  the  great  pit  and  caverns  exca- 
vated for  tombs  under  the  xir  dynasty,  many  pieces  of  sculpture  from  the 
tomb-chapels  of  that  age.  Though  he  believes  the  cemetery  to  be  prac- 
tically exhausted,  the  work  is  still  unfinished  at  a  single  point,  and  may 
yield  some  of  the  best  results.  , 

ILLAHUN. — Mr.  Petrie  is  now  partially  occupied  at  the  temple  and  tombs- 
of  the  pyramid  of  Illahun,  into  which  he  has  already  tunnelled  about  thirty 
meters.  Of  his  work  there  he  says :  "  The  temple  of  the  pyramid  was  found 
opposite  its  eastern  face  at  some  little  distance  on  the  edge  of  the  desert. 
It  was  completely  pulled  to  pieces  for  the  stone,  apparently  by  Ramessu  II 
for  building  his  temple  at  Ahnes  ;  but  among  the  chips  several  pieces  of 
the  names  of  Usertesen  II  were  found.  The  work  is  very  beautiful,  and 
the  chips  of  colored  sculpture  are  as  fresh  and  bright  as  when  first  painted. 
A  smaller  shrine,  joining  the  eastern  face  of  the  pyramid,  was  similarly 
desecrated.  The  pyramid  itself  has  not  yet  been  opened. 

"  The  site  of  the  larger  temple  was  used  as  a  cemetery  in  the  vi  and 
vn  centuries  A.  D.,  and  a  great  quantity  of  coloured  woollen  garments  em- 
broidered with  patterns  have  been  found  on  the  bodies  there.  The  tombs 
at  Illahun  are  mostly  between  the  xx  and  xxvi  dynasties ;  nothing  of 
importance  has  been  found  in  them  so  far ;  many  of  the  burials  of  this  age 
are  however  in  tombs  of  the  xn  dynasty  which  have  been  rifled.  A  large 
number  of  carved  and  painted  coffin-lids  and  of  beads  from  networks  on  the 
mummies  are  the  main  results  at  this  place." 

TELL  GUROB. — Mr.  Petrie  is  also  working  at  the  tombs  and  straggling 
ruins  of  Tell  Gurob  about  three  miles  to  the  south  of  Illahun  at  the  opposite 
end  of  the  great  dyke  which  crosses  the  entrance  to  the  Faytim.  Here  I 
found  him  making  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  topography  of  the  ancient 
town,  the  importance  of  which  seems  to  him  to  consist  largely  in  the  short- 
ness of  its  history  and  the  consequent  accuracy  attainable  in  dating  what  is 
found  there.  He  says :  "  The  earliest  building  seems  to  have  been  a  temple 
of  Tahutmes  III,  of  which  the  bases  of  some  columns,  and  two  pieces  bear- 
ing his  name  remained.  This  was  in  a  walled  area  or  temenos.  Appar- 
ently it  was  ruined  and  cleared  away  by  Khuenaten,  as  the  houses  built 


74  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

over  it  contain  articles  with  the  names  of  Amenhotep  III,  Khuenaten,  Ra- 
saakukhepru,  Tutankhamen,  Ai,  Horemheb,  Seti  I,  and  Ramessu  II.  Here 
this  series  of  two  or  three  dozen  dated  objects, 'rings,  scarabs,  etc.,  entirely 
ends.  Not  a  single  name  later  than  Ramessu  II,  and  not  a  single  object 
that  can  be  certainly  proved  to  be  later  than  his  time  has  been  found  here. 
The  greatest  depth  of  house-remains  is  only  a  few  feet,  and  often  only  a  single 
foot ;  and  there  is  no  sign  of  rebuilding.  Hence  the  duration  of  the  town 
was  not  longer  than  the  age  of  a  mud-brick  house,  which  agrees  fairly  well 
with  the  period  of  a  century  and  a  half  covered  by  the  objects  found  here. 

"  Of  Egyptian  remains,  there  are  two  funeral  stelae,  two  large  inscribed 
bronze  pans  with  handles,  several  tools — chisels,  hatchets,  and  knives — 
glass  beads  and  variegated  glass-work,  many  bone  bobbins,  balls  of  thread, 
nets,  etc.,  besides  a  variety  of  pottery — the  main  value  of  all  these  objects 
arising  from  their  being  so  nearly  dated.  Some  unrifled  tombs  of  this  same 
age  were  also  found,  containing  some  fine  wooden  statuettes,  and  other  fu- 
neral furniture. 

"  But  the  main  interest  of  the  place  is  in  the  foreign  element.  On  the 
tombs  foreigners  are  found  indicated  by  their  light  hair,  by  western  pottery 
being  buried  with  them,  and  by  their  names.  One  man  is  called  Antursha, 
the  double  ethnic  determinative  after  the  name  shewing  it  to  be  formed 
from  that  of  the  Tursha  or  Etruscans,  who  largely  occupied  the  west  of 
Egypt  (with  Libyans  and  other  races)  at  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Ramessu 
II.  Another  man  is  Sadiamia,  also  a  foreigner.  These  foreigners  have  left 
many  examples  of  western  pottery  here,  and  it  is  of  the  greatest  value  to  be 
able  to  date  the  archaic  Greek  and  Italian  geometrical  pottery  to  a  fixed 
period.  Besides  this  foreign  pottery,  the  native  pottery  is  of  even  greater 
historic  value,  as  it  bears  various  alphabetic  letters,  both  incised  as  owners' 
marks  after  baking,  and  marked  in  the  clay  while  soft.  As  the  whole  town 
is  apparently  limited  to  about  the  xix  dynasty,  and  the  pottery  so  marked 
is  characteristic  of  that  same  age,  these  letters  are  probably  the  earliest 
alphabet  that  we  have,  several  centuries  before  Phoenician  or  Greek  in- 
scriptions yet  known.  The  discovery  of  these  gives  a  fresh  value  to  the  let- 
ters marked  on  the  backs  of  the  tiles  of  Ramessu  III  at  Tell  Yehudiyeh, 
and  shows  that  there  is  no  need  to  invent  a  theory  of  restoration  of  that 
palace  solely  to  account  for  such  marks.  We  must  now  on  the  evidence  of 
these  remains  date  our  history  of  alphabetic  writing  from  the  Ramesside  age. 

"  In  far  later  times  a  cemetery  was  formed  near  the  town  of  Tell  Gurob  ; 
it  seems  to  be  entirely  of  the  earlier  Ptolemies.  The  regular  burial  there 
was  in  cartonnage  head-piece  painted  blue,  with  pectoral  and  leg  cover,  all 
painted  with  figures,  seldom  with  a  name.  The  bodies  are  in  very  rude 
coffins,  strangely  contrasting  with  the  neat  work  of  the  inner  decoration. 
These  cartonnage  coverings  are  made  up  of  papyri ;  and  dozens  of  them  are 


CORRESPONDENCE.  75 

being  now  cut  to  pieces,  in  order  to  recover  the  manuscripts,  demotic  and 
Greek,  which  have  been  so  long  hidden.  A  household  account,  a  royal  de- 
cree, or  a  piece  of  a  tragedy  are  the  proceeds  of  this  re-destruction." 

LAKE  MOERIS  AND  THE  RAIAN  BASIN. — It  is  believed  that  the  Egyptian 
Government  will  soon  take  measures  to  utilize  as  a  storage  basin  that  great 
depression  in  the  desert  to  the  south  of  and  connected  with  the  Fayum, 
known  as  the  Raian  Basin.  Mr.  Cope  Whitehouse  has  collected  all  neces- 
sary information  for  the  purpose;  great  numbers  of  surveys,  reports, 
maps,  and  plans  have  been  prepared ;  and  the  feasibility  and  advantages 
of  the  project  have  been  acknowledged.  To  the  question  of  identity  be- 
tween this  Raiau  Basin  and  the  ancient  Lake  Moeris  he  has  given  much 
attention,  and  has  taken  many  careful  surveys  and  levellings.  His  view 
may  be  stated  briefly  as  follows:  "The  theory  of  Linant  de  Bellefonds, 
which  was  published  by  Lepsius  in  the  Denkmaeler  aus  Aegypten  and  ap- 
proved upon  the  basis  of  his  own  examination  of  the  Fayum,  and  which 
has  been  generally  accepted  to  the  present  time,  rejected  the  statements  of 
the  ancient  historians  in  all  respects  but  one ;  namely,  that  there  had  been 
a  small  reservoir  in  the  upper  part  of  the  Fayum.  The  theory  was  in  error 
(1)  in  putting  the  depth  of  the  depression  at  90  ft.  instead  of  250  ft.;  (2) 
in  diminishing  its  area  by  one-half;  (3)  in  ignoring  the  existence  of  the 
adjoining  Raian  Basin ;  and  (4)  in  making  the  inexplicable  assertion,  that 
there  are  ancient  ruins  older  than  the  time  of  Herodotos  near  the  long  lake 
at  the  west,  the  Birket  el  Qerun  or  Kurun,  and  Jpelow  the  level  of  low-Nile 
at  Illahun." 

Mr.  Cope  Whitehouse  has  recently  visited  the  desert  to  the  north  of  this 
lake  in  company  with  Commander  Ackley  of  the  U.  S.  Ship  Quinnebaug, 
who  is  well  known  for  his  hydrographic  surveys ;  and  he  has  photographed 
an  ancient  temple,  which  his  levellings  show  to  be  seven  miles  from  the  water's 
edge  and  220  feet  above  it.  From  these  photographs,  which  represent  a 
well-preserved  structure,  M.  Naville  has  formed  the  opinion  that  it  belongs 
to  two  different  epochs,  the  fa9ade  being  as  old  as  the  temple  of  the  sphinx, 
whereas  the  rear  wall  may  have  been  rebuilt  in  a  Greek-Roman  period. 

"  This,"  Mr.  Cope  Whitehouse  continues,  "  accords  precisely  with  the 
historical  account  of  artificial  changes  within  the  depression.  At  first,  there 
was  a  vast  natural  lake  having  a  surface  of  1400  square  miles,  with  a  depth, 
over  a  considerable  area,  exceeding  200  feet,  and  a  temple  was  erected  on  its 
northwestern  shore  33  miles  from  the  inlet.  Here  the  fisheries  were  con- 
trolled as  well  as  the  direct  route  from  Alexandria  to  Upper  Egypt.  After- 
wards, dykes  were  placed  at  Illahun  and  Hawara.  Water  was  supplied  and 
the  supply  was  regulated  at  low-Nile  by  the  long  canal — the  River  of  Joseph 
• — from  Assiut.  The  greater  part  of  the  northern  depression  was  put  under 
cultivation,  and  this  temple  was  left — a  shrine  far  away  from  habitation. 


76  AMERICAN  JO UBNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Troublous  times  intervened.  The  dykes  were  broken.  The  northern  and 
the  southern  basins,  once  more  united  at  high-Nile,  spread  over  a  surface 
whose  circuit  is  so  singularly  diversified  that  it  might  fairly  be  measured 
(as  the  historian  gives  it)  at  450  miles.  The  water  rose  to  the  temple's 
edge  and  to  the  quay  at  Dimeh.  The  temple  was  repaired  while  Dimeh  on 
its  island  became  an  important  town.  So  Herodotos  saw  it.  In  Strabo's 
time  the  upper  plateau  of  the  Fayum  was  protected  against  the  high-Nile. 
Pliny  was  shown  where  the  lake  had  been.  The  southern  or  Raian  Basin 
only  is  the  Lacus  Moeridis  of  those  maps  of  the  2nd  century  whose  genu- 
ineness and  authenticity  are  no  longer  disputable."  Mr.  Cope  Whitehouse 
has  also  prepared  a  comprehensive  scheme  for  thorough  exploration  of  the 
ruined  towns  which  encircle  the  inhabited  part  of  this  district,  where  much, 
without  doubt,  remains  to  be  discovered. 

BERENICE. — At  this  place  on  the  Red  Sea,  M.  Golenischeff  of  the  St. 
Petersburg  Museum  reports  that  the  remains  of  a  Roman  temple  found 
there  by  an  Egyptian  officer  a  few  years  ago  have  now  been  washed  away. 
He  has  also  been*  working  with  a  view  to  determining  the  probable  route 
of  the  Exodus :  but  I  do  not  know  with  what  result. 

LUQSOR  and  EDFU. — M.  Grebaut  has  been  clearing  away  from  the  in- 
terior of  the  temples ;  and  elsewhere  in  Upper  Egypt  he  has  been  taking 
measures  this  winter  to  prevent  the  destruction  of  monuments,  as  by  shor- 
ing up  the  temples  at  Medinet  Habu  and  at  Abydos.  Professor  Sayce  is 
said  to  have  found  some  inscriptions  in  a  Hittite  dialect ;  but  he  has  scarely 
been  able  to  work,  being  chiefly  occupied  in  recovering  from  the  heroic 
treatment  applied  when  he  was  bitten  by  a  sand-snake.  Another  MS.  frag- 
ment of  the  Iliad  has  been  obtained  here  [Luqsor]  by  M.  Greville  Chester. 
Professor  Euting  of  the  Strasburg  University,  who  has  now  gone  in  dis- 
guise as  a  Beduin  to  the  peninsula  of  Sinai  to  look  for  Aramaic  inscrip- 
tions, made  a  short  excursion  to  Edfu  and  found  on  the  temple  walls  about 
fifty  hitherto  unknown  graffiti  in  Karian  and  Phoenician  characters. 

HORBEIT. — The  few  remaining  slabs  of  a  fast-disappearing  limestone  tomb 
of  an  otherwise  unknown  sou  of  Rameses  II  have  been  bought  by  M.  Naville 
in  order  to  save  them  from  the  lime-kiln.  They  are  fully  inscribed  and  will 
probably  be  kept  at  Bulaq :  but  the  existence  of  the  monument  has  been  well 
known  for  a  year,  and  it  is  unfortunate  that  the  government  should  not  of 
itself  have  been  able  to  preserve  it. 

Count  d'Hulst  is  expected  to  read  papers  in  June  before  the  Society  of 
British  Architects  and  before  the  Union  of  Architects  of  Gt.  Britain  and 
Ireland,  upon  "  Modern  Architecture  in  Egypt,"  and  "  The  Arab  House 
in  Egypt."  At  the  request  of  the  Administration  of  the  Royal  Museums 
there  are  soon  to  be  exhibitions  in  Berlin,  Munich,  and  Dresden,  of  1500 


CORRESPONDENCE.  77 

of  his  photographs  of  Arab  subjects  in  Egypt ;  and  he  purposes  within  two 
years  to  complete  his  collection  for  Mohammedan  Art  and  its  branches, 
by  tours  in  Sicily,  Malta,  Tunis,  Algeria,  Morocco,  and  Spain,  and  in  Asia 
Minor,  Syria,  Mesopotamia,  Persia,  Russia,  Turkestan,  and  India. 

FARLEY  B.  GODDARD. 
Cairo,  April  5,  1889. 


THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL  STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

Dr.  Charles  Waldstein,  who  was  chosen  Director  in  November  1886, 
assumed  the  direction  of  the  School  at  the  opening  of  the  present  academic 
year.  He  has  been  unable  to  reside  in  Athens  during  this  first  year  so  long 
as  had  been  hoped  and  expected  ;  but  he  has,  on  two  visits  of  several  weeks 
each,  made  his  talents,  training,  and  energy  strongly  felt  for  good.  In  the 
present  number  of  this  Journal,  he  gives  an  account  of  the  head  of  Iris, 
which  he  was  happy  in  identifying  as  part  of  the  Parthenon  frieze.  He 
was  invited  by  the  Greek  Government  to  be  one  of  a  small  committee  to 
advise  as  to  the  treatment  of  the  Akropolis.  During  Dr.  Waldstein's 
absence,  the  interests  of  the  School  have  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Annual 
Director,  Professor  F.  B.  Tarbell,  whose  administration  has  been  thoroughly 
able,  judicious,  and  stimulating. 

It  is  expected  that,  for  the  next  three  years,  Dr.  Waldstein,  without 
altogether  giving  up  his  present  work  in  Cambridge,  England,  will  reside 
in  Athens  during  the  winter  or  somewhat  longer. 

As  has  been  before  stated,  the  practice  will  be  maintained  of  sending 
from  one  of  the  co-operating  colleges  an  Annual  Director,  who,  while 
reaping  the  benefits  of  the  year  in  Greece  for  himself  and  his  college,  will 
assist  the  Director  in  the  conduct  of  the  School,  and  will  have  charge  of 
its  interests  in  his  absence.  Professor  S.  Stanhope  Orris,  Litt.  D.,  of  Prince- 
ton College,  has  accepted  the  invitation  to  act  as  Annual  Director  for  the 
year  1889-90,  and  expects  to  go  to  Greece  in  August. 

During  the  past  year,  eight  students  have  been  in  attendance — six  of 
them  for  the  major  part  of  the  year.  Regular  exercises  have  been  held 
by  the  Directors  for  the  study  of  Topography,  Inscriptions,  and  the  His- 
tory of  Greek  Art,  as  well  as  for  the  reading  of  ancient  Greek  authors. 
There  have  been  also  occasional  meetings  for  the  presentation  of  papers 
embodying  the  fruits  of  original  research,  to  which  meetings  have  been 
invited  others  than  students,  whether  residents  at  Athens  or  visitors,  who 
are  interested  in  archaeological  work.  Similar  meetings  are  held  by  the 
German  and  British  Schools  and  prove  of  great  service  in  promoting  sci- 
entific activity. 


78  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

The  American  School  has  been  enabled,  also,  thanks  to  the  Archaeologi- 
cal Institute  of  America  and  other  friends,  to  conduct  excavations  on  a 
more  considerable  scale  than  heretofore.  The  remarkably  successful  work 
begun  at  Dionyso  (Ikaria),  (in  the  year  of  Professor  Merriam's  adminis- 
tration) by  Mr.  C.  D.  Buck  in  the  spring  of  1888  was  completed  by  him 
in  the  autumn.  Another  member  of  the  School,  Mr.  H.  S.  Washington 
(a  classmate  of  Mr.  Buck  at  Yale,  1886),  was  entrusted  with  investigations 
carried  on  at  his  own  expense  at  two  points  in  the  neighborhood  of  Sta- 
ipata,  a  village  to  the  north  of  Pentelikon,  about  half  way  between  Ke- 
phissia  and  Marathon.  These  resulted  in  the  identification,  by  means  of 
inscriptions,  of  the  site  of  the  deme  Plotheia. 

This  spring,  Dr.  J.  C.  Rolfe  took  charge  of  excavations  in  Boiotia ;  first, 
for  three  weeks  at  Anthedon,  afterwards  for  a  few  days  each  at  Thisbe  and 
Plataia.  The  campaign  at  ANTHEDON  resulted  in  laying  bare  the  founda- 
tions of  a  large  and  irregular  building,  of  which  a  portion  had  been  previ- 
ously in  sight  and  which  Leake  mistakenly  supposed  to  be  a  temple ;  in 
unearthing  the  foundations  of  a  small  building,  perhaps  the  temple  of 
Dionysos  (Paus.  ix.  22.  6) ;  in  the  discovery  of  various  small  objects  of 
terracotta  and  of  a  large  and  important  collection  of  bronze  tools  ;  and  in  a 
considerable  harvest  of  new  inscriptions.  The  work  at  THJSBE  was  com- 
paratively unproductive.  That  at  PLATAIA,  which  in  Dr.  Waldstein's  opinion 
is  destined  to  yield  rich  treasures,  was  suspended  before  noteworthy  discov- 
eries in  the  line  of  architecture  or  sculpture  had  been  made,  but  not  with- 
out securing  a  long  Latin  inscription  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation. 

Even  moderately  successful  excavations  have  great  value  to  those  en- 
gaged in  them — there  being  nothing  so  stimulating  as  the  discovery  of  fresh 
materials  for  study. 

Full  accounts  of  the  enterprises  above  named  will  appear  in  the  Journal 
of  Archaeology. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 
SUMMARY  or  RECENT  DISCOVERIES  AND  INVESTIGATIONS. 


Page. 

ARABIA 88 

ASIA  MINOR 90 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY,     .  129 

BELGIUM, 126 

CAUCASUS, 87 

EGYPT,    .     : 79 

ENGLAND 129 

FRANCE, 124 


GERMANY,       . 

Page. 
.    127 

PALESTINE 

Pagt. 
88 

GREECE,      . 

92 

PERSIA 

86 

HINDUSTAN 

85 

SICILY 

120 

ITALY 

107 

KRETE 

IO7 

SWITZERLAND, 

126 

KYPROS,      .    .     . 

.      91 

SYRIA,    .     

.     89 

MESOPOTAMIA, 

.    .     .      87 

TUNISIA  

.     84 

MEXICO. 

.    134 

UNITED  STATES. 

.    133 

AFRICA. 

EGYPT. 

VANDALISM. — Professor  Sayce  writes  from  Assuan,  Feb.  13:  "Little 
progress  seems  to  have  been  made  with  the  excavation  of  the  temple  of 
Luqsor  since  I  last  saw  it  three  years  ago.  The  most  important  part  of  the 
work  had  already  been  accomplished  at  that  time.  But  it  is  a  pity  that 
the  ruin  cannot  be  properly  protected.  Before  the  work  of  excavation 
commenced,  a  portion  of  the  building  was  kept  under  lock  and  key ;  now 
the  whole  of  the  temple  has  been  allowed  to  become  the  common  refuse- 
heap  of  the  village.  The  tourist  who  has  been  induced  to  pay  a  hundred 
piastres  in  Cairo  for  permission  to  visit  the  monuments  of  ancient  Egypt, 
upon  the  understanding  that  something  was  being  done  in  return  to  pro- 
tect them,  will  be  grievously  disappointed.  The  tourists  have  done  their 
duty  manfully,  but  the  government  have  neglected  to  do  theirs.  Karnak 
is  still  open  to  the  ravages  of  goats  and  herdboys,  and  Medinet  Abu,  like 
Der  el-Medineh,  to  the  intrusion  of  beggars  and  antika-sellers,  who  scrape 
the  blue  paint  off  the  walls  to  mix  with  their  forged  scarabs ;  while  a  tomb 
at  Thebes,  reopened  a  few  weeks  ago  by  M.  Bouriant,  has  already  been  wan- 
tonly defaced  by  the  natives ;  and  in  the  tombs  discovered  by  Sir  Francis 
Grenfell  at  Assuan  the  paintings  have  been  disfigured  by  Arabic  graffiti. 
It  is  true  that,  outside  some  of  the  tombs,  placards  are  lying  on  the  sand 
with  a  request  in  English  that  visitors  should  refrain  from  injuring  the 
monuments  ;  but  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  inscribers  of  the  graffiti  can- 
not read  English.  The  interesting  inscriptions  over  the  tombs  of  the  Third 

79 


80  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [EGYPT.] 

Dynasty  at  Medum  have  been  literally  smashed  to  fragments  ;  and,  since 
my  last  visit  to  Beni  Hassan,  the  paintings  in  the  tombs  have  suffered 
severely,  easily  protected  though  they  might  be.  In  fact,  the  only  place 
so  far  where  our  '  permits '  have  been  of  use  was  the  temple  of  Edfu ;  and 
even  here  the  'guardian'  did  not  conceal  his  disappointment  at  being 
shown  a  piece  of  printed  card  instead  of  the  old  bakshish.  The  temple  of 
Edfu  is  well  cared  for ;  but  so  it  has  been  ever  since  I  have  known  Egypt. 
If  the  Egyptian  government  expects  to  receive  another  golden  crop  of 
guineas  from  the  visitors  to  the  monuments  next  winter,  the  ancient  monu- 
ments of  the  country  must  be  looked  after  in  a  very  different  way  from 
that  in  which  they  are  being  looked  after  now." — Academy,  March  9. 

BULAQ. —  Tablets  from  Tel-el- Amarna. — Professor  A.  H.  SAYCE  wrote 
from  Egypt  (Jan.  3) :  "I  have  copied  all  the  tablets  and  fragments  of 
tablets  from  Tel-el- Amarna,  now  preserved  at  Bulaq.  The  tablet  contain- 
ing the  dispatch  from  the  king  of.  Arzapi  to  Amenophis  III  now  seems  to 
me  even  more  interesting  than  I  thought  it  at  first.  I  am  beginning  to 
believe  that  the  language  of  the  greater  part  of  it  belongs  to  some  Hittite 
dialect.  If  so,  the  forms  of  the  personal  pronouns  mi  '  my '  and  ti  and 
tu  '  thy '  lend  support  to  Mr.  Ball's  hypothesis  that  the  Hittite  language 
or  languages  belonged  to  the  Indo-European  family.  On  the  other  hand, 
bibbid  '  chariots,'  and  kilatta,  which  appears  to  mean  '  brother,'  have 
nothing  Indo-European  about  them  ;  and  the  verbal  forms  are  Accadian. 

"Among  the  tablets  I  have  copied  since  I  last  wrote  are  two  which  relate 
to  affairs  in  Palestine.  Unfortunately  they  are  both  fragments,  about  one- 
half  the  tablet  having  been  lost  in  each  case.  It  is  possible  that,  in  the 
second  fragment,  Kirjath  is  Kirjath-sepher,  which  seems  to  have  been  one 
of  the  most  important  of  the  Canaanitish  cities  in  the  south  of  Palestine, 
just  as  it  is  also  possible  that  the  word  Khabiri,  which  I  have  translated 
'confederates,'  may  really  denote  the  people  of  Hebron,  since  it  is  folio  wed 
by  the  determinative  of  locality.  The  word  occurs  in  one  of  the  tablets 
belonging  to  M.  Bouriant,  which  I  copied  last  year.  Another  tablet  at 
Bulaq  is  a  long  letter  to  Nimutriya,  or  Amenophis  III,  from  a  certain 
Lan-makhsi,  who  calls  himself  '  king  of  the  country  of  Karandu,'  about 
the  marriage  of  his  youngest  daughter.  There  is  a  second  royal  despatch 
from  Subbi-kuzki,  the  king  of  a  country  the  name  of  which  is  lost  with 
the  exception  of  the  last  syllable  ti.  It  is  addressed  to  the  Egyptian  king 
Khum[ya],  a  name  in  which  we  may  see  the  original  of  the  Horos  of 
Manetho.  A  third  tablet,  which  is  much  worn  and  injured,  tells  us  that 
'  at  that  time  the  king  of  the  Hittites  was  captured  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
country  of  Kutiti ' ;  and  the  statement  is  followed  by  the  mention  of  '  the 
king  of  the  country  of  Mittani '  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Euphrates,  and 
of  'the  king  of  the  country  of  Nabuma.'  There  is  another  curious  text 


[EGYPT.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  81 

in  the  collection  which  is  of  a  mythological  character.  Fragments  only 
of  it  are  preserved,  but  these  relate  to  Namtaru,  or  destiny,  who  '  con- 
sulted with  the  gods '  and  marched  behind  the  narrator  of  the  legend. 
Unless  the  missing  portions  of  the  tablet  are  at  Berlin,  it  is  not  likely  that 
we  shall  make  much  out  of  the  story,  which  may  be  of  either  Babylonian, 
Egyptian,  or  Canaanitish  origin." — Academy,  Jan.  19. 

GIZEH. — Incrustation  of  the  Great  Pyramid. — The  excavations  of  Howard 
Wyse  at  the  foot  of  the  Great  Pyramid  have  been  resumed  by  M.  Grebaut. 
The  most  fantastic  speculations  have  long  been  indulged  in  with  regard  to 
its  revetment.  Howard  Wyse  was  the  first  to  state  that  some  blocks  of  a 
stone  revetment  were  still  in  place  along  a  part  of  the  first  course.  M. 
Grebaut  has  uncovered  a  number  of  admirable  blocks  on  the  north  face. 
These  enormous  masses,  trapezoidal  in  shape,  are  cut  in  a  compact  cal- 
careous stone  with  such  precision  and  with  such  exactitude  of  edging  as 
could  be  obtained  probably  only  by  a  continuous  rubbing  to  and  fro  against 
the  row  below  and  the  side  block.  It  would  appear,  from  coloring  found 
at  the  base  of  the  pyramid  of  Khafra  that  this  polished  revetment  was 
covered  with  a  coat  of  red  coloring. — Paris  Temps,  Jan.  13. 

HAWARA. —  The  opening  of  the  Pyramid. — Mr.  W.  M.  Flinders  Petrie  has 
at  last  succeeded  in  forcing  an  entrance  into  the  sepulchral  chamber  of  the 
Pyramid  of  Amenemhat  III,  at  Hawara,  in  the  Fayum.  He  had  tunnelled 
a  passage  from  the  north  face  of  the  pyramid  as  far  as  the  stone  casing  of 
the  central  chamber,  which  proved  to  be  enormously  massive  and  resisted 
all  his  efforts.  The  summer  was  then  so  far  advanced  that  he  found  him- 
self compelled  to  postpone  the  completion  of  his  operations  till  the  present 
winter.  Returning  to  Hawara  in  November  last,  Mr.  Petrie  made  trial 
excavations  at  various  points  round  the  base  of  the  pyramid,  in  the  hope 
of  discovering  the  original  entrance.  Failing  in  these  attempts,  he  decided 
to  quarry  down  through  the  roof  of  the  central  chamber,  which  he  had 
reached  last  season.  The  roof  is  fifteen  feet  thick  and  it  took  three  weeks 
to  cut  a  very  small  vertical  shaft  through  it. 

Mr.  Petrie  says,  in  a  letter  dated  Hawara,  Jan.  12  :  "  We  know,  for  the 
first  time,  the  arrangement  of  a  royal  tomb  of  the  xn  dynasty.  The  en- 
trance is  not  on  the  north  side,  nor  in  the  middle  of  the  side ;  but  it  is  on 
the  south  side,  a  quarter  of  the  way  from  the  southwest  corner.  It  is, 
moreover,  outside  of  the  pyramid,  on  the  ground,  and  probably  opened  from 
the  labyrinth,  as  Herodotos  states.  The  passage  does  not  run  straight  into 
the  chamber,  but  slopes  down  some  way  northwards;  then  a  branch  turns 
east,  while  the  main  line  continues  as  a  blind.  The  east  passage  ends  blank, 
and  is  left  by  a  great  trap-door  in  the  roof.  Thence  the  passage  goes  north 
again,  and  turns  west ;  here  it  ends  blank  again,  and  another  roof  trap-door 
leads  up  into  a  passage  running  further  west.  From  this  a  forced  entrance 
6 


82  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.      [HAWARA.] 

has  been  made  into  the  chamber,  by  which  we  at  present  enter.  The  pas- 
sage, however,  ends  in  a  well,  leading  to  a  short  passage  southward  ;  then 
another  well,  which  is  now  full  of  water.  This,  I  conjecture,  leads  to  a 
short  passage  eastward,  from  which  a  well  ascended  into  the  chamber. 

"  The  chamber  itself  is  nearly  all  cut  in  one  block  of  sandstone,  which 
is  22  ft.  long  and  8  ft.  wide  inside,  and  all  one  up  to  6  ft.  high.  It  must 
weigh  between  100  and  200  tons.  A  course  of  stone  supports  the  roof- 
slabs,  of  which  there  are  but  three.  In  the  chamber  is  a  great  sarcophagus 
also  of  polished  sandstone,  quite  plain  and  without  inscription  ;  but  around 
the  base  is  a  projecting  foot  decorated  with  panelled  ornament.  By  the  side 
of  this  another  sarcophagus  has  been  made  by  adding  two  slabs  between  it 
and  the  wall,  and  a  narrower  lid  has  been  put  over  this.  There  were  also 
two  boxes  in  the  chamber,  one  now  broken  up  ;  both  decorated  around  the 
foot  like  the  sarcophagi.  In  the  chamber  we  have  found  some  pieces  of  the 
funereal  furniture  in  alabaster,  but  without  any  inscriptions.  The  cham- 
ber is  at  present  over  three  feet  deep  in  water,  which  makes  it  difficult  to 
explore.  The  present  entrance  is  by  the  forced  hole  in  the  roof." 

Entry  from  a  distance,  by  means  of  a  subterranean  passage,  is  a  novelty 
in  construction,  and  has  no  precedent  in  any  of  the  Ghizeh  pyramids  (iv 
dynasty),  nor  yet  in  those  of  the  VI  dynasty,  of  which  so  many  were  recently 
opened  at  Saqqarah.  This  is  the  first  time  that  the  plan  of  a  royal  tomb 
of  the  xn  dynasty  has  been  laid  open,  and  it  differs  very  considerably  from 
the  plan  observed  by  the  architects  of  the  ancient  Empire.  The  Great 
Pyramid  and  all  the  other  pyramids  of  the  Ghizeh  group,  the  pyramid  of 
Meydum,  and  the  Saqqarah  pyramids  have  the  entrance-passage  in  the 
centre  of  the  north  face  of  the  structure,  and  at  some  height  from  the  level 
of  the  desert ;  but  the  pyramid  of  Amenemhat  III  is  entered  from  the  south 
side,  by  an  opening  at  about  one-fourth  of  the  distance  from  the  southwest 
corner.  It  is  here  that  the  subterranean  passage,  from  whatever  point  con- 
ducted, strikes  the  south  face  of  the  structure.  The  ups  and  downs  of  the 
passages  in  the  earlier  pyramids  are  not  many,  and  the  obstacles  placed  in 
the  way  of  possible  intruders  consist  chiefly  of  a  series  of  massive  granite 
portcullises,  let  down  from  above,  after  the  mummy  had  been  deposited  in 
its  last  resting-place;  but  the  defences  of  the  pyramid  of  Amenemhat  III 
are  of  a  different  kind,  and  more  nearly  resemble  the  baffling  turns  and 
windings  and  wells  of  the  rock-cut  sepulchre  of  Seti  I,  at  Thebes.  It  marks, 
in  fact,  the  transition  from  the  Meinphite  to  the  Theban  style  of  sepulture. 
The  pyramid,  as  Mr.  Petrie  feared  and  expected,  had  been  broken  into  and 
plundered  long  ago ;  probably  in  the  time  of  the  Persian  rule  in  Egypt. 
A  forced  entrance  had  been  made  from  the  second  roof-trap  into  the  sepul- 
chral chamber,  and  anything  of  portable  value  which  that  chamber  con- 
tained has,  of  course,  disappeared. 


[EGYPT.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  83 

In  a  second  letter,  dated  Illahun,  Feb.  14,  Mr.  Petrie  adds  the  following 
details :  "  The  examination  of  the  inside  of  this  pyramid  is  now  tolerably 
complete ;  the  passages  in  general  have  been  cleared,  except  where  they 
sink  below  the  water-level,  and  all  the  chips  and  blocks  in  the  chambers 
have  been  turned  over.  The  results  are  that  we  have  fragments  of  a  half- 
dozen  or  more  alabaster  vases  from  under  the  water  in  the  sepulchral 
chamber,  many  inscribed,  and  one  with  the  cartouche  of  Amenemhat  III, 
proving  this  pyramid  to  be  his.  Beside  these,  the  question  of  the  second 
added  sarcophagus  is  settled  by  one  piece  bearing  the  name  of  the  "king's 
daughter  Ptahnefru,"  showing  that  there  was  a  sister  of  Sebeknefru,  bear- 
ing a  name  of  the  same  type,  who  must  have  died  between  the  dates  of  the 
building  up  of  the  chamber  and  the  death  of  Amenemhat  III.  But  the 
main  honoring  of  this  princess  was  in  the  outer  passage-chamber,  which  led 
to  the  sepulchre.  Here  we  found  an  alabaster  table  of  offerings,  27  X  17  in., 
of  beautiful  work  and  very  unusual  type.  It  bears  figures  of  over  a  hun- 
dred offerings,  vases,  plates,  loaves,  birds,  etc.,  each  inscribed  with  its  name: 
seventy  different  names  in  all.  Scattered  around  this  \yere  fragments  of 
at  least  nine  alabaster  bowls  in  the  form  of  half  a  trussed  duck,  most  of 
which  also  bear  the  name  of  Ptahnefru.  These  were  mostly  about  18  or 
20  in.  long;  one  small  one  is  8  in. 

"  I,  myself,  carefully  cleared  out  the  sarcophagi  under  the  water.  Much 
charcoal  showed  plainly  what  had  become  of  the  inner  wooden  coffins ;  but 
I  was  puzzled  by  scales  of  mica  and  grains  of  quartz  in  the  Ptahnefru  sar- 
cophagus. These  were  explained  by  finding  in  the  chamber  a  piece  of  an 
unmistakable  beard  for  inlaying,  cut  in  the  finest  lapis  lazuli.  This  showed 
that  the  features  of  the  wooden  coffins  had  been  inlaid  with  carved  stone. 

"  Both  of  the  wells  in  the  passage-chamber  proved  to  be  blinds,  and  after 
carefully  examining  the  sepulchre  it  appears  that  there  never  was  any  door 
to  it ;  the  entrance  was  by  one  of  the  sandstone  roof-slabs,  which  was  ele- 
vated in  the  upper  chamber,  and  then  let  fall  into  place  after  the  interment. 
As  it  weighed  forty  or  fifty  tons,  it  was  tolerably  safe  not  to  be  lifted  again. 
The  trap-doors  in  the  passages  I  now  see  to  have  been  for  sliding  and  not  for 
falling ;  but  the  two  inner  ones  never  were  drawn,  only  the  outer  one  having 
been  closed,  and  the  others  merely  built  up  solid  with  masonry  filling. 

The  Cemetery. — "  The  cemetery  here  proves  to  be  pretty  well  exhausted; 
but  I  have  explored  the  great  pits  and  caves  of  the  tombs  of  the  xn  dynasty 
and  obtained  a  few  pieces  of  inscription  from  them.  Many  minor  objects 
have  been  found  of  a  late  period,  beside  a  few  more  wax  portraits. 

ILLAHUN. — "  I  have  begun  (Jan.  12)  work  at  Illahun ;  and  great  num- 
bers of  wooden  coffins  with  carved  and  painted  heads  have  been  found, 
probably  of  the  xxni  dynasty ;  also  a  fine  stela  of  the  xn  dynasty. 

"  I  am  now  (Feb.  14)  living  at  Illahun,  and  working  at  the  pyramid  and 


84  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

cemetery  there,  and  the  town  of  Tell  Gurob.  The  latter  had  a  peculiarly 
brief  history ;  a  dozen  or  twenty  cartouches  have  been  found,  all  between 
Khuenaten  and  Ramessu  II,  and  not  a  fragment  of  anything  there  suggests 
a  wider  range  of  date.  Some  pieces  of  rudely  decorated  vases  found  here 
are,  therefore,  peculiarly  interesting,  as  they  are  un-Egyptian  in  style,  and 
are  identical  with  archaic  Greek  pottery.  The  patterns  are  radial  lines 
rising  around  the  vessel ;  and  on  a  bottle  with  a  solid  false  neck  are  con- 
centric quadrant  lines.  To  have  such  pieces  dated  to  the  xv  century  B.  c., 
and  connected  with  an  inland  town  in  Egypt,  is  of  much  importance  his- 
torically."— Academy,  Jan.  26,  March  16  ;  London  Times. 

THEBES. — The  late  work  directed  by  M.  Grelmut  has  been  directed  mainly 
on  three  points  of  the  site  of  Thebes — Luqsor,  Medinet-Abu  and  Deir-el- 
Bahari.  At  Luqs6r  the  work  of  removing  the  sand  has  been  continued, 
and  the  hypostyle  hall  already  comes  out  in  places  in  all  its  height.  Two 
new  chambers  have  been  recovered,  as  well  as  the  staircase  leading  up 
to  the  terraces.  A  similar  work  is  being  done  for  Medinet-Abu. — Paris 
Temps,  Jan.  13. 

TUNISIA. 

CARTHAGE. — An  early  Phoenician  Nelcropolis. —  At  a  meeting  of  the 
Academie  des  Inscriptions  (Feb.  15)  M.  de  Vogue"  described  in  detail  the 
recent  explorations  of  Father  Delattre  at  Carthage  and  their  important 
results.  He  has  discovered  on  the  hill  of  Byrsa  a  primitive  nekropolis. 
One  tomb  was  of  especial  interest :  it  was  built  of  large  blocks  of  stone 
and  contained  two  tiers  of  bodies,  together  with  vases,  bronze  arms,  etc. 
It  furnishes  the  first  authentic  specimens  of  the  Carthaginian  art  of  the  vn 
or  vin  century  B.  c.  Some  tombs  which  appear  to  date  from  the  fourth  and 
fifth  centuries  contained  terracotta  figurines  of  pseudo-Egyptian  style,  glass 
necklaces,  Phoenician  vases,  analogous  to  the  antiquities  of  the  nekropoleis 
of  Kypros  and  Sardinia. 

Drawings  and  photographs  sent  by  Father  Delattre  show  that  the  nekro- 
polis discovered  at  the  site  called  Gamart  was  that  of  a  Jewish  colony  con- 
temporary with  the  Roman  period.— Paris  Temps,  Feb.  16. 

Discovery  of  Christian  Antiquities. — In  the  January  number  of  the  Revue 
de  I' Art  Chretien  (p.  138),  Father  Delattre  speaks  as  follows  of  an  important 
discovery  (c/.  JOURNAL,  vol.  n,  p.  351)  :  "  We  found,  on  Monday,  in  our 
basilica  of  Damous-el-Karita,  a  high  relief  in  white  marble  of  very  fine 
workmanship,  representing  a  scene  very  rare  in  Christian  monuments  of 
the  first  centuries  ...  the  appearance  of  the  angels  to  the  shepherds."  It 
is  of  the  same  style — of  the  fourth  century — as  the  fine  high  relief  repre- 
senting the  Virgin  discovered  here  seven  years  ago  and  illustrated  by  MM. 
de  Rossi  and  He"ron  de  Villefosse.  Several  more  fragments  of  the  latter 
relief  have  now  been  found. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  85 

Antiquities  stolen. — In  the  same  Review  (pp.  135-8),  Father  Delattre  pub- 
lishes a  list  of  the  large  lot  of  antiquities  recently  stolen  from  the  museum 
of  St.  Louis.  The  thieves  have  been  arrested,  but  had  already  disposed  of 
their  booty.  The  list  published  will  assist  in  identifying  the  objects  which 
have  found  or  will  find  shelter  in  various  European  museums  and  collec- 
tions. They  comprise  (1)  lots  of  Phoenician,  Punic,  Numidian,  Greek, 
Roman,  Vandal,  and  Byzantine  coins,  several  being  unique ;  (2)  many  lead 
seals  of  bulls,  etc.,  consular,  archiepiscopal,  episcopal  and  imperial  seals ; 
(3)  mediaeval  French,  Spanish,  Papal,  and  Arabic  coins;  (4)  105  engraved 
stones ;  (5)  rings,  disks,  plaques,  animals,  and  other  objects  in  gold,  silver, 
bronze,  tin,  lead,  glass,  ivory  and  marble. 

SOUSSA  =  HADRUMETUM. — A  Punic  Nekropolis. — Certain  general  results 
of  importance  have  been  brought  about  by  the  excavations  carried  on  for 
fully  three  years  in  the  nekropolis  on  this  site.  The  sepulchral  chambers, 
instead  of  containing  skeletons  placed  in  niches,  are  filled  with  large  earthen 
cinerary  urns,  many  of  which  are  covered  with  Punic  inscriptions  contain- 
ing the  name  of  the  defunct  with  the  words  translated  vase  a  ossements  or 
some  similar  formula.  It  had  been  supposed,  in  consequence  of  the  exca- 
vations carried  on  in  Phoenicia,  at  Kypros,  Malta,  and  Carthage,  that  the 
Phoenicians  never  burned  their  dead.  This  is  the  first  time  that  cremation 
is  found  to  have  been  practised  by  Punic  populations.  The  writing  of  the 
inscriptions  is  midway  between  the  ancient  Punic  writing  and  the  neo-Punic 
writing  of  the  Roman  period ;  and  it  seems  hardly  probable  that  the  prac- 
tise of  incineration  could  have  been,  at  such  an  early  date,  borrowed  from 
the  Romans. —  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  54. 


ASIA. 

HINDUSTAN. 

A  new  Indian  Inscription. — Mr.  M.  F.  O'Dwyer  has  recently  discovered 
an  inscription  at  the  village  of  Kura,  in  the  Salt  Range,  where  there  are 
some  large  unexplored  ancient  mines.  A  considerable  part  of  the  inscrip- 
tion is  in  very  fair  preservation  ;  but  the  ends  of  the  first  two  or  three  lines 
are  much  obliterated,  and  from  the  lower  part  of  the  slab  four  or  five  lines 
appear  to  have  been  erased.  The  characters  are  what  are  usually  called 
Gupta,  of  about  500  A.  D.  It  is  dated  in  the  reign  of  "  Maharaja  Tora- 
mana  Shah,"  and  the  record  is  of  certain  donations  to  a  Buddhist  monas- 
tery. The  slab  was  sent  to  the  Lahore  Museum.  It  will  be  published  in 
the  Epigraphia  Indica.  The  coins  of  Toramana  are  known,  but  the  only 
epigraphic  record  of  his  reign  hitherto  found  is  the  inscription  on  the  boar 
at  Eran,  in  the  Central  Provinces.  This,  found  in  the  middle  of  the  Pan- 


86  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

jab,  would  indicate  that  his  rule  extended  far  to  the  northwest  of  Malvva, 
and  may  possibly  identify  him  with  the  Toramana  of  Kasmir,  whom 
Gen.  Sir  A.  Cunningham  considers  quite  a  separate  prince. — J.  BURGESS, 
in  Academy,  Jan.  12. 

Discovery  of  Buddhist  relic-coffer. — Mr.  J.  M.  CAMPBELL,  of  the  Bombay 
Civil  Service,  who  ten  years  ago  discovered  the  Buddhist  relics  at  Sopara, 
has  recently,  in  another  mound  in  the  forest  of  Girnar,  some  six  miles  south- 
east of  the  city  of  Junagadh,  in  Katty  war,  unearthed  another  series  of  cas- 
kets containing  what  appear  to  be  veritable  relics  of  Buddha.  The  new 
mound  is  nearly  three  times  as  large  as  the  Sopara  mound,  being  between 
80  and  90  ft.  high,  instead  of  27  ft.,  and  about  230  yards  round,  instead  of 
65  yards.  In  position,  character,  and  detail  the  two  mounds  are  much  the 
same,  however,  and  in  all  probability  date  from  the  same  time — namely, 
about  150  B.  c.,  or  some  five  hundred  years  after  the  death  of  Gautama 
Buddha.  After  three  weeks'  excavation,  Mr.  Campbell  found  a  stone 
relic-box  or  coffer,  measuring  1  ft.  2  in.  square  and  9  in.  deep.  It  contained 
a  reddish  clay -stone  casket,  which  in  turn  contained  a  small  copper  casket 
or  bottle,  green  with  verdigris,  almost  round  in  shape.  This  copper  casket 
held  a  silver  casket,  within  which  was  a  small,  round,  spike-topped  gold 
casket,  in  shape  and  size  like  a  small  chestnut.  In  this  tiny  bowl  were  four 
precious  stones,  two  small  pieces  of  wood,  and  a  fragment  about  the  size  of 
one's  little-finger  nail  of  what  seems  to  be  a  bone.  Mr.  Campbell  believes 
this  last  to  be  a  relic  of  Buddha. — Athenceum,  April  6. 

PERSIA. 

ERA  OP  THE  ARSACIDAE. — Justin  (lib.  XLI,  ch.  iv)  fixes  the  date  of  the 
beginning  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Arsacidae  in  the  year  of  the  consulship 
of  A.  Manlius  Vulso  Longus  and  M.  Attilius  Regulus  (256  B.  c.).  The 
cuneiform  texts  of  the  Arsacidae  usually  bear  two  dates  belonging  to  differ- 
ent eras,  64  years  apart.  It  had  been  erroneously  thought  that  the  first 
of  these  was  the  era  of  the  Seleucidae  (312  B.  c.),  and  the  second  that  of 
the  Arsacidae,  which  was  said  to  begin  in  248  B.  c.  Professor  Oppert  has 
recently  shown,  by  a  study  of  a  recently  published  inscription,  that  the 
first  of  these  eras  is  that  of  the  Arsacidae,  and  the  second  a  local  Baby- 
lonian era  connected  with  some  event  of  which  we  are  still  ignorant.  This 
inscription  contains  details  relating  to  a  lunar  eclipse  of  the  year  232  of 
Arsaces  or  168  of  the  second  era,  in  the  month  of  Nizan.  This  can  only 
be  the  partial  lunar  eclipse  of  Monday,  March  23,  24  B.  c.  This  unique 
document  proves  Justin  to  be  correct  in  making  the  Arsacid  dynasty  begin 
in  256  B.  c.,  in  the  month  of  Tisri.  The  inscription  begins  as  follows :  "  In 
the  year  168,  which  is  the  year  232  of  Arsaces,  king  of  kings,  this  is  what 
was  predicted  by  Uruda  (Orodes)  the  astronomer.  In  the  month  of  Nizan, 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  87 

on  the  13th  night,  at  5.51,  the  hour  predicted,  5  degrees  in  front  of  the 
point"  of  conjunction,  the  moon  was  eclipsed  on  the  side  of  the  south  and 
east. — Journal  Asiatique,  Jan.  1889,  pp.  116—18. 

CAUCASUS. 

KOUBAN  (valley). —  The  opening  of  the  Great  Kourgan. — The  Russian 
Archaeological  Commission  has  opened  in  the  valley  of  the  Kouban,  near 
Krimskaya,  a  tumulus  called  by  the  inhabitants  the  Great  Kourgan :  the 
artificial  hillock  seems  to  have  served  as  a  necropolis  to  one  of  the  Meotian 
dynasties  which  had  come  into  contact  with  Hellenic  civilization,  about 
the  first  century  of  the  Christian  era.  The  monument  is  composed  of  three 
chambers  joined  by  a  corridor,  the  height  varying  from  7  to  11  ft.  The 
walls  are  constructed  of  solid  masonry,  covered  on  the  inside  with  stucco 
on  which  appear  fragments  of  frescos.  The  central  hall  was  empty.  Hall 
No.  1  contained  the  skeleton  of  a  woman  ;  the  remains  of  a  chariot  for  two 
horses,  whose  bones  were  found  ;  and  a  quantity  of  pieces  of  fine  jewelry  ; 
a  royal  fillet  in  gold  filigree ;  gold  ear-rings ;  a  gold  plaque  with  the  head 
of  a  bull  in  repousse  work  ;  another  triangular  gold  plaque  representing  a 
youth  offering  a  drinking  horn  to  a  woman  wearing  a  pointed  cap  adorned 
with  a  triangular  plaque  exactly  like  the  one  found.  There  are  also  men- 
tioned beads  of  glass  (sometimes  engraved)  and  of  beaten  gold ;  a  serpent- 
shaped  bracelet,  ending  in  horse-heads ;  a  ring  on  whose  bezel  is  Erato 
playing  the  lyre.  In  hall  No.  3  was  the  skeleton  of  a  king :  the  objects 
found  here  were  vases,  cups,  and  horns,  of  silver ;  a  gold  necklace  on  whose 
ends  wrere  represented  lions  fighting  with  boars ;  a  silver,  gold-plated  quiver 
containing  50  copper  arrows ;  a  cimeter ;  twelve  javelin-points ;  etc.  The 
mere  metal  value  of  the  objects  excavated  is  estimated  at  200,000  francs. 
The  entire  find  has  been  sent  to  St.  Petersburg  to  be  placed  in  the  collection 
of  Antiquities  of  the  Bosphorus. — Revue  des  Etudes  Grecques,  1888,  .p.  467. 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

Babylonian  and  Egyptian  Chronology. — At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  Aca- 
demie  des  Inscriptions,  M.  Jules  Oppert  read  a  paper  upon  "  The  Date  of 
Amenophis  IV,  King  of  Egypt,  and  of  the  two  Chaldaean  Kings,  Purna- 
puriyas  and  Hammurabi."  A  tablet  of  the  reign  of  Nabonidos  (555-538 
B.  c.)  records  two  monarchs  who  worked  at  the  decoration  of  the  temple  of 
the  sun  at  Sippara — Hammurabi,  and  Purnapuriyas — the  latter  of  whom 
lived  seven  centuries  after  the  former.  Now,  the  tablets  recently  discov- 
ered at  Tel-el- Amarna  in  Egypt  mention  a  Purnapuriyas,  King  of  Chal- 
daea,  as  a  contemporary  of  Amenophis  IV.  It  has  been  hitherto  agreed 
that  Amenophis  IV  lived  about  1450  B.  c. ;  and  it  has  therefore  been  in- 


88  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ferred  that  the  reign  of  Hammurabi  must  be  assigned  to  about  2150  B.  c. 
But  M.  Oppert  brought  forward  arguments  which  seemed  to  him  decisive 
for  fixing  the  reign  of  Hammurabi  between  2394  and  2339  B.  c.  It  would 
thus  become  necessary,  either  to  push  back  the  date  of  Amenophis  IV  by 
two  centuries,  or  to  assume  the  existence  of  two  kings  named  Purnapuriyas 
at  that  interval  of  time  from  one  another. — Academy,  April  6. 

BAGHDAD. — Site  of  the  ancient  city. — Dr.  ROBERT  F.  HARPER  writes  from 
Baghdad,  Jan.  13 :  "On  January  11,  in  the  company  of  M.  Henri  Pognon, 
the  French  consul,  I  visited  the  site  of  old  Baghdad.  It  is  on  the  Meso- 
potamian  side  of  the  Tigris.  The  remains  of  the  old  mound  are  still  plainly 
visible.  The  ruins  of  a  very  large  and  compact  wall  face  the  river,  forming 
one  of  its  banks.  We  entered  a  boat  and  were  rowed  along  the  wall,  which 
is  16  to  20  feet  higher  than  the  water.  Bricks  (32  cm.  X  32  X  7)  were  taken 
from  different  places ;  and  every  one  bore  the  stamp  of '  Nebuchadnezzar, 
King  of  Babylon,  the  restorer  of  Esaqqila  and  Ezida,  son  of  Nabopolassar, 
king  of  Babylon.'  We  noticed  three  different  kinds  of  stamps.  Baghdad 
was  then  an  old  Babylonian  site.  Does  this  not  argue  for  Delitzsch's 
reading  Bagdadu  ?  "— Academy,  Feb.  23. 

ARABIA. 

Inscriptions  of  Arabia  Petraea. — At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  Academic 
des  Inscriptions,  it  was  announced  that  M.  Be"ne*dite,  charged  with  a  mis- 
sion in  Arabia  Petraea,  in  search  of  Sinaitic  inscriptions  for  the  Corpus 
Inscriptionum  Semiticarum,  had  begun  his  work  and  already  copied  more 
than  three  hundred  inedited  inscriptions. — Revue  Critique,  1889,  p.  100. 

PALESTINE. 

PALESTINE  EXPLORATION  FUND. — Publications. — The  Committee  have 
concluded  to  publish  at  once,  uniform  with  the  Survey  of  Western  Palestine, 
the  following  works,  which  they  have  in  MS.  :  (1)  CONDER,  Survey  of  East- 
ern Palestine,  with  numerous  drawings :  (2)  CLERMONT-GANNEAU,  Ar- 
chaeological Mission,  with  many  hundred  drawings.  Herr  SCHUMACHER'S 
Report  on  Abil  (the  Abila  of  the  Decapolis),  with  numerous  illustrations, 
will  be  published  during  1889.— P.  E.  F.,  Oct.  1888. 

JERICHO  (near). — The  Russian  mission,  in  digging  for  a  foundation  near 
the  site  of  the  ancient  Jericho,  found  capitals,  columns,  lintels,  iron  weapons 
and  instruments,  pottery  lamps  and  jars,  bronze  trays,  candlesticks,  rings, 
etc. ;  in  fact,  all  the  indications  of  important  buildings. 

JERUSALEM. — Herr  Schick  reports  that,  during  certain  excavations  con- 
ducted by  the  Russians,  southeast  of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre, 
a  cave  was  found,  at  a  depth  of  47?  ft.  below  the  surface.  When  the  cave 
is  cleared,  he  will  report  further  upon  it. — Pal.  Explor.  Fund,  Oct.  1888. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  89 

SYRIA. 

BANIAS  and  SOUBEIBE. —  The  Castle  and  its  Inscriptions. — In  the  Journal 
Asiatique  (Nov.-Dec.  1888),  M.  Max  van  Berchem  gives  a  long  description 
of  the  little-known  but  important  mediaeval  ruins  of  Banias  and  Soubeibe. 
These,  together  with  their  inscriptions,  had  already  been  cursorily  noticed 
by  Seetzen,  Newbold,  Socin,  Kobinson,  Gildemeister  and  Clermont-Gan- 
neau,  but  the  texts  and  a  complete  description  of  the  castle  are  here  pub- 
lished for  the  first  time.  The  ruins  of  the  Castle  of  Soubeibe  occupy  the 
summit  of  a  steep  mountain  which  overlooks,  on  the  east,  the  village  of 
Banias,  and  leans  on  the  first  spurs  of  the  Hermon.  The  view  takes  in  the 
plain  of  the  Jordan  and  the  mountains  of  Galilee.  It  is  a  strategical  point 
of  the  highest  importance.  As  a  whole,  the  ruins  are  mediaeval,  and  the 
entire  arrangement  of  the  constructions  shows  the  hand  of  the  Crusaders. 
Much  was  added,  however,  by  the  Mussulmans,  as  shown  by  the  inscrip- 
tions, and  some  parts  are  to  be  referred  to  an  earlier  period,  perhaps  the 
Byzantine.  The  plan  is  an  immense  oblong  enciente  following  the  confor- 
mation of  the  rock,  and  fortified  with  especial  care  on  the  east  and  south, 
the  weakest  sides.  There  are  many  points  of  similarity  with  several  castles 
described  by  M.  Hey  in  his  fitude  sur  C  architecture  militaire  des  Croises  en 
Syrie,  especially  with  that  of  Margat.  The  constructions  have  great  artistic 
and  archaeological  interest,  with  their  domed  and  vaulted  circular  or  octa- 
gonal halls,  long  tunnel-vaulted  passages,  and  halls  with  ribbed  cross-vaults. 
The  masonry  is  usually  in  large  blocks  of  carefully-squared  stones  accu- 
rately joined  together.  The  southern  and  northern  sides,  with  two  towers 
at  the  w.  corner  and  the  dungeon,  belong  substantially  to  the  Crusaders. 
The  west  side  is  of  mixed  construction,  but  predominantly  Saracen  as  it 
now  stands,  bearing  certain  characterstics  of  Arab  fortresses  which  were 
imitated  by  the  Templars  at  the  time  of  the  Crusades.  The  dates  of  the 
castle  may  be  determined  as  follows:  Banias  was  taken  in  1130  by  the 
Franks,  who  awarded  it  to  Foulques.  In  1132  it  was  retaken  by  Tadj-el- 
Moluk  Bouri,  sultan  of  Damascus.  In  1139  the  Franks  retook  it.  In  1164 
the  town  of  Banias  and  the  castle  were  taken  by  Nour-ed-din,  and  never 
returned  to  the  Franks.  The  constructions  of  the  Crusaders  must  then  be 
placed  between  1139  and  1164.  Later,  Banias  and  Soubeibe  belonged  to 
Saladin,  who  gave  it  to  his  son.  In  1218  the  castle  was  dismantled  by 
El-Malik  el-Mo'azzam.  Then  El-Malik  el  'Aziz  'Othman  received  it  from 
his  father  and  restored  it,  as  shown  by  an  inscription.  But  this  and  later 
restorations  by  Mohammedan  princes  never  gave  back  its  former  aspect. 
The  inscription  referred  to  says :  "  Has  ordered  the  construction  of  this 
strong  fortress  . . .  'Othman,  son  of  .  .  the  sultan  El-Malik-el-' Adil  .  .  This 
fortress  ...  was  built  in  the  month  of  Rebi'i  of  the  year  627  (1230  A.  D.)." 


90  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The  architect  was  Abu  Bekr  ibn  Nasr  el-'Azizi,  of  Hamadhan.  Further 
restorations  were  undertaken  by  'Othman's  son,  Hasan,  during  the  year 
637  (1240  A.  D.),  as  is  shown  by  a  second  inscription,  on  the  south  side. 
A  second  inscription  of  Othman,  dating  from  625  A.  H.,  is  found  on  the 
advanced  work  on  bastion  F.  Later  reconstructions  were  undertaken  by 
the  famous  sultan  Bibars,  and  proofs  of  this  fact  are  found  in  three  frag- 
ments of  a  gigantic  inscription  carved  on  large  blocks  of  stone. 

SINDJIRLI. — Dr.  R.  F.  HARPER,  visiting  Sindjirli  last  October,  after  the 
Germans.had  left  the  site  of  their  excavations,  found  in  the  trenches  a  per- 
fectly preserved  large  statue  of  a  Hittite  lion  resting  on  a  base :  the  height 
of  the  lion  is  1.45  met.  The  sculpture,  though  exceedingly  rude,  reminded 
Dr.  Harper  of  the  lions  in  the  British  Museum. —  Old  Testament  Student, 
Jan.  1889,  pp.  183-4. 

ASIA  MINOR. 

PERGAMON. — Sarcophagus. — There  has  been  found  a  large  sarcophagus 
containing  objects  of  gold  with  ornamentation,  vases,  and  other  valuable 
treasures.  This  discovery,  made  by  a  peasant  digging  his  field  near  the  slope 
of  the  akropolis,  determines  the  position  of  the  long-sought-for  nekropolis 
of  that  city.  MM.  Fontrier  and  Kontoleon  have  given,  in  the  Nea  2,/jivpvr) 
(No.  3764)  of  Smyrna,  an  account  of  this  discovery,  at  the  foot  of  the 
akropolis  at  Pergamon.  The  sarcophagus  contained  three  bodies. — Mitt- 
heilungen  Athen.,  1888,  pp.  442-3  ;  Athenaeum,  March  2. 

TRALLEIS. — Theatre. — Professor  Dorpfeld,  in  his  recent  excavations,  has 
uncovered  a  part  of  the  theatre,  the  only  remaining  building  of  the  ancient 
city.  It  had  been  much  altered  by  the  Romans.  The  seats  are  formed  of 
two  stones,  instead  of  the  usual  single  stone.  Peculiar  stelai  supported  the 
proskenion. —  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  51. 

The  steps  of  the  theatre  discovered  by  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  which  were  of  great 
importance  in  both  an  artistic  and  a  scientific  point  of  view,  have  been  de- 
stroyed in  the  search  for  building  materials.  The  Turkish  Government 
must  be  held  responsible  for  this  destruction  of  most  interesting  architec- 
tural Greek  remains. 

The  torso  of  Apollo  has  been  found  on  the  same  spot  where  the  head  be- 
longing to  the  statue  was  discovered  a  short  time  ago.  The  work  belongs 
to  a  good  period,  and  is  of  the  Tralleian  school.  It  has  been  transferred 
to  Constantinople. — Athenceum,  April  6. 

VIZE  (caza  of). — Ancient  baths. — The  following  item  is  taken  from  the 
Levant  Herald  of  Oct.  19 :  "  Precious  antiquities  have  been  unearthed  at 
different  points  of  the  caza  of  Vize  in  the  district  of  Kirk  Kilisse.  About 
two  years  ago,  very  interesting  discoveries  had  been  made  in  this  locality. 
Excavations  in  a  mound  called  Tchemlekdji  Tepe  brought  to  light  a  mag- 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  91 

nificent  marble  construction  which  must  have  been  a  bath.  On  the  inner 
walls,  carved  in  marble  were  figures  of  divinities  in  relief,  with  gold  rods. 
In  the  neighborhood  were  found  many  pieces  of  gold  and  bronze,  which 
have  since  disappeared.  The  sculptures  are,  however,  in  the  hands  of 
private  persons.  A  correspondent  writes  from  Vize:  to  a  Turkish  journal 
that  the  whole  ground  on  this  site  contains  antiquities  near  the  surface." — 
Revue  des  Etudes  Grecques,  1888,  p.  466. 

KYPROS. 

Dr.  Ohnefalsch  Eichter's  activity  continues  unabated.  Not  only  has  he 
started  a  weekly  paper  entitled  The  Owl,  which  devotes  a  considerable  space 
to  archaeology,  but  he  announces  for  March  the  appearance  of  a  journal 
devoted  entirely  to  Science,  Literature  and  Art,  under  the  title  of  The 
Journal  of  Cyprian  Studies,  a  large  portion  of  which  will  be  filled  with 
archaeological  matter.  In  the  Supplement  to  the  Owl  of  January  29,  Dr. 
Bichter  publishes  an  illustrated  report  on  excavations  conducted  by  him 
for  Sir  Charles  Newton,  in  1882,  on  the  site  of  the  temenos  of  Artemis- 
Kybele  at  Achna.  *He  describes  their  commencement  as  follows.  "  In  the 
spring  of  1882,  some  villagers  from  Achna,  Famagusta  district,  were  en- 
gaged in  digging  pits  for  the  destruction  of  locusts.  To  the  south  of  the 
village,  in  a  small  valley  in  the  direction  of  the  village  of  Xylotimbou, 
before  arriving  at  a  rocky  plateau,  they  came  across  a  heap  of  statuary, 
stone,  and  pottery.  Some  of  these  they  sold  in  Larnaca.  On  hearing  of  it, 
I  went  to  the  spot  and  succeeded  in  saving  the  place  from  further  destruc- 
tion by  excavating  it  systematically  for  Sir  Charles  Newton." 

IDALION. — On  Nov.  16,  the  important  discovery  was  made  on  the  site  of 
the  temple  of  Aphrodite  of  a  group  of  Aphrodite"  enthroned  with  two  chil- 
dren :  the  base  of  the  group  bore  a  Phoenician  inscription  in  badly-washed- 
out  black  letters :  also  were  found  four  very  remarkable,  rich  capitals,  a 
fragment  of  a  column,  and  a  fragment  of  a  colossal  sphinx,  all  of  sandstone 
and  dating  from  the  sixth  century  B.  c.  The  group  is  perhaps  slightly 
later.  The  capitals  are  richer  than  those  given  iii  Perrot,  in,  figs.  51-53. 
—Berlphil  Woch.,  1889,  col.  43. 

POLIS-TIS-CHRYSOCHOU=ARSINOE. — ERNEST  A.  GARDNER,  writing  under 
date  of  Feb.  15,  announces  that  the  work  of  the  Cyprus  Exploration  Fund 
for  the  second  season  was  begun  on  February  13.  The  first  site  attacked 
was  the  vineyard  belonging  to  Mr.  Williamson ;  one-half  of  this  was  exca- 
vated two  years  ago,  and  in  it  were  found  most  of  the  finest  vases  then 
discovered,  two  of  which  have  attracted  so  much  attention  at  the  British 
Museum.  The  other  half  still  remains  to  be  tried. — Athenceum,  March  9. 


92  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

EUROPE. 
GREECE. 

ATHENS. — THE  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  GREEK  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCI- 
ETY IN  ATHENS  (ILpaKTi/ca  T^S  ev  A^vais  'ApxaioAoyi/cTys  'Eraipias)  for  the 
years  1886  and  1887  have  been  recently  published  within  a  short  time  of 
each  other.  They  contain  much  interesting  material,  and  particularly  the 
detailed  reports  of  the  excavations  and  investigations  carried  on  under  the 
direction  of  the  Society  during  these  two  years.  The  report  on  Mykenai 
in  1886  is  accompanied  by  five  interesting  plates.  A  summary  of  this  is 
given  below  (pp.  102-4). 

FINAL  EXCAVATIONS  ON  THE  AKROPOLIS. — The  excavations  on  the 
Akropolis  have  come  to  an  end,  the  entire  surface  having  been  explored 
down  to  the  rock.  After  the  space  comprised  between  the  Parthenon  and 
the  wall  of  Kimon  had  been  completed,  the  finishing  touch  was  given  to 
the  exploration  of  the  quadrilateral  formed  by  the  west  front  of  the  Par- 
thenon, the  Sacred  Way,  the  south  terrace  of  the  Propylaia,  and  the  wall 
of  Kimon,  where  the  sanctuary  of  Artemis  Brauronia  is,«by  some  authorities, 
supposed  to  have  been.  The  Pelasgic  wall,  running  nearly  parallel  with 
the  long  sides  of  the  temple,  was  met  at  a  considerable  depth.  Toward  the 
west,  near  the  supposed  site  of  the  temple  of  Artemis  Brauronia,  there 
appeared  the  foundations  of  a  rectangular  building  measuring  about  40  by 
15  met.,  not  anterior  to  Kimon.  Full  accounts  of  the  last  stage  in  the  work 
have  just  appeared  in  the  recent  issues  of  the  Mittheilungen^  the  Bulletin  de 
Correpondance  Hellenique,  and  the  'Ap^aioXoyt/cov  AcArtov.  Of  special  inter- 
est is  the  discussion  of  the  interesting  walls  of  many  periods  lately  uncovered, 
given  in  the  Mittheilungen  by  Dorpfeld.  A  large  plan  of  the  Akropolis 
executed  by  Herr  Kawerau  has  been  published  in  the  December  number 
of  the  AeAribv.  The  excavations  were  advanced  along  the  south  side  of 
the  Parthenon  and  beyond  its  southwestern  corner.  At  a  depth  of  one  or 
two  meters  below  the  present  level,  was  reached  a  mass  of  stones  and  debris 
thrown  there  after  the  Persian  invasion.  It  was  found  to  extend  down  to 
the  native  rock.  The  earth  from  the  surface  to  a  depth  of  one  or  two  meters 
showed  evidence  of  being  deposited  in  much  more  recent  times.  In  it  were 
discovered  remains  of  cisterns,  of  ramparts,  and  of  a  Byzantine  church ; 
likewise  a  piece  of  sculpture  from  the  frieze  of  the  Erechtheion.  This  repre- 
sents a  seated  woman  clad  in  a  long  chiton  and  himation  ;  and,  except  for 
the  head,  it  is  in  excellent  preservation.  Here,  too,  was  found,  imbedded 
in  a  late  wall,  where  it  joins  on  to  Kimon's  wall,  a  marble  head  of  a  woman 
from  the  Parthenon  frieze,  whose  identity  was  recognized  by  Dr.  Charles 
Waldstein.  It  is  reproduced  in  PLATE  n  accompanying  his  paper  on  the 
subject  (pp.  1-9).  During  the  excavations,  the  large  poros-stone  substruc- 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  93 

ture,  41  by  15  meters,  already  mentioned  (iv,  492),  was  uncovered.  Its 
south  side  coincided  with  the  southern  wall  of  the  Akropolis,  though  it  did 
not  rest  upon  the  rock,  but  upon  the  debris  noticed  above.  An  examination 
of  this  filled-in  matter  brought  to  light  some  archaic  sculptures  which  are 
described  under  Marble  Sculptures  (pp.  94-5). 

The  usual  finds  of  bronzes,  terracottas,  and  fragments  of  vases  occurred, 
but  nothing  unusual  is  to  be  noted  among  them :  two  fifth-century  inscrip- 
tions, one  of  which  was  traced  with  red,  were  also  discovered.  As  soon  as  it 
became  evident  that  no  more  pieces  of  poros-stone  sculpture  were  likely  to 
be  found,  the  work  of  fitting  together  the  pieces  already  collected  was  begun 
(see  Groups  of  archaic  poros  Sculpture,  pp.  95—6).  Kabbadias  notices  the 
likeness  of  these  groups  to  others  in  the  frieze  of  Assos,  and,  taking  into  con- 
sideration the  number  of  artists  from  the  islands  whose  signatures  have  been 
found  on  the  Akropolis,  he  concludes  that  these  poros-sculpturesare  products 
of  an  Asiatic-Ionic  school,  introduced  by  way  of  the  islands  into  Attika. 

Excavations  carried  on  in  and  about  the  Odysseus-bastion  led  to  the 
discovery  of  several  inscriptions  built  into  the  wall.  A  slab  of  marble 
bears  reliefs  of  two  olive  crowns  inclosing  the  names  of  thesmothetai  of  the 
Imperial  period.  Lolling  connects  them  with  an  inscription  published  in 
Mittheil.  in,  144,  and  thinks  they  belong  to  a  large  substructure  or  altar 
near  the  cave  of  Apollon  Hypakraios.  Another  marble  relief  represents 
Pan  holding  a  shepherd's  staff  in  his  left  hand.  It  belongs  to  the  third 
century,  and  lacks  head,  feet,  and  the  right  hand.  A  decree  from  the  years 
307-301  B.  c.  relates  to  the  honors  of  a  certain  Medeios,  a  friend  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great  and  of  Antigonos,  who  had  taken  part  with  Antigonos'  son 
Demetrios  in  restoring  freedom  to  Athens.  There  was  also  found  a  piece 
of  a  tribute-list  dating  probably  from  the  earlier  years  of  the  Peloponnesian 
war.  It  gives  us  a  hitherto  unknown  city  of  the  Se/oioretxiTcu,  situated  near 
the  Hellespont,  and  some  new  forms  of  abbreviation  for  proper  nouns.  A 
decree  of  the  year  284/3  is  interesting  from  information  it  contains  about 
sacrifices  and  festivities  to  Aphrodite  Pandemos.  Higher  up  on  the  Akropo- 
lis, in  the  temenos  of  Athena  Ergane,  was  found  a  base  that  seems  to  have 
rested  against  a  wall :  on  the  front  of  it  is  a  votive  inscription  to  Athena.  Of 
more  importance  is  a  long  decree,  found  in  the  same  place,  in  honor  of  a 
certain  Oiniades  (see  page  97).  From  this  decree,  it  seems  that  there  was 
an  annual  archon  in  the  Island  Skiathos,  just  as  at  Andros.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  island  seem  also  to  have  been  divided  into  Skiathioi  and  Palaiskia- 
thioi,  and  the  latter,  Lolling  thinks,  dwelt  on  the  northern  shore  of  the 
island  at  a  place  now  called  Castro. 

Agora. — Excavations  near  the  Gate  of  the  Agora  brought  to  light  a  round 
arch  cut  out  of  a  single  block  of  marble  1.74  meters  wide.  On  the  face  is 
an  inscription  of  156-161  A.  D.  relating  to  the  institution  of  an  Agoranomion 


94  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.        [ATHENS.] 

(place  of  supervisors  of  the  Agora)  by  Herodes  Attikos,  who  constructed  it 
and  dedicated  it  to  the  Emperor  Antoninus  Pius.  This  discovery  confirms 
the  theory,  that  this  square  served  as  a  market-place  even  in  Roman  times. 
There  was  also  found  a  base  that  showed,  by  its  inscription,  that  it  had  been 
used  for  a  statue  of  the  famous  orator  and  financier  Lykourgos,  son  of 
Lykophron.  The  letters  of  this  base  belong  to  the  Macedonian  period. — 
'Apx-  AeArtov,  Oct.-Nov.;  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  60. 

Marble  Sculptures. — (1)  The  earliest  of  the  marble  sculptures  recently 
found  appears  to  be  a  circular  plinth  around  whose  edge  are  placed  stand- 
ing female  figures — all  from  one  piece  of  marble.  The  lower  parts  of  six 
figures  remain  :  there  must  originally  have  been  ten.  Not  a  single  head 
is  preserved.  The  figures  are  squarely  built,  at  right  angles;  the  drapery 
is  indicated  only  in  front  by  some  heavy  parallel  folds  falling  down  to  the 
feet,  the  nude  extremity  of  which  projects  as  in  the  Hera  of  Samos.  Each 
figure  seems  to  have  measured  about  0.40  met.  It  is  a  xopos  of  £oWa  with- 
out any  artistic  merit.  (2)  A  winged  Nike,  analogous  in  type  to  that  of 
Del os  by  Archermos,  but  much  smaller,  measuring  only  40  cent,  as  it  stands, 
with  head,  forearms  and  lower  half  of  legs  wanting.  The  statue  is  an  in- 
teresting combination  of  traditional  conventionalities  and  certain  new  ten- 
dencies. Though  the  attitude  is  archaic,  there  is  considerable  skill  in  the 
modelling  of  the  nude,  and  the  hair  and  drapery  are  represented  as  flying 
in  the  wind.  (3)  A  statue  of  Athena  armed :  on  her  breast  is  the  aigis 
with  the  gorgoneion  in  the  centre,  while  the  round  shield  she  holds  in  her 
left  has  been  swung  around  and  covers  her  back.  The  two  lower  limbs 
have  disappeared,  also  part  of  both  arms  and  the  head.  The  work  is  still 
archaic.  (4)  Several  more  archaic  female  statues  to  be  added  to  this  long 
series :  (a)  a  statue,  broken  in  four  pieces,  of  which  the  feet  and  forearms 
alone  are  wanting :  it  measures  c.  1.30  met.,  and  is  finely  preserved.  It  is 
among  the  most  advanced  of  the  archaic  statues — with  long  limbs,  slender 
waist,  and  small  head.  The  two  arms  are  thrown  forward,  the  smile  is 
almost  imperceptible,  and  the  projection  of  the  cheek  bones  has  almost  dis- 
appeared. The  predominant  color  is  red.  Though  the  artist  evidently 
aimed  at  originality,  the  statue  lacks  expression.  (6)  This  statue  is  lack- 
ing in  part  of  both  lower  limbs  and  arms.  The  costume  and  its  coloring 
are  of  the  usual  type  and  well  preserved.  It  is  entirely  archaic  in  style, 
though  the  modelling  of  the  face  is  exquisite  and  wonderfully  soft :  the  eyes 
do  not  stare,  but  seem  modestly  lowered,  and  the  smile  is  not  semi-ironical, 
as  usual,  but  sweet  and  attractive :  the  whole  expression  is  calm  and  can- 
did. This  statue  is,  according  to  M.  Lechat,  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
known  works  of  Greek  art.  (c)  Fragment  of  a  female  statue,  badly  muti- 
lated, and  less  than  life-size,  (d)  Fragment  of  a  similar  statue.  Both  are 
without  heads,  arms,  or  lower  limbs.  There  are  some  other  pieces  of  mar- 


[AKROPOLIS.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  95 

ble  sculpture  antedating  the  Persian  wars.  (1)  Male  head,  of  an  inter- 
esting type,  similar  to  that  in  bronze  reproduced  on  pi.  xv  of  the  Musees 
d1  Athenes :  its  workmanship  is  free  but  careful.  (2)  Female  head,  of  nat- 
ural size,  remarkable  artistically,  as  well  as  for  the  polos  with  which  it  is 
covered :  only  the  front  is  preserved.  (3)  Fragments  of  an  equestrian  group 
like  that  discovered  in  1886  :  only  a  small  portion  remains.  (4)  Torso  and 
head  of  the  statuette  of  a  nude  and  beardless  youth,  whose  hair,  arranged 
in  front  in  regular  ringlets,  falls  freely  down  the  neck  :  the  smiling  face  is 
turned  gracefully  to  the  right.  It  is  a  charming  addition  to  the  archaic 
series.  (5)  A  large  and  horrible  Gorgon-head  of  the  earliest  and  most 
hideous  type.— Bull.  Corr.  Hellen.,  1889,  pp.  142-8 ;  cf.  Mittheil.  Athen., 
1888,  pp.  438-40 ;  'APX.  AeXnov,  Oct.-Nov.,  1888. 

Kalludis,  the  restorer,  has  put  together  two  more  archaic  marble  female 
figures  with  rich  coloring,  which  are  among  the  more  highly  developed  of 
the  series.— Berl  phil  Woch.,  1889,  col.  139. 

Statue  by  Anterior. — Since  the  article  published  by  Studniczka  (JoArJ., 
1887,  p.  135),  it  was  known  that  an  authentic  statue  by  Antenor  existed 
in  the  Museum  at  Athens.  It  has  now  been  for  the  first  time  put  together, 
and  it  is  found  that  the  right  forearm  is  the  only  important  missing  frag- 
ment. It  is  placed  on  the  antique  base  bearing  the  artist's  signature  and 
put  on  a  high  pedestal  in  the  usual  archaic  form  of  a  column.  It  is  the 
largest  of  the  statues  of  the  Akropolis,  and  is  extremely  impressive.  Al- 
though it  has  the  archaic  style  of  the  sixth  century,  it  possesses  considerable 
grace,  beside  dignity.  It  is  narrow  at  the  feet  and  fuller  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  body.— Bull.  Corr.  Hellen.,  1889,  pp.  150-1. 

Groups  of  archaic  poros  Sculpture. — M.  Henri  Lechat,  in  his  review  of 
the  latest  discoveries  on  the  Akropolis  (Bull.  Corr.  Hellen,  1889,  pp.  131-42), 
devotes  considerable  space  to  a  careful  examination  of  the  three,  groups 
formed  by  the  reunion  of  the  greater  part  of  the  fragmentary  archaic  sculp- 
tures in  poros-stone  found  during  the  past  year  or  more.  They  have  been 
referred  to  in  more  or  less  detail  in  previous  numbers  of  the  JOURNAL  (iv, 
pp.  93,  203-4,  352-6,  493-4),  as  the  separate  pieces  were  found.  As  soon 
as  it  was  clear  that  no  more  fragments  were  likely  to  come  to  light  in  the 
excavations,  the  reconstitution  of  the  groups  was  finished.  (1)  Herakles  and 
Triton,  analogous  to  the  same  subject  in  the  Assos  sculptures :  length  3  met., 
height  75  cent.  Herakles  has  lost  his  left  leg  and  both  arms  and  head. 
Triton  has  lost  head  and  greater  part  of  torso.  The  principal  role  in  the 
struggle  is  taken  by  the  back  and  right  leg  of  Herakles,  which  are  pre- 
served. This  group  occupied  one-half  of  the  gable  of  a  temple.  (2)  Ty- 
phon(t).  This  unique  and  interesting  sculpture  has  been  only  cursorily 
described.  It  represents  three  monsters,  or  rather  a  triple  monster  com- 
posed of  three  human  torsi,  each  with  a  man's  head,  with  large  wings  on 


96  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [AKROPOLTS.] 

the  back,  ending  in  interlaced  serpent-bodies.  The  first  is  in  very  low 
relief,  hardly  projecting  from  the  background,  and  showing  only  the  left 
hand.  The  second  is  still  somewhat  compressed,  its  right  arm  being  cramped, 
though  the  forearm  is  free;  but  the  left  part  of  the  chest  and  the  entire 
left  arm  are  free.  The  third  is  perfectly  free :  he  is  slightly  back  of  the 
second,  is  joined  only  by  the  right  shoulder  and  elbow,  and  is  almost  en- 
tirely carved  in  the  round.  The  heads  correspond  exactly :  the  first  is  seen 
only  in  profile,  the  second  three-quarters  (with  its  right  side  not  carefully 
finished),  the  third  is  seen  almost  frontwise,  and  is  completely  finished.  The 
third  torso  has  wings,  now  partly  broken :  the  others  may  be  supposed  to 
have  had  them,  though  they  were  not  represented,  as  they  would  have  been 
concealed.  The  serpent-bodies  are  covered  with  alternate  red  and  blue 
painted  bands,  and  are  nearly  two  met.  long.  The  heads  have  already  been 
mentioned  (iv,  pp.  93, 203, 355)  :  they  have  very  long  and  pointed  beards. 
The  wings  are  painted  red  and  blue,  like  the  bodies.  The  two  hands  pre- 
served hold  an  attribute  which  resembles  a  thunderbolt.  A  black-figured 
vase  representing  the  combat  of  Zeus  and  Typhon,  and  descriptions  of  the 
latter  by  Euripides  and  Antoninus  Liberalis,  lead  to  the  identification  of 
this  triple  monster  as  Typhon.  The  dimensions  seem  to  be  the  same  as 
those  of  the  combat  of  Herakles  and  Triton.  M.  Lechat  suggests  the  pos- 
sibility, that  these  two  groups  formed  the  two  halves  of  the  same  gable. 
There  is  a  doubt  expressed  in  regard  to  the  third  head:  both  Lechat 
and  Kabbadias  think  it  may  rather  belong  to  the  figure  of  Herakles. 
(3)  Bull  attacked  by  Lions.  This  group,  the  latest  discovered,  has  an 
even  more  striking  resemblance  to  the  Assos  sculptures.  A  bull  is 
represented  as  succumbing  under  the  attack  of  two  lions :  he  still  lives, 
but  has  been  struck  down  and  lies  under  their  claws.  One  has  attacked 
him  from  the  rear,  the  other  from  the  front,  and  they  are  beginning  to  de- 
vour him,  while  the  blood  pours  from  the  wounds  they  have  made  in  his 
sides.  The  group  is  in  high  relief  on  several  blocks  of  poros  :  the  length 
is  about  4  met.,  the  height  about  one  met.,  and  the  figures  are  about  life- 
size.  A  great  many  pieces  are  still  wanting,  though  all  have  not  yet  been 
put  in  place.  The  colors  employed  are  mainly  red  and  blue.  The  bodies 
of  the  lions  are  a  pale  red ;  their  mane  a  dark  red  ;  the  hair  and  pores  of 
the  paws  are  black.  The  entire  bull  was  painted  blue,  except  the  running 
blood  and  the  tail,  which  are  red,  and  the  head,  which  is  elaborately  painted 
in  various  colors. —  (Tf.'Apx-  AeA/rtov,  November,  1888',MittheilungenAthen., 
1888,  p.  437 ;  Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  col.  139,  170,  171. 

Small  Bronzes. — Among  the  many  small  bronzes  the  following  may  be 
mentioned:  (1)  figure  of  a  nude  man,  dancing,  20  cent,  high  ;  (2)  handle 
of  a  box  or  vase,  formed  by  two  lions  devouring  a  deer ;  (3)  head  of 
Medusa,  extremely  archaic.  (4)  On  the  Ergan£-terrace,  in  the  lowest  part 


[ATHENS.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  97 

of  the  rubbish,  was  found  a  bronze  circle  90  cent,  in  diameter,  within  which 
is  a  large  Medusa,  of  the  most  archaic  technique,  made  of  a  bronze  plate. 
The  head  is  square,  extremely  hideous,  the  body  thin  and  covered  with  a 
wide  robe  which  reaches  to  the  ankles.  Marks  of  the  rudimentary  tech- 
nique are  the  eyelids,  which  are  chiselled  in,  while  the  pupils  are  punched 
out.— *ApX.  AeArtov,  Oct.-Nov.  1888  ;  Bull  Corr.  Hellen.,  Jan.-Feb.,  1889  ; 
Berl.phil.  Woch.,  1889,  col.  138. 

Inscriptions. — A  part  of  a  decree  of  98/7  B.  c.  gives  some  interesting 
details  regarding  the  young  girls  in  the  service  of  Athena,  taken  from  the 
ten  tribes,  who  numbered  over  a  hundred.  They  worked  the  wool  for  the 
peplos  of  Athena,  and  took  part  in  the  Panathenaic  processions. 

In  January,  was  found  a  plaque -which  partly  supplements  another 
already  in  the  Museum :  both  give  details  of  the  expenses  for  the  purchase 
of  the  ivory  and  gold  used  in  the  execution  of  the  chryselephantine  statue 
of  Athena  by  Pheidias.  The  epistates  charged  with  watching  over  its  exe- 
cution acknowledge  having  received  from  the  treasurer  the  sum  of  one 
hundred  talents :  over  87?  talents  had  been  spent  for  the  gold,  and  over  3£ 
for  the  silver. 

Several  of  the  inscriptions  recently  found  are  interesting  for  the  his- 
tory of  art :  (./)  on  a  large  marble  base,  with  the  signature  of  the  artist 
Euphron ;  (#)  on  another  base  in  the  shape  of  a  channelled  column, 
the  signature  of  Endows,  EMAOI03  EPOli,  to  which  is  added  that  of 
Philermos,  PIl'EPf/Aos]  EPOIE3EM;  (3)  the  signature  of  Hegias,  EAIA*; 
(^)  the  signature  of  Kresilas,  .  .  ll'A^  ;  (5}  a  long  plinth  which  supported 
an  equestrian  group,  seen  by  Pausanias  and  thought  by  him  to  represent 
the  sons  of  Xenophon  :  the  inscription  shows  that  the  artist  was  Lykias  of 
Eleutherai,  son  of  Myron.— Bull.  Corr.  Hellen.,  1889,  Jan.-Feb.,  p.  150, 
etc.]  Mittheil.  Athen.,  1888,  pp.  441-2  ;  'ApX.  AeArtov,  Oct.-Nov.,  1888. 

Honorary  inscription  to  Oiniades  of  Skiathos. — This  inscription  (referred 
to  on  page  93),  written  orot^Sov,  was  found  on  a  block  of  Pentelic  mar- 
ble, somewhat  chipped  at  the  bottom :  0eot  |  c8o£ev  TTJL  (3o\.-r)i  /cat  TWI  S^IOH, 
AvTtoXts  eTrpvravcve,  Ev/c|  Actors  eypafi/Mareve,  IepoK\\r)<s  CTree-rare,  EvKrrjfjuDv 
i)PXf>  I  AtetTpec/)^?  etTre.  CTmS^  avr]\p  earn  aya6o<s  Otvta8?7s  o  IIaAIaicr/cia$io5 
Trept  Tf]v  7ToA.iv  r\rjv  A^vatcov  /cat  7rpo$iyxos  7ro|tev  on  Swarai  ayaOov  /cat  e|u 
TTOiet  TOV  ac^t/co/xevoi/  A077|vaia>v  e^KiaOov,  eTratvecrat  r[e  atmoi  /cat  ava-ypauf/ai 
avrov\  7rpo£evov  /cat  evepyer^v  A^|vat(oi/  /cat  TOS  e/cyovos  avro'  /c!at  orreos  av  pr) 
a^LKfjraL  €7riju,e|  [Xjccr^at  rrjv  re  /3o\7jv  rrjv  aft  f3\ovXfvovcrav  /cat  TOVS  crr/oar^yjos 
/cat  TOV  ap^ovra  TOV  ev  ^KL\aO(^L  os  av  r\i  e/cao~Tore,  TO  8e  \f/\r) '(frier pa  roSc.  avaypac/>at 
Toy  y\pa/j.fjiarea  rr)<s  /3oXrj<s  ev  o~T7yA.^|t  XiOivrji  /cat  KaraOevai  eyu.  ojoXet*  /caXecrat 
Be  avrov  KO.L  CTT  t  £evia  e<s  TO  TTpvraveiov  es  a|vptov.  AvTi^ap^s  cnre'  ra  fte|[v] 
aXXa  KaOarrep  rr)i  /3oX^t,  e?  8j[e  T^Jv  yvwfJifjv  /xeTaypdi^at  avTJ([t  TO  5J/aa$to 
OTTO)?  av  T]i  yeypa|jMyxevov  OtvtaSTyv  TOV  naA.ao~|/cta^tov. — 'ApX.  AeA-Ttov,  Oct.— 
Nov. ;  Berl  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  col.  202. 
7 


98  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [AKROPOLIS.] 

Inscription  relating  to  the  building  of  the  Parthenon. — There  has  been 
found  another  considerable  fragment  of  an  inscription  recording  construc- 
tions which  were  overseen  by  the  epistates  between  447  and  432.  It  now 
seems  certain  that  all  the  fragments  relate  to  the  building  of  the  Parthenon 
(c/.  Koehler  and  Kirchhoff).  According  to  them,  the  Parthenon  was  com- 
menced in  447  ;  a  fragment  of  the  accounts  of  the  epistates  for  444  is  pre- 
served ;  in  438  it  was  far  enough  advanced  to  receive  Pheidias'  Athena ;  in 
434  the  treasurers  began  to  draw  up  an  inventory  of  the  objects  deposited 
in  different  parts  of  the  temple,  showing  that  the  interior  was  finished, 
though  on  the  exterior  the  sculptures  were  not  completed,  nor  the  columns 
channelled,  nor  the  paintings  executed.  Work  was  still  going  on  in  433/2. 
— Bull  Corr.  Hellen.,  1889,  pp.  174-8. 

Architectural  fragments. — Among  these,  the  most  interesting  are  the  frag- 
ments of  columns  which  have  flutings  not  parallel  to  the  axis  but  arranged 
in  spirals  around  the  drum. —  Classical  Review,  March,  1889. 

Temple  of  Aphrodite  Pandemos. — Pausanias  enumerates  the  monuments 
on  the  Akropolis  in  the  following  order :  the  theatre  and  temple  of  Dionysos, 
the  temple  of  Themis,  the  tomb  of  Hippolytos,  the  temples  of  Aphrodite 
Pandemos,  Demeter  Chloe  and  Ge~  Kourotrophos.  The  sites  of  the  thea- 
tre and  the  Asklepieion  are  now  fixed.  At  the  w.  end  of  the  Ergane- 
terrace  have  been  found  the  substructures  of  several  small  sanctuaries.  It 
is  here  that  the  temple  of  Themis,  the  tomb  of  Hippolytos,  and  the  tem- 
ple of  Aphrodite  are  placed.  The  main  doubt  has  been,  whether  this  tem- 
ple of  Aphrodite,  called,  as  early  as  the  fifth  cent.  B.  c.,  e<£'  'iTnroXvTv,  is 
the  same  as  the  temple  of  Aphrodite*  Pandemos.  It  has  now  been  proved, 
that  there  were  two  temples,  and  that  the  second  must  be  looked  for  on  the 
s.  declivity  of  the  Akropolis.  Three  inscriptions  relating  to  Aphrodite 
have  just  been  found  in  the  earth  near  the  s.  tower  by  the  Beule-gate;  they 
evidently  come  from  the  Pandemos  temple,  which  was  probably  near  by. 
The  first  inscription  dates  from  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century,  and  is 
dedicatory.  The  second  is  on  an  architrave,  and  of  the  fourth  century.  The 
third  is  on  a  stele  exposed  in  the  temple,  and  bears  a  decree  of  284/3 
B.  c.  regulating  the  service  in  the  temple  under  the  care  of  the  astynomoi. 
A  short  dedicatory  inscription  evidently  comes  from  the  small  temple  of 
Demeter  Chloe,  and  is  of  the  Imperial  period.— Bull.  Corr.  Hellen.,  1889, 
pp.  156-68. 

Site  of  the  Chalkotheke. — ERNEST  A.  GARDNER  writes  to  the  Athenceum, 
(Jan.  12):  "As  a  topographical  gain,  we  may  mention  that  the  Chalko- 
theke has  for  the  third — and  let  us  hope  the  last — time  been  identified  in 
a  large  building  that  backs  on  to  the  Kimonian  wall  in  the  so-called  te- 
menos  of  Athena  Ergane\  The  foundations  only  remain,  but  Dr.  Dorp- 
feld  thinks  we  have  enough  grounds  for  believing  this  identification  of  his 


[ATHENS.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  99 

to  be  the  final  one.  The  building  is  large  enough  to  contain  the  numerous 
and  bulky  articles  which  we  know  from  inscriptions  to  have  been  stored 
in  the  Chalkotheke* ;  but  we  must  await  Dr.  Dorpfeld's  publication  of  his 
views,  and  not  anticipate  beyond  a  mere  mention  of  the  fact." 

Review  of  the  Excavations  on  the  Akropolis. — Dr.  CHARLES  WALDSTEIN 
has  sent  the  following  report,  dated  Athens,  December  31 :  "  To-day  the 
excavations  on  the  Akropolis  have  been  brought  to  an  end.  They  have 
now  been  carried  on  continuously  for  three  years,  and  have  been  most  suc- 
cessful and  fruitful  in  results,  both  artistic  and  purely  archaeological.  The 
Greek  authorities  have  spared  no  trouble  and  expense  in  making  them  the 
success  they  have  proved  to  be.  ...  In  every  instance  the  diggings  have 
been  carried  down  to  the  primitive  rock,  thus  exhausting  the  possibilities 
of  future  finds  on  this  site  and  obviating  a  future  disturbance  of  the  surface 
of  the  Akropolis.  Some  of  the  most  interesting  Cyclopean  or  Pelasgic  re- 
mains of  the  earliest  settlers  of  Athens  have  been  laid  bare,  to  do  which  it 
was  necessary  sometimes  to  dig  to  a  depth  of  14  meters.  The  surface  of 
the  Akropolis  will  be  restored  to  its  former  state,  excepting  where  interest- 
ing early  remains  have  been  laid  bare  ;  these  will  remain  visible,  the  neces- 
sary precautions  being  taken  not  to  endanger  the  visitor. 

"  In  all,  from  30  to  40  marble  statues  have  been  exhumed,  of  which  20 
were  discovered  this  year ;  over  50  articles  in  bronze  have  been  found,  the 
most  important  of  which  are  a  perfectly-preserved  large  bronze  head,  to- 
gether with  statuettes  of  Athene1,  athletes,  and  warriors,  discovered  this 
year  ;  over  100  terracottas  ;  over  1,000  fragments  of  vases,  some  with  im- 
portant inscriptions ;  and  over  300  inscriptions,  some  of  great  historical 
value,  while  others  recording  the  names  of  early,  especially  Ionian,  artists, 
are  of  supreme  importance  in  throwing  light  upon  the  early  history  of  Greek 
art.  Besides  all  this,  the  results  as  regards  Greek  and  post-Hellenic  archi- 
tecture can  hardly  be  estimated,  and  it  will  take  years  of  study  to  utilize 
the  important  material  offered. 

"As  to  future  work,  it  may  be  interesting  to  know  that  the  Greek  Gov- 
ernment has  invited  the  cooperation  of  the  foreign  archaeologists  here  resi- 
dent, and  that  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider  the  plan  of  proceed- 
ing with  the  work  on  and  round  the  Akropolis.  This  committee,  consist- 
ing of  the  General  Ephoros  of  Excavations,  M.  Kabbadias,  and  the  Di- 
rectors of  the  French,  German,  English,  and  American  Archaeological 
Schools  here,  met  yesterday,  and  it  was  decided  to  resume  excavations 
immediately,  beginning  below  the  Propylaia  at  the  west  end  of  the  theatre 
of  Herodes  Attikos,  and  to  continue  round  the  north  and  east  slopes  of  the 
Akropolis  below  the  wall.  It  was  also  decided  to  collect  all  the  extant 
stones  and  architectural  remains  of  the  tower  abutting  on  the  west  end 
of  the  so-called  Beule-gate,  and  to  place  them  in  their  original  position ; 


100  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.  [AKROPOLIS.] 

and  to  support  the  tower  upon  which  the  temple  of  Nike  Apteros  stands 
by  means  of  a  buttress,  as  there  is  considerable  danger  of  its  falling  in. 
On  the  Akropolis,  it  was  decided,  with  due  consideration  to  the  safety  of 
the  building,  to  clear  away  the  portions  of  the  Turkish  minaret  so  far  as 
it  distorts  the  actual  plan  of  the  Parthenon,  and  to  lay  bare  the  original 
door  of  the  west  end.  Finally,  it  is  proposed  to  take  down  some  portions 
of  the  late  barbarian  wall  above  the  wall  of  Kimon,  where  it  is  likely  that 
important  fragments  of  sculpture  and  inscriptions  are  immured.  A  frag- 
ment of  the  frieze  of  the  Parthenon  has  just  been  found  in  a  portion  of 
this  wall.  It  may  be  interesting  to  know  that  a  clause  was  introduced  in 
the  report  of  the  committee,  stating  that  every  consideration  is  to  be  given 
both  to  the  picturesque  appearance  of  the  Akropolis  as  a  whole,  and  to  the 
historical  interest  of  the  Akropolis  as  regards  the  periods  not  purely  Hel- 
lenic. The  small  portion  of  wall  just  referred  to,  for  instance,  will  be  put 
up  again,  after  it  has  been  examined,  out  of  the  material  of  which  it  is  now 
composed. 

"  Last,  but  not  least,  I  must  mention  the  admirable  advance  made  in  the 
exhibition  of  these  articles  in  the  museums  and  elsewhere.  The  Central 
Museum  is  being  re-organized,  and  will  form  a  kind  of  British  Museum. 
The  monuments  are  exhibited  very  soon  after  their  discovery,  and  cata- 
logues are  at  once  prepared.  The  arrangements  and  facilities  for  study, 
as  compared  with  my  last  visit  several  years  ago,  are  so  much  improved 
that  all  students  and  tourists  have  reason  to  be  grateful  to  a  government 
which  finds  time  and  means  to  advance  the  cause  of  humanism  so  effi- 
ciently, and  for  the  energy  and  skill  displayed  by  M.  Kabbadias,  the  General 
Ephoros  of  Museums  and  Excavations,  M.  Stais,  and  all  the  other  officials." 

International  Commission  on  Excavations. — M.  LAMBROS  writes  from 
Athens,  in  regard  to  the  committee  mentioned  in  Dr.  Waldstein's  report : 
"  The  Ministry  of  Public  Instruction  has  named  a  commission,  on  the  pat- 
tern of  the  General  Ephorate  of  Antiquities,  to  investigate  the  question  of 
the  embellishment  and  the  further  excavations  of  the  Akropolis  at  Athens. 
This  consists  of  the  directors  of  the  foreign  archaeological  institutes  exist- 
ing in  Athens — M.  Foucart,  Mr.  Gardner,  Dr.  Dorpfeld,  and  Dr.  Wald- 
stein.  The  commission  has  made  the  following  recommendations: — (1) 
That  all  the  walls  of  the  peribolos  of  the  Akropolis  of  late  date  should  be 
destroyed  down  to  the  ancient  level.  Only  those  walls  should  be  left  which 
stand  where  no  ancient  walls  or  no  ancient  foundation  exist.  (2)  That  the 
side  walls  on  either  side  of  the  door  of  Beule  and  the  Propylaia  ought  also 
to  be  levelled  and  be  replaced  by  iron  railings.  (3)  That  the  great  Turk- 
ish vaulting  and  all  later  additions  should  also  be  destroyed,  and  that  a  part 
should  be  laid  bare  down  to  the  rock.  (4)  That  every  trace  of  the  Turkish 
minaret  on  the  Parthenon,  as  well  as  the  later  antes  of  the  western  door  of 


[ATHENS.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  101 

the  Parthenon,  is  to  be  destroyed,  but  after  an  examination  as  to  whether 
this  can  be  done  without  any  injury  to  the  building.  (5)  That  the  western 
wing  of  the  Propylaia  should  be  restored,  so  far  as  ancient  stones  of  it  are 
available." — Athenaeum,  Feb.  2. 

THEATRE  OF  DIONYSOS. — In  the  excavations  of  the  German  Institute  in 
the  upper  portion  of  the  cavea  of  the  theatre  of  Dionysos,  besides  traces  of 
an  ancient  road,  and  of  some  buildings  on  the  rock  before  the  erection  and 
extension  of  the  theatre  under  Lykourgos,  has  been  discovered  an  oinochoe 
almost  entire,  bearing  black  figures  representing  a  bacchanalian  scene,  with 
the  inscription  "  Xenokles  has  made,"  and  "  Kleisophos  has  painted,"  in 
letters  of  an  older  period  than  Eukleides. — Athenceum,  March  23. 

CENTRAL  MUSEUM. — Additions. — (1)  Small  marble  image  used  for  the 
support  of  a  large  statue  (instead  of  the  usual  tree),  recently  found  in 
LAMIA.  This  xoanon-shaped  figure  wears  an  aigis-gorgoneion  and  long 
breastplate,  and  has  a  serpent  twisted  around  it.  The  inscription,  IIpa£iTe- 
Aiys  |  'A^vatos  eTTotei,  shows  that  it  belongs  to  this  artist  of  the  Roman  period, 
who  is  known  also  by  other  inscriptions.  (2)  Bronze  Corinthian  helmet 
found  in  Lamia.  (3)  Late  marble  figure  of  Dionysos,  found  near  the 
OLYMPIEION.  (4)  Bearded  head  of  a  man,  well  preserved,  also  from  the 
Olympieion.  (5)  Two  late  statues  of  women  clad  in  himatia,  brought  from 
THERA.  (6)  Various  pieces  of  sculpture  from  ELEUSIS  and  from  AKRAIPHIA, 
including  some  bronzes.  (7)  Terracotta  figurines,  mostly  from  BOIOTIA. 
(8)  Coins  from  many  quarters. — 'Ap^-  AeAriov,  Oct.-Nov.,  1888. 

DELPHOI. — No  progress  has  been  made  toward  excavating  at  Delphoi. 
When  the  French  rejected  the  treaty  of  commerce  with  Greece  to  which 
was  attached  the  permission  to  excavate  Delphoi,  the  project  was  aban- 
doned by  the  French  School,  and  the  Greek  Government  offered  the  work 
to  the  American  School.  Before  anything  definite  had  been  accomplished 
toward  raising  the  necessary  funds  in  America,  the  Greek  Archaeological 
Society  made  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  secure  money  for  the  undertaking. 
At  present,  the  work  is  open  to  the  American  School,  without  competition, 
provided  the  sum  necessary  for  the  purchase  of  the  village  of  Kastri,  on 
the  site  of  ancient  Delphoi,  can  be  raised.  This  sum  is  variously  estimated 
at  between  $25,000  and  $50,000.  If  this  sum  can  be  procured,  the  Ameri- 
can Archaeological  Institute  is  ready  to  pledge  the  greater  part  of  its  income 
for  five  years  to  carry  on  the  excavations.  An  appeal  to  the  public  will 
shortly  be  made,  in  order  that  America  may  have  the  honor  of  excavating 
this  the  most  important  site  of  ancient  Greece. 

MOUNT  LYKONE. —  Temple  of  Artemis  Orthia. — The  Ministry  of  Public 
Instruction  gave  M.  J.  Kophiniotis  leave  to  make  excavations  on  the  site, 
which  proved  the  existence  of  the  sanctuary  (JOURNAL,  iv,  p.  360). 
He  reports  that  the  peribolos  of  the  temple  has  been  almost  entirely  laid 


102  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.        [GREECE.] 

bare.  The  length  of  the  north  wall  was  12.30  meters,  and  that  of  the 
eastern  and  western  9.80  met.  each.  The  eastern  and  western  were  con- 
nected at  the  sixth  met.  by  an  inner  wall,  a  portion  of  which  remains. 
There  is  an  empty  space  7.30  met.  long  between  the  fragment  of  this  in- 
terior wall  and  the  western  wall.  The  northwest  was,  however,  surrounded 
by  a  wall  of  its  own.  This  enclosed  portion  of  the  sanctuary  has  a  mosaic 
floor,  half  formed  of  large  pieces,  the  other  half  of  small  ones.  Of  the 
stones  of  the  peribolos  some  were  not  worked  at  all,  the  rest  finished.  The 
worked  stones  are  almost  all  of  the  same  dimensions,  1.10  met.  long,  0.35 
broad,  0.35  thick.  The  unworked  stones  are  of  varying  dimensions,  from 
0.70  to  1.60  met.  long,  and  from  0.40  to  0.60  broad.  Within  and  without 
the  peribolos,  it  is  reported,  have  been  found  various  roof-tiles,  lion-heads, 
and  other  fragments  of  the  building ;  also,  fragments  of  marble  drapery, 
and  of  an  arm  and  a  leg  belonging  to  a  great  statue,  'which  the  report  con- 
siders to  have  been  one  of  the  statues  that,  according  to  Pausanias,  adorned 
the  temple,  to  wit,  those  of  Apollo,  Artemis,  and  Leto :  they  were  the  works 
of  Polykleitos.  On  the  east  side  of  the  peribolos  has  been  found  a  well- 
preserved  torso  of  the  marble  statue  of  a  female :  it  is  0.20  met.  high ;  the 
head,  hands,  and  feet  are  missing.  The  workmanship  is  admirable.  The 
discovery  of  three  muses  of  the  R6man  period  shows  that  the  sanctuary 
was  visited  and  prosperous  as  late  as  the  time  of  Geta  and  even  of  Con- 
stantius  II,  that  is,  till  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century  after  Christ. — S.  P. 
LAMBROS,  in  Aihenceum,  Jan.  19. 

MYKENAI. — Two  tombs  have  been  explored  by  M.Tsountas.  One  of  them 
contained  ivory  objects,  while  the  other  was  empty.  Two  ivory  cylinders 
were  found,  but  were  so  covered  with  accretions  that  they  were  sent  to 
Athens  to  be  cleaned  :  they  were  covered  with  circles  of  scales  in  relief. 
Besides  these,  there  were :  (1)  3  ivory  reliefs :  one  representing  the  upper 
part  of  a  women  holding  in  her  left  hand  a  branch  or  a  flower ;  another, 
the  lower  part  of  a  seated  woman;  the  third  (a  well-preserved  plaque), 
representing  a  sphinx :  (2)  pieces  of  a  stone  vessel :  (3)  a  peculiar  clay  vessel 
bearing  an  incised  ornamentation,  the  incisions  being  filled  with  a  white 
substance.  Excavations  will  next  be  made  in  the  prehistoric  palace  discov- 
ered last  year. — 'Apx-  AeXriov,  Oct.-Nov. ;  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  60. 

The  Akropolis. — CHR.  TSOUNTAS  in  the  Ephemeris  and  in  the  Praktika, 
and  CHR.  BELGER,  from  these  sources,  in  the  BerL  phil.  Wochenschrift 
(1889,  No.  4),  give  the  conclusions  to  be  drawn  from  the  latest  excavations 
at  Mykenai.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  proved  that  the  city  was  not  aban- 
doned after  its  destruction  by  the  Argives.  There  was  a  Kw/xr/  Mv/caveW  in  the 
time  of  the  Spartan  tyrant  Nabis,  as  is  proved  by  an  inscription  of  consid- 
erable length :  another  inscription  proves  the  same  fact  for  the  second  cen- 
tury B.  c.  Of  great  importance  are  the  results  for  the  history  of  architec- 


[GREECE.] 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 


103 


FIGURE  20.— Ground-plan  of  the  akropolis  of  Mykenai. 


104  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.        [GREECE.] 

ture.  A  PLAN  is  given,  (Figure  W}  from  Dorpfeld's  drawings,  in  the 
Praktika  for  1886,  lately  issued.  The  plans  of  Tiryns  and  Troja  will  afford 
interesting  points  of  comparison.  If  we  seek  to  distinguish  the  various 
strata  from  each  other,  the  uppermost  discloses  the  foundations  of  a  long 
Doric  temple,  part  of  which  was  built  directly  above  the  ancient  palace. 
The  temple  probably  dates  from  the  time  of  the  Persian  wars,  when  the 
inhabitants  of  Mykenai  were  strong  enough  to  send  a  special  body  of  sol- 
diers to  Plataia.  Of  the  architectural  members  only  a  block  from  the  cor- 
nice has  been  found  (so  Tsountas  in  the  Praktika :  Dorpfeld  in  the  Mittheil. 
Athen.,  1886,  p.  330  announces  the  discovery  of  a  capital,  architrave,  and 
triglyphs).  Possibly,  two  fragments  of  archaic  relief-sculpture  belonged 
to  this  temple.  Beneath  the  temple  was  found  a  layer  of  careless  construc- 
tion, and,  still  lower,  the  remains  of  a  palace  like  that  at  Tiryns.  The  chief 
room  is  the  ptyapov  or  men's  dwelling,  in  the  midst  of  which  was  the  hearth 
surrounded  by  four  columns  that  supported  the  roof.  The  hearth  was  here 
made  of  clay  and  ornamented  with  brightly  painted  stripes.  The  apart- 
ment is  divided,  as  at  Tiryns,  into  vestibule,  antechamber  and  court.  To 
the  southeast  of  the  ^yapov  was  probably  a  propylaion,  analogous  to  that 
at  Tiryns ;  though  the  descent  from  the  fieyapov  was  not  by  means  of  a 
ramp  but  by  a  stately  stairway  2.40  meters  broad.  To  the  north,  sepa- 
rated by  a  long  corridor,  lies  the  women's  palace.  Here  golden  ornaments 
were  found,  and  rich  wall-decoration.  The  walls  were  built  of  large  stones 
below,  and  smaller  ones  above,  were  strengthened  by  horizontal  beams, 
plastered  and  ornamented  with  paintings  of  at  least  a  geometrical  charac- 
ter. Leaving  the  summit  of  the  citadel,  we  pass  southwards  over  the  re- 
mains of  a  winding  ramp  to  a  group  of  buildings  of  various  periods,  some 
of  which  seem  to  have  been  annexed  to  the  citadel  at  an  early  date.  Here 
were  discovered,  painted  on  the  walls,  a  line  of  ass-headed  monsters,  hith- 
erto known  only  from  the  so-called  Island-gems.  These  carry  the  long 
staff,  but  lack  the  suspended  booty  represented  on  the  gems.  The  ass-head 
surmounts  a  brightly-dressed  human  body,  like  a  minotaur.  The  rect- 
angular buildings  to  the  left  of  these,  and  the  circular  enclosure  of  graves, 
belong  to  the  earlier  excavations  of  Schliemann. 

PEIRAIEUS. — Not  far  from  the  east  end  of  the  great  harbor,  have  been 
found  three  statuettes  of  the  goddess  Kybele,  about  30  centim.  high.  The 
figure  is  seated  in  a  niche,  above  which  is  an  aetoma ;  she  bears  upon  her 
knees  a  lion,  and  has  a  phial  in  her  right  hand.  In  one  of  these  statuettes, 
upon  the  side  columns  of  the  niche,  is  seen  the  relief  of  a  boy  on  the  right 
hand,  and  of  a  girl  on  the  left.  As  other  statuettes  of  Kybele  have  been 
found  at  the  Peiraieus,  they  may  point  to  the  existence  of  an  ancient  temple 
to  the  goddess.  In  the  same  district  has  been  found  a  sepulchral  stele,  with 
aetoma,  and  the  inscription  Euthenika  Tebana;  also  two  loutrophoroi,  wholly 


[GREECE.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  105 

decorated,  the  one  in  relief,  the  other  in  painting.  These  large  water-vases 
have  lost  neck  and  base,  but  they  bear  inscriptions  of  names.  The  vase  in 
relief  represents  a  man  seated ;  before  him  stands  a  woman  with  right  hand 
stretched  toward  him,  and  behind  her  a  female  slave  holding  in  her  hand  a 
small  basket :  the  man's  name  is  Lysippides,  that  of  the  woman  Lysimache. 
The  painted  vase  still  shows  traces  of  color  and  has  inscribed  the  name 
Pytheos. — Athenceum,  March  16. 

In  the  place  where  the  statues  of  Asklepios  were  found,  other  antiquities 
have  since  come  to  light.  A  headless  statue  of  a  boy,  resting  chiefly  on  the 
right  foot  and  having  the  left.foot  advanced.  In  his  left  hand  he  holds  some 
spherical  object,  and  from  the  left  forearm  the  himation  hangs  down  to  the 
ground.  The  right  hand  and  part  of  that  arm  are  missing.  Besides  this, 
there  were  found  a  head  of  a  youth,  complete  excepting  the  nose ;  and,  in 
another  part  of  the  town,  a  long  and  as  yet  incompletely  deciphered  inscrip- 
tion.— 'Apx-  AeXribv,  October,  1888. 

STAMATA  (Attika). — Discovery  of  its  identity. — Stamata  is  a  small  vil- 
lage lying  just  beyond  the  ridge  which  shuts  in  on  the  north  the  valley 
leading  into  Ikaria.  Some  have  placed  at  Stamata  the  deme  of  Sema- 
chidai.  Others,  including  Lolling,  believe  it  to  be  the  site  of  Hekal£. 
Mr.  Washington,  of  Yale,  a  member  of  the  American  School  at  Athens, 
decided  to  excavate  both  at  Old  Stamata,  a  little  to  the  s.  of  the  present 
village,  and  at  the  ruins  of  three  churches  partly  built  of  ancient  materials, 
half  an  hour  distant  to  the  north.  In  his  excavations  at  Old  Stamata,  Mr. 
Washington  found,  besides  various  fragments  of  sculpture,  an  unusually 
well-preserved  female  torso  larger  than  life,  and  several  inscriptions  which 
establish  this  as  the  chief  centre  of  the  deme  Plotheia,  which  may  have 
extended  into  the  valley  beyond. — N.  Y.  Nation,  No.  1231. 

TANAGRA. — The  latest  excavations  have  yielded  several  noteworthy  statu- 
ettes, besides  sepulchral  stelai  and  inscriptions.  At  the  suspension  of  work 
for  the  winter,  the  more  portable  antiquities  were  transferred  to  the  Cen- 
tral Museum,  Athens. — 'A/>X-  AeXribv,  Oct.-Nov.,  1888. 

THESPIAI  (near). —  Temple  and  Theatre  of  the  Muses  on  Mount  Helikon. — 
Pausanias  describes  the  temple  that  stood  in  the  Grove  of  the  Muses,  and 
the  works  of  art  contained  in  it  (ix.  29-31).  The  statues  of  the  Muses 
themselves  were  works  of  Kephisodotos,  Strongylion,  and  Olympiosthenes, 
and  belonged  to  the  fifth  century  B.  c.  It  is  the  first  occasion  on  which  we 
find  the  Muses  attaining  the  orthodox  number  of  nine.  But  the  grove  was 
adorned  with  statues  of  other  divinities,  and  also  of  poets  and  musicians. 
A  festival  of  the  Muses,  styled  the  Museia,  was  celebrated  in  the  grove 
under  the  superintendence  of  the  Thespians,  in  whose  territory  the  grove 
lay.  Inscriptions  previously  found  had  informed  us  of  the  cult  of  the 
Muses,  which  continued  into  Roman  times ;  those  lately  discovered  are  in 


106  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.       [GREECE.] 

the  Boiotian  dialect,  and  have  been  met  with  in  the  churches  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Karanda,  upon  the  road  from  Thisbe  to  Leuktra.  One  of  them 
mentions  the  offerings  to  the  Helikonian  Muses  by  Philetairos,  the  son  of 
Attalos  I,  King  of  Pergamon. 

The  interest  which  the  French  Archaeological  School  showed  as  early  as 
1884,  when  M.  Foucart  published  these  inscriptions  in  the  Bulletin  de  Cor- 
respondanceHellenique,  determined  him  to  proceed  to  the  systematic  inves- 
tigation of  the  site  of  the  temple.  After  the  French  had  obtained  the 
necessary  permit  from  the  Minister  of  Worship,  they  set  to  work  in  Octo- 
ber and  November.  M.  Jamot  superintended  the  work.  The  results 
attained  have  proved  most  interesting. 

The  centre  of  the  excavations  has  been  the  modern  church  of  the  Holy 
Trinity,  which  exactly  occupies  the  site  of  the  Temple  of  the  Muses.  It  is 
situated  at  about  an  hour's  walk  from  the  village  of  Palaiopanagia,  on  the 
lower  eastern  slopes  of  Helikon.  The  church,  of  which  only  the  founda- 
tions remained,  has  had  to  be  entirely  removed.  The  temple  below  proves 
to  have  been  12.50  meters  long  by  6.50  broad.  The  entrance  was  on  the 
west  side.  It  was  an  amphiprostyle  of  four  Ionic  columns,  similar,  there- 
fore, to  the  Temple  of  Nike"  on  the  Akropolis.  It  had,  it  would  seem, 
neither  forecourt  nor  opisthodomos,  so  that  it  had  the  look  of  a  cella  flanked 
on  two  sides  by  pillars.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  temple  had  been  rebuilt 
in  Roman  times,  when  it  was  lengthened  6  meters  so  as  to  form  a  square. 
The  discoveries  of  objects  of  art  are  limited  ...  on  the  other  hand,  the  store 
of  inscriptions  is  large;  they  are  dedicatory  inscriptions,  among  them  an 
epigram  in  verse. 

The  excavations  will  be  resumed  in  the  spring.  It  is  intended  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  complete  opening  of  a  hemicycle  lying  at  about  fifteen  minutes' 
walk  from  the  temple,  and  probably  the  ancient  theatre. —  LAMBROS  in 
Athenceum,  Jan.  5. 

The  'A/3X.  AeXrtW  for  Oct.-Nov.  and  the  Berl  phil  Woch.  (1889,  col.  74) 
inform  us  that  the  stage  arrangements  were  found  to  be  similar  to  those  of 
the  theatre  of  Epidauros.  The  stage,  which  was  covered  with  a  mass  of 
debris  over  four  meters  deep,  has  a  width  of  18.10  met.  (20  met.  ace.  to 
Woch.),  and  is  adorned  with  half-columns  of  the  Doric  style,  14  of  which 
are  still  in  position,  according  to  the  AeXrtov ;  while  the  Woch.  reports  that 
there  were  originally  only  13  columns,  of  which  but  seven  have  been  found. 

VOLO. —  Government  of  Magnesia. — Among  the  inscriptions  recently  found 
at  Volo,  there  is  one  of  the  second  century  B.  c.  of  singular  importance,  as 
it  makes  known  to  us  some  particulars  of  the  government  of  the  Thessalian 
city  of  Magnesia,  which  proves  to  be  very  similar  in  constitution  to  the 
JEtolian  League.  In  this  decree  of  the  city  in  honor  of  a  certain  Hermo- 
genes,  son  of  Adymos,  who  was  secretary  of  the  synedroi,  appear  the  names 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  107 

of  the  chief  magistrates  of  the  district  of  the  Magnetes,  viz.,  the  strategos, 
the  hipparchos,  the  navarchos,  the  tamias,  and  the  priest  of  the  Askraian 
Zeus. — Athenaeum,  March  23. 

KRETE. 

KNOSSOS. — Proposed  excavations  by  Dr.  Schliemann. — Dr.  SCHLIEMANN, 
supported  by  the  Syllogos  of  Candia,  is  at  present  in  treaty  for  the  pur- 
chase of  a  hillock  named  Kephalaton  Tshelebi,  on  the  site  of  the  ancient 
city  of  Knossos,  in  order  to  clear  out  a  large  archaic  building,  amongst 
the  ruins  of  which  have  been  lately  found  pithoi  and  vases  of  the  so-called 
Mykenai  period.  Mr.  Stillman  has  pronounced  this  building  to  be  the 
Labyrinth  of  Daidalos,  but  it  is  more  likely  to  prove  to  be  an  andreion, 
or  a  hall  for  the  syssitia  of  the  inhabitants  of  Knossos,  or  at  any  rate  a 
public  building  of  a  remote  epoch.  At  present  all  that  is  to  be  seen  are 
some  very  thick  walls  of  local  gypsum  stone,  which  were  partially  disin- 
terred by  the  Spanish  vice-consul,  M.  Calocherin6s,  in  1877.  Some  of  these 
stones  bear  figures  of  ancient  character,  probably  masons'  marks.  The 
form  of  the  building  appears  to  be  rectangular,  about  44  met.  by  55,  and 
both  the  walls  and  mode  of  construction  have  striking  points  of  resemblance 
with  the  prehistoric  palace  of  Tiryns.  Dr.  Schliemann  has  been  induced 
to  enter  on  this  work  by  the  information  given  him  in  1884,  and  first  pub- 
lished in  1886  by  Dr.  Fabricius ;  but,  when  he  and  Dr.  Dorpfeld  visited 
Krete  at  that  time,  the  negotiation  did  not  meet  with  the  success  it  now 
seems  likely  to  obtain. — Athenceum,  Jan.  26. 

ITALY. 
PREHISTORIC  AND   CLASSIC  ANTIQUITIES. 

NATIONAL  SCHOOL  OP  ARCHAEOLOGY. — The  king  of  Italy  has  author- 
ized the  institution  of  an  Italian  School  of  Archaeology,  to  be  directed  by 
Senator  Fiorelli.  The  members  of  the  School  will  receive  a  subvention 
from  the  State  for  three  years.  They  will  spend  the  first  year  at  Rome, 
the  second  at  Naples,  where  they  are  to  take  part  in  the  excavations  at 
Pompeii,  the  third  in  Greece.  The  preparatory  courses  for  membership, 
entitling  to  this  stipend,  will  include :  Italian  Epigraphy ;  Roman  Antiq- 
uity and  Epigraphy ;  Greek  Antiquity  and  Epigraphy ;  Archaeology  and 
History  of  Art ;  Roman  Topography  ;  Palethnology.  The  competition  is 
open  to  doctors  of  philosophy  and  letters,  but  not  to  doctors  of  law. — 
Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  60 ;  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  54. 

NATIONAL  MUSEUM  OF  ANTIQUITIES. — A  new  museum  has  been  insti- 
tuted at  Rome,  bearing  the  above  title.  It  is  divided  into  two  sections : 
one  is  to  contain  the  antiquities  found  in  the  City  proper ;  the  other,  those 
found  in  its  vicinity.  Collections  of  casts,  for  the  use  of  students,  will  be 


108  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [ITALY.] 

comprised  in  the  new  museum ;  and  it  will  contain  archives,  open  to  stu- 
dents, in  which  will  be  preserved  all  documents  relating  to  the  excavations 
made  in  Rome  and  its  vicinity.  They  are  preparing,  at  the  Baths  of  Diocle- 
tian, the  permanent  locality  to  receive  the  objects  of  this  museum.  In  the 
mean  time,  it  is  provisionally  installed  at  the  Villa  di  Papa  Giulio  (Villa 
Glori),  near  the  Porta  del  Popolo :  they  have  finished  the  classification  and 
exposition  of  the  most  important  objects  coming  from  the  excavations  made 
for  two  years  past  at  Civita  Castellana,  the  ancient  Falerii  (c/.  JOURNAL,  in, 
pp.  460-7).  The  antiquities  of  the  necropolis  have  been  arranged  according 
to  an  excellent  method.  Each  tomb  is  numbered,  and  its  funerary  furni- 
ture has  been  collected  in  a  glass  case  or  in  a  part  of  one ;  and  the  cases 
arranged  chronologically.  The  furniture  taken  from  the  most  ancient 
tombs  consists  of  objects  in  amber,  silex,  arms  of  bronze,  vases  not  worked 
on  the  wheel.  The  less  archaic  tombs  show  Phoenician  importations  ;  then, 
one  distinguishes  Greek  influence  ;  afterward,  appear  the  works  of  a  school 
of  local  art ;  finally,  it  is  the  Grseco-Roman  art  which  they  exhibit.  The 
series  is  uninterrupted  from  the  vni  century  B.  c.  to  the  last  part  of  the 
Empire.—  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  pp.  51,  66-7. 

AMENTINUM. — A  new  Latin  City. — CHR.  HULSEN,  in  the  Berl.  phil.  Woch. 
(1889,  col.  35),  starting  from  the  readings  of  two  manuscripts  of  Vitruvius 
restores  to  light  a  forgotten  Latin  city,  Amentinum,  which  in  this  case 
had  been  read  Amiternum.  He  is  helped  by  the  inscription  of  the  time 
of  Tiberius  (  G.  I.  L.  vi,  251)  dated  27  A.  D.  The  site  cannot  by  these  means 
be  accurately  determined,  but  it  may  lie  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tiber, 
near  the  Sabine  hills,  or  on  the  Monti  Corniculani. 

BAIAE. — A  Portions  Triumphi. — Comm.  de  Rossi  (Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp. 
709-14)  calls  attention  to  an  unexplained  but  exceedingly  interesting 
inscription  recently  found  at  Baiae :  PORTICUS  •  Tm[umphi  \  LONG  .  EFFIC  • 
PE[C?  -  dim  |  ITUM  •  et .  RED  .  p[ec? .  oo  cxii  \  PASS  •  ccxxiif  -  semis  \  QUIN- 
QUIES  •  iT[um  •  et  -  red  EFFICIT  PA^S-MS  |  oo  cxii.  This  triumphal  portico 
of  Baiae  was  evidently  a  reproduction  of  that  in  Rome,  an  example  of  the 
imitation  of  monuments  of  the  great  city  so  common  throughout  the  Em- 
pire. The  characters  of  the  inscriptions  are  fine  monumental  letters  of  the 
first  century  of  the  Empire.  A  similar  inscription,  dating  from  the  third 
cent.  A.  D.,  was  found  near  Rome  in  1852,  and  is  an  example  of  the  appli- 
cation of  the  public  triumphal  porticos,  on  a  small  scale,  to  private  villas 
and  gardens.  In  all  of  them  we  find  the  peculiar  form  of  calculating  the 
measurement  of  the  monument  according  to  the  number  of  paces  covered 
by  passing  backward  and  forward  through  it  a  certain  number  of  times, 
i.  e.,  1112  paces  for  five  times  or  a  single  length  of  222 £  paces  equivalent 
to  1112  ft.;  and  the  half  of  this,  or  the  itus  alone  (without  the  reditus), 
and  the  length  of  the  portico,  556  ft.  The  original  porta  triumphalis  in 


[ITALY.]  ARCHJSOLOGICAL  NEWS.  109 

Rome  cannot  be  exactly  located,  but  it  was  near  the  campus  Flaminius, 
probably  in  the  villa  publica  or  Saepta.  Its  original  name  was  probably  lost 
at  the  time  of  the  magnificent  constructions  of  Agrippa,  finished  in  728  u.  c. 
BREMBATE  (so^o). — Prehistoric  Antiquities. — In  last  July,  there  came  to 
light,  along  the  road  from  Osio  to  Trezze,  near  Brembate,  a  cemetery  of 
the  first  iron-age,  nearly  corresponding  to  the  third  period  of  Este,  and  in 
topographico-chronological  respects  with  the  groups  of  Lodi  and  Como 
illustrated  by  Castelfranco  and  Barelli.  At  the  depth  of  one  meter,  the 
excavators  found  numerous  cinerary  urns  of  terracotta  and  of  bronze,  con- 
taining small  earthen  vases  and  an  abundant  collection  of  objects  in  bronze 
and  iron,  as  well  as  arms  of  iron,  and  skewers  (?)  placed  above  or  outside 
the  large  vases.  Through  neglect  or  ignorance,  the  authorities  were  not 
informed,  and  many  of  the  objects  were  thrown  away.  The  greater  part 
were,  however,  recovered.  A  complete  list  in  137  numbers  is  given,  from 
which  is  the  following  selection.  Silver:  a  ring.  Bronze:  a  cista  a  cor- 
doni ;  several  situlae ;  a  large  number  of  fibulae  of  a  great  variety  of  forms ; 
rings,  armlets,  earrings,  etc. ;  a  sword-handle  with  a  fragment  of  the  deco- 
rated blade,  with  a  bit  of  the  scabbard  ;  also  the  sword-point,  covered  with 
a  piece  of  the  wooden  scabbard  over  which  is  a  thin  strip  of  brass.  This 
rare  object  must  have  been  nearly  intact  when  found.  Other  important 
pieces  are :  (1)  a  rod,  perhaps  for  religious  use,  in  the  shape  of  a  rectangu- 
lar shaft  surmounted  by  a  globular  end ;  (2)  a  large  ornament,  composed 
of  a  central  plaque  highly  decorated,  similar  in  part  to  the  Gallic  baldric 
found  at  S.  Florentin  near  Sens ;  (3)  a  superb  iron  two-edged  sword,  still 
retaining  a  large  part  of  the  scabbard,  with  a  highly  decorated  handle. — 
Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  673-81. 

CASTEL  SAN  PIETRO. — ARomanBridge. — In  enlarging  the  present  bridge 
over  the  torrent  Silaro,  near  Castel  S.  Pietro,  the  discovery  was  first  made 
of  a  solid  Roman  wall  built  of  immense  blocks  and  intended  to  protect 
the  banks  above  the  bridge.  Then  came  the  discovery  of  parts  of  the 
Roman  bridge,  and,  finally,  of  two  identical  inscriptions  on  marble  cippi: 
IMP-  CAESAR-  DIVI I  NERVAE  FILIVS-  NERVA  I  TRAIANVS- AVG  • 
GERM-PONTIMAX-TRIB-POT-IIII'COS-III-P-P-F-  The  sub- 
structure of  the  bridge  was  a  large  palisade,  then  came  a  very  thick  layer 
of  cement  from  which  rose  the  stepped  piers.  As  the  Via  Aemilia  was 
built  in  187  B.  c.,  it  would  seem  natural  to  suppose  that  the  bridge  dated 
from  that  time  and  not  from  A.  D.  100  in  the  time  of  Trajan.  This  is  sup- 
ported by  the  evident  erasure  of  earlier  inscriptions  from  the  two  blocks, 
the  surfaces,  fresher  than  any  others,  being  smoothed  down  to  receive  the 
inscriptions  of  Trajan,  to  whom  was  due,  evidently,  a  restoration  of  the 
bridge.— Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  617-22. 

CHIETI=TEATE. — New  Inscriptions. — Some  interesting  inscriptions  have 


110  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [ITALY.] 

come  to  light  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  on  which  rises  the  city  of  Chieti,  the 
ancient  Teate  Marrucinorum.  First  is  a  large  sepulchral  inscription,  then 
many  masses  of  stone  with  architectural  decoration  which  formed  a  monu- 
ment. Seven  of  these  have  gladiatorial  scenes  in  relief.  Four  formed  the 
summit  of  the  front  and  represented  the  spectators  of  the  circus  with  the 
tibicini  at  the  angles ;  and  three  other  pieces,  which  must  have  formed  an 
ornamental  band,  showed  the  gladiators  fighting.  The  art  is  of  the  best 
imperial  period,  and  the  figures  are  often  very  well  preserved.  The  monu- 
ment may  be  that  to  which  a  large  inscription  belongs,  found  last  year, 
erected  by  C.  Lusius  storax  sibi  et  coniugibus  suis.  To  it  belongs  an  in- 
scription with  a  long  list  of  members  of  a  funerary  college ;  another  long 
inscription  contains  nine  distichs. — Not.  d.  Sscavi,  1888,  pp.  745-50. 

CORNETO=TARQUINII. — The  last  report,  on  the  excavations  undertaken 
last  spring  from  March  5  to  May  12,  contains  little  of  interest.  The  work 
was  begun  to  the  s.  of  the  Arcatelle,  and  gave  the  following  results.  March 
5th,  a  trench-tomb  :  8th,  a  chamber-tomb  with  flat  ceiling,  already  sacked : 
9th,  a  second  similar  chamber-tomb,  fallen  in  ;  and  a  ribbed-vaulted  tomb 
containing  two  bronzes  similar  to  those  in  well-tombs  and  trench-tombs : 
10th,  a  similar  chamber-tomb,  also  fallen  in,  which  also  contained  some 
bronzes :  12th,  another  ribbed- vaulted  tomb  with  interesting  terracotta 
vases  imitating  bronze  vessels :  15th,  a  ruined  chamber-tomb :  26th,  a 
ribbed-vaulted  chamber-tomb,  etc.  The  earthenware  found  in  these  tombs 
was  not  of  much  importance,  though  including  quite  a  number  of  pieces 
of  Greek  manufacture. 

Through  dissatisfaction  with  the  above  results,  excavation  was  suspended 
on  that  site  and  begun  on  April  9  in  front  of  the  new  cemetery.  This  was 
somewhat  more  successful ;  in  a  tomb  discovered  Apr.  16  were  found  nine 
rude  sarcophagi ;  the  bust  of  a  woman  on  a  stone  aedicula ;  the  head  of  a 
man  inside  one  of  the  sarcophagi,  which  also  contained  an  amphora  with 
yellow  figures.— Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  691-6. 

MASSA  MARTANA  (Umbria). —  Via  Flaminia. — Comm.  Gamurrini  calls 
attention  to  the  following  inscription,  as  important  for  the  course  of  the 
Via  Flaminia:  IMP  CAESAR  I  DIVI  •  TRAIA|NIPARTHICI  •  F|  DIVI- 
NERVAE-  N  ITRAJANVS-  HADRI|ANVS- AVG  •  PONT|  MAX-TRIB. 
POT-WI  COS  III  PROCOSVIIAM  PROLAPSAM  |  NOVA  •  SVB- 
STRVCT|  REST.  This  is  a  record  that  the  Emperor  Hadrian  had,  nova 
substrwtione,  restored  the  ancient  road  in  877  u.  c.  (224  A.  D.),  while  Ha- 
drian was  in  the  East,  for  which  reason,  he  assumed  the  title  of  proconsul. 
The  road  is  the  Flaminia,  which  from  Narni  passed  through  Carsulae.  The 
inscription  was  found  near  the  middle  station  on  this  part  of  the  road, 
called  ad  Martis  (i.  <?.,  adfanum  Martis) ;  the  itinerary  is  Mevaniam  (=  Be- 
vagna) — ad  Martis  xvi—Narniam  xvm. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  681-2. 


[ITALY.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  Ill 

MONTEGIORGIO. — Site  of  Falerium  Picenum. — The  discovery  of  a  sepul- 
chraljinscription  near  the  present  commune  of  Montegiorgio  places  here  the 
site  of  the  ancient  Falerium  Picenum  (c/.  C.I.L.  ix,  p.  517).  It  reads : 

T  •  SILLIVS  KARVS  VIVOS  POSVIT  •  SIBI  •  ET  •  |  VENITIAE  •  PRISCAE  •  CON  | 
TVBERNALI  CARISS  |  ET  IANVARIA  •  FIL  •  |  INFR  •  P  XX  INAGR  •  P  •  XX  | 
QVI  '  HOC  '  VIOLARIT  |  DABIT  •  AERARIO  •  FA|LERIENS  HS  OO  OO. — Not.  d. 

Scam,  1888,  p.  725. 

ORVIETO. — Excavations  in  the  Southern  Necropolis. — In  September,  re- 
mains of  a  two-chambered  tomb  were  found  near  the  Cannicella  on  the 
land  of  Cav.  Luigi  Fumi.  There  were  fragments  of  black-figured  and  red- 
figured  vases,  many  remains  of  bucchero  vases  with  reliefs,  the  feet  of  a 
bronze  chair,  a  small  bronze  lion,  etc. 

In  the  same  region,  two  tombs,  each  with  two  chambers,  were  found  on 
the  property  of  Sig.  G.  Onori.  They  contained  remains  of  burnt  and  un- 
burnt  bodies,  and  many  fragments  of  tractyte  belonging  to  two  or  three 
cinerary  urns,  the  largest  of  which  was  carved  in  very  fine  style.  As  the 
tombs  had  been  already  visited,  only  fragments  were  found  of  Attic  red- 
figured  vases  (amphora  and  two  kylikes),  of  local  black-figured  ware,  and 
of  common  unpainted  ware. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  622,  726. 

OSTIA. — Awaiting  final  excavations  in  the  zone  between  the  Theatre  and 
the  so-called  Temple  of  Matidia,  which  will  settle  the  problem  of  the  nature 
and  use  of  large  buildings  now  partly  uncovered,  Professor  Lanciani  de- 
scribes briefly  some  of  the  chambers  in  one  of  them,  a  bathing  establishment. 
This  building  is  practically  intact,  preserving  not  only  its  architectural  but 
its  figured  decoration.  Its  public  character  is  shown  by  the  heaviness  of 
walls  and  vaults,  and  by  the  size  of  the  halls.  Perhaps  these  are  the  well- 
known  baths  of  Antoninus  Pius.  A  plan  is  given  of  the  chambers  dis- 
covered :  these  are,  (1)  a  frigidarium,  where  the  piscina  is  divided  off  by 
an  archway  supported  by  two  marble-incrusted  pilasters  and  by  two  granite 
columns  with  Attic  vases  and  beautiful  capitals  of  Greek  marble.  The 
walls  are  decorated  with  niches  which  contained  sculptures,  of  which  the 
following  fragments  were  found :  (a)  a  life-size  marble  bust  of  splendid  work- 
manship and  in  perfect  preservation,  somewhat  resembling  Lucius  Verus; 
(6)  a  male  bust  with  short  hair  and  beard  and  lively  expression,  in  perfect 
preservation;  (c)  bust  of  a  bearded  man,  with  chlamys  thrown  over  his 
shoulder,  of  the  time  of  the  Antonines ;  (d)  portrait-bust  of  a  woman,  with 
headdress  like  that  of  Plotina ;  (e)  idem,  with  curly  hair  and  a  stephane ; 
(/)  headless  statuette  of  Fortuna ;  (gr)  headless  female  statue,  1.65  met. 
high,  draped  in  a  tunic  and  mantle  which  entirely  cover  her,  even  to  her 
hands ;  (fi)  a  fine  large  headless  athletic  statue ;  (i)  remarkable  terracotta 
semi-statuette  of  a  fountain-nymph  carrying  fruit  and  flowers.  (2)  The 
large  central  hall,  covering  188  sq.  met.,  had  painted  walls  and  a  vaulted 


1 1 2  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y.  [ITALY.] 

ceiling,  as  is  proved  by  the  blocks  lying  on  the  pavement.  The  floor  is 
in  chiaroscuro  mosaic  with  figures  of  animals,  monsters,  a  triton,  genii,  etc. 
On  the  marble  base  of  a  statue  was  an  inscription  of  T.  Petronius  Priscus, 
Imperial  Procurator  in  Noricum. 

The  second  building  referred  to  is  like  an  immense  rectangular  isolated 
domus,  with  streets  on  all  four  sides,  occupying  the  space  between  the  Baths 
described  above  and  the  Theatre.  Its  w.  side  measures  over  50  met.,  the 
others  have  not  yet  been  uncovered.  It  was  built  at  the  close  of  the  first 
or  the  beginning  of  the  second  century  of  the  Empire.  The  whole  of  its 
lower  floor  was  occupied  by  tabernae,  the  doors  to  which  were  afterwards 
closed  up  with  fine  brickwork  of  the  time  of  Severus,  showing  that  the 
building,  originally  private,  was  expropriated  for  government  use,  i.  e.,  as 
the  casern  of  the  vigili.  This  fact  is  shown  by  two  inscriptions  ;  the  first, 
of  217  A.  D.,  Valerio  Titanlano  Praef.  Vig.  E.  M.  V.  cur  ante,  etc. ;  the  second 
mentioning  a  cohort,  two  centurions,  and  a  tribune  of  the  vigili. — Not.  d. 
Scavi,  1888,  pp.  737-45. 

POMPEII. — At  a  meeting  of  the  Academic  des  Sciences  (Feb.  14)  M.  Fou- 
quie  reported  an  analysis  which  he  had  made  of  fragments  of  blue  coming 
from  a  fresco  at  Pompeii.  He  found  a  double  silicate  of  chalk  and  copper, 
which  he  has  succeeded  in  reproducing.  This  blue  is  unalterable  and  the 
strongest  known.  M.  Berthelot  showed  it  to  be  the  famous  Alexandrian 
blue  whose  manufacture  dates  from  the  time  of  the  Ptolemies  and  was 
imported  to  Italy  in  the  beginning  of  our  era.  Pozzqoli  was  the  centre  of 
this  industry  in  Italy.  M.  Fouquie  believes  that  this  blue  was  originally 
prepared  with  sand  and  carbonate  of  chalk  submitted  to  a  high  tempera- 
ture, to  which  grated  copper  was  added.  The  whole  was  then  pulverised 
and  used  as  ochres  are. — Paris  Temps,  Feb.  15. 

REGGIO=RHEGION  (Calabria). — In  the  neighborhood  of  the  city  has  been 
found  one  of  the  peculiar  tombs  of  this  region,  whose  top  is  covered  with 
about  forty  large  tiles  that  lean  against  the  side  walls.  This  tomb,  1.80 
met.  X  1.10  X  0.53,  contained  15  tear-bottles  and  a  number  of  vases.  With- 
in the  city,  excavations  at  the  casern  of  S.  Agostino  resulted  in  the  dis- 
covery of  a  monumental  tomb  of  late  period  ;  and  a  large  ancient  building 
paved  with  [marble,  which  originally  had  a  peristyle  with  columns  that 
remained  standing,  apparently,  during  the  Middle  Ages.  A  number  of 
fragments  of  terracottas,  principally  female  heads  and  reliefs,  have  come  to 
light  in  various  parts  of  the  city. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  753-4. 

REGGIO=REGIUM  LEPIDUM  (Aemilia) — Roman  Aqueduct. — In  a  field  at  a 
distance  of  1500  met.  from  Reggio,  there  have  been  found  remains  belong- 
ing to  a  Roman  aqueduct  which,  starting  probably  at  the  Acque  chiare, 
ended  at  Regium  Lepidum,  whose  site  is  occupied  by  the  modern  city.  The 
parts  discovered  are,  a  well  to  aerate  the  water  and  a  basin  for  the  deposit 


[ITALY.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  113 

of  the  objects  brought  along  by  the  water.  The  well  is  conical  in  shape  and 
is  about  three  meters  deep.  The  conduits  of  the  aqueduct  leading  from 
the  well  in  both  directions  were  explored  to  a  considerable  distance. — Not. 
d.  Scavi,  1888,  p.  616. 

ROMA. — New  archceological  series  of  the  Lincei. — The  class  of  Moral  Sci- 
ences of  the  R.  Academy  of  the  Lincei  has  appointed  a  committee  by  means 
of  whom  the  Academy  will  begin,  in  the  current  year  1889,  a  special  series  of 
archaeological  publications  of  large  size  accompanied  by  numerous  plates ; 
without,  however,  putting  a  stop  to  the  useful  Notizie  degli  Scavi.  The 
committee  is  composed  of  Domenico  Comparetti,  Giuseppe  Fiorelli,  Wolf- 
gang Helbig,  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Ersilia  Lovatelli  and  Luigi  Pigorini. — 
Bull.Palet.Ital,  1888,  pp.  205-6. 

SCULPTURE. — Discoveries  during  1888. — The  December  number  of  the 
Bull.  Comm.  arch,  gives  (pp.  481-91)  a  catalogue  of  the  sculptures  dis- 
covered by  the  archaeological  commission  during  the  year  1888.  Most  of 
these  have  already  been  mentioned,  but  we  select  the  following.  Two  statues 
of  Jupiter,  four  of  Mercury,  one  of  Venus,  two  of  Amor,  three  of  Bacchus, 
one  of  Aesculapius,  and  a  number  unidentified :  thirteen  heads,  busts,  herms 
and  masks :  fourteen  torsi  and  fragments  of  statues :  eight  reliefs  and  frag- 
ments of  reliefs,  several  of  remarkable  beauty  and  interest,  two  being  in 
Greek  style :  six  sarcophagi  or  fragments. 

Recent  Discoveries. — Among  the  recently-discovered  pieces  of  sculpture, 
the  following  may  be  noted.  1.  Marble  statue  of  Mercury,  less  than  life- 
size,  broken.  2.  Trunk  of  marble  statue  of  a  Satyr,  less  than  life-size,  of 
good  style.  3.  Statuette  of  semi-nude  Venus,  of  marble,  headless  and  foot- 
less. 4.  Headless  female  statuette  of  marble,  draped.  5.  Life-size  statue 
of  a  River,  headless  and  partly  armless,  reclining :  it  is  of  good  style.  6. 
Headless  statue  of  a  girl,  half-crouching,  half-kneeling  :  its  legs  and  great 
part  of  the  arms  are  broken  away.  It  is  archaistic  work  of  good  style.  7. 
Torso  of  a  statuette  of  good  workmanship.  8.  A  colossal  head  of  good  art, 
probably  of  Neptune.  9.  Life-size  bust,  in  free  style :  head  similar  to  An- 
toninus Pius.  10.  Bicipital  herm — Pan  and  bacchante.  11.  Fragment  of 
a  good  relief  of  two  figures  banquetting,  one  male,  the  other  female  ;  both 
being  semi-nude  and  reclining.  12.  Colossal  trophy,  consisting  of  a  Roman 
cuirass  in  the  shape  of  a  thorax  placed  on  the  trunk  of  a  tree :  it  is  in  good 
style  and  preservation,  and  a  rare  monument.  13.  Large  fragment  of  a 
frieze,  above  an  architrave,  on  which  remain  three  figures  in  high  relief, 
headless,  and  draped  in  togas — an  apparitor ,  and  two  speakers :  the  style  is 
fine.  It  may  have  belonged  to  the  buildings  erected  by  Pompey  near  S. 
Andrea  della  Valle.— Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  1888,  pp.  415-20. 

Early  Latin  Coins. — In  dredging  the  Tiber  near  the  Salara  under  the 
Aventine,  thirteen  coins  of  the  primitive  Latin  mintage  were  brought  up. 
8 


114  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.  [ROMA.] 

All  weigh  four  ounces,  that  is,  are  trientes,  and  belong  to  Latium,  Lower 
Etruria,  and  Kome.  They  are  derived  from  the  type  of  the  primitive  eleven- 
ounce  as,  and  belong  to  the  end  of  the  fourth  or  the  beginning  of  the  third 
century  B.  c. :  they  evidently  formed  part  of  a  votive  deposit.  Two  only 
belong  to  Rome,  and  the  latest  of  these  is  of  lighter  weight  than  all  the 
others,  showing  a  depreciated  coinage  in  Rome  which  gradually  shut  out 
that  of  the  neighboring  cities.  Three  of  the  coins  belong  to  Sutri.  The 
triens  seems  to  have  had  a  sacred  significance,  cf.  the  custom  of  placing  one 
in  the  mouth  of  the  deceased.— Not.  d.  Scavi.  1888,  pp.  628-9. 

MOSAIC. — Part  of  a  tile  found  near  S.  Lucia  in  Selce  represents  the  lower 
part  of  a  warrior,  executed  in  the  fine  mosaic-work  of  colored  enamels  of 
the  kind  that  is  often  inserted  in  the  centre  of  pavements.  The  warrior  is 
not  fighting  but  rather  speaking,  and  holds  with  his  left  hand  a  round 
shield  and  a  lance.  His  overgarment  is  bluish  and  his  legs  are  covered 
with  knemides.  Under  the  figure  is  the  inscription  (1  OAYA  A[/xas].  Per- 
haps the  entire  subject  was  Homeric,  and  represented  Polydamas  seeking 
to  dissuade  Hektor  from  continuing  the  combat  with  the  Greeks. — Bull. 
Comm.  arch.,  1888,  p.  424. 

INSCRIPTIONS. — Forum  of  Augustus. — Professor  Lanciani  publishes,  in 
the  January  number  of  the  Bullettino  delta  Commissions  archeologica  co- 
munale,  a  paper  on  the  ForUin  of  Augustus.  In  1881,  the  Commune  pur- 
chased an  area  of  about  950  sq.  met.  within  the  area  of  the  Forum,  opposite 
the  temple  of  Mars,  with  the  intention  of  pulling  down  the  miserable  con- 
structions which  covered  the  ground,  in  the  hope  of  discovering  the  marble 
pedestals  erected  by  Augustus  in  honor  of  the  most  notable  Roman  generals 
(Sueton.,  Aug.,  31)  upon  which  their  statues  were  placed :  the  Forum  was 
inaugurated  in  752  u.  c. :  Augustus  himself  dictated  the  elogia  or  biographi- 
cal notices  to  be  inscribed  on  the  pedestals.  Their  importance  for  history 
cannot  be  overestimated.  Only  fourteen  inscriptions  with  the  elogia  cla- 
rorum  ducum  have  been  recovered  since  the  Renaissance :  of  these,  nine  are 
copies  found  elsewhere,  five  belong  to  Rome,  namely,  those^  of  Lucius  Al- 
binus  (364  u.  c.),  M.  Furius  Camillus  (364-368  u.  c.),  L.  Furius  Camillus 
(405  u.  c.),  L.  Papirius  Cursor  (445  u.  c.)  and  C.  Marius.  With  one  pos- 
sible exception,  however,  none  of  these  are  the  originals  from  the  Forum  of 
Augustus.  The  attempt  to  recover  them  by  excavations  has  just  begun, 
during  the  month  of  January,  and  some  interesting  discoveries  have  already 
been  made  in  the  few  square  meters  that  have  been  explored. 

i.  Pedestal  of  a  statue,  1.05  met.  high,  0.39  met.  wide,  found  in  a  small 
sarcophagus;  inscription  reads:  DIVO|  NIGRINIANO|  NEPOTICARI| 
GEMINIVS  FESTVS  V..  RATIONALIS.  It  had  not  been  known  who 
Nigrinianus  was:  he  had  been  variously  supposed  to  be  a  son  of  Alexander, 
tyrant  of  Africa,  or  a  son  or  relative  of  the  Emperor  Carinus.  This  in- 


[ITALY.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  115 

scription  shows  him  to  be  a  nephew  of  Carinus,  and  to  have  died  young 
before  the  end  of  283  A.  D.  The  dedicator,  Geminius  Festus,  was  already 
known. 

ii.  A  marble  base,  0.47  met.  high,  0.39  met.  wide,  which  originally 
supported  a  gold  vase  weighing  one  hundred  pounds!  It  reads:  IMP 
CAESARI|AVGVSTO-PP|HISPANIA-VLTERIOR|BAETICA-QVOD 
IBENEFICIO  EIVS  ETIPERPETVA  CVRA  |  PROVINCIA  PACATA 
|  EST  •  «c(?)  AYR  1 1  PC.  Some  letters  of  the  sixth  and  eighth  lines  are 
indistinct.  The  division  of  Hispania  Ulterior  into  Lusitania  and  Baetica 
has  beeen  attributed  to  Augustus  mainly  by  conjecture  and  without  abso- 
lute proof  that  this  was  not  done  by  Tiberius.  It  is  now  certain  that  it 
took  place  after  Augustus  sent  colonies  to  Spain.  As  Augustus  was  not 
acclaimed  Pater  Patriae  until  Feb.  5,  752  u.  c.,  the  inscription  could  not 
have  been  set  up  until  afterward.  The  discovery  of  many  similar  histor- 
ical inscriptions  of  importance  is  expected. 

Fasti  Triumphales. — A  new  fragment  of  the  ancient  Fasti  Triumphales 
has  been  found  in  the  bed  of  the  Tiber :  all  previous  fragments  are  pre- 
served at  the  Capitol,  in  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori.  Professor  Barna- 
bei  has  read,  before  the  Accademia  dei  Lincei,  a  memoir  regarding  it,  with 
a  reconstruction  of  the  text.  It  belongs  to  the  years  576-79  of  the  era  of 
Varro,  and  comes  between  a  fragment  found  in  1872,  containing  the  tri- 
umphs of  559-63,  and  another  found  as  early  as  1546,  bearing  those  of 
579-99.  It  reads  as  follows : 

ti.    sempronius.   p.  f.   ti.     N     GRAcc/ms    A     DLXxv 
jm>«w.cfcc6^EREIS-HISPANEISQ-lll-NON-Fe&r 

l.postumius.a.f.  A •  N  •  ALBINVS- PRO •  AN  •  DLXXV 
cos.   ex.   fawteNIA-  HISPANIA-  Q-  PR-  NON-  FEbr 

c.claudius.ap.f.p.N  •  PVLCHER  •  COS-  ANN  -  DLXXvi 
de.  histreis.  et  LIGVRIBVS-  K-INTERK 

ti.  sempronius. p. /.  t\  •  N  •  GRACCHVS  •  II  •  ADIX  ami 
prgcos.    ex.    saRDINIA  •  TERM  I  nalib 

m.  titinius  .  .  ./.  M  •  N • CVRV VS •  PRoeos.  an.  dlxxviii 

ex.  hispania.  citeriore 

The  first  of  the  five  triumphs  recorded  is  that  of  Tiberius  Gracchus  over 
the  Celtiberians  and  their  allies  in  Spain  :  the  second  that  of  L.  Postumius 
Albinus  over  the  Lusitanians.  Livy  had  already  reported  them  as  taking 
place  on  two  consecutive  days.  Professor  Mommsen's  remarks  on  the  in- 
scription show  that  the  exact  date,  in  modern  parlance,  was  Februry  4  and 
5,  577  u.  c.,  just  before  the  elections  for  the  year  577-78.  Each  had  the 
military  command  in  his  province  as  praetor  pro  consule.  The  third  tri- 
umph is  that  of  C.  Claudius  Pulcher  over  the  peoples  of  Istria  and  Liguria, 
and  took  place  at  the  end  of  his  consulate,  on  the  day  after  Feb.  24,  578 


116  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y.  [KOMA.] 

u.  c.  in  the  intercalary  month  of  that  year.  The  fourth  triumph  was  the 
second  awarded  to  Tiberius  Gracchus,  and  took  place  Feb.  23,  579  u.  c. : 
it  was  over  the  Sardinian  rebels.  To  the  same  year  belongs  the  triumph 
of  L.  Titinius  Curvus,  praetor  in  576  and  proconsul  in  Spain  577-78. — 
Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  1889,  pp.  35-37,  48-49. 

Sacellwn  on  the  Via  Labicana. — At  the  beginning  of  the  modern  Via 
Labicana,  near  the  baths  of  Titus,  has  come  to  light  an  inscription  which 
doubtless  refers  to  a  sacellum  in  the  area  of  the  temple  of  Isis  and  Sarapis, 
from  which  the  third  regio  of  the  city  received  its  name  and  which  un- 
doubtedly stood  in  this  vicinity ;  as  was  also  lately  shown  by  the  discovery 
of  two  statues  and  three  heads  of  Isis  and  a  head  of  Zeus  Sarapis.  The  in- 
scription reads:  ISIDI  •  LYDIAE|  EDVCATRICI  |  VALVAS  CVM  |  ANVBI 
ET  ARA|  MVCIANVS  AVG|  LIB  PROC.  The  two  epithets  Lydia  (from 
the  province  of  Asia  Minor)  and  Educatrix  are  new.  Statuettes  of  Anubis 
are  often  associated  with  the  worship  of  Isis. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  p.  626 ; 
Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  Jan.  1889. 

Tombs  on  the  Via  Labicana. — Among  the  tombs  of  tufa  of  the  Repub- 
lican period  found  on  the  Via  Labicana,  is  one  whose  architrave,  formed 
of  two  large  masses  of  travertine,  has  an  inscription  beginning :  M  •  LICI- 
NiVS  »•  L-  MENA-  CVRATOR-  ITERVM  -  DE|  SVA-  PEQVNIA  F  - 
EFICIVNDVM-CVRAVIT|decVRIONVM-SENTENTIA-SYNHODI  M- 
PSA  LTV  M.  Then  follows  a  list  of  the  members  of  the  funereal  college, 
whose  magistri  and  decuriones  are  first  mentioned.  The  monument  to 
which  this  inscription  belongs  was  erected  by  M.  Licinius  Mena,  at  his 
own  expense,  while  he  was  for  the  second  time  curator  of  the  college.  All 
these  associations  were  organized,  curiously  enough,  on  the  model  of  the 
municipalities.  The  title  of  this  college  was  Synodus  Magna  Psaltum. 
The  psaltes,  or  psaltce,  were  singers  or  performers  on  any  musical  instru- 
ments.— Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  1888,  p.  408  ;  Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  p.  624. 

Recent  Inscriptions. — Among  recently  discovered  inscriptions  are :  (1) 
of  L.  Mummius  Maximus  Faustianus,  of  senatorial  rank,  prajstor  urbanus, 
quaestor,  etc.,  end  n  beg.  in  cent. ;  (2)  of  Flavius  Lollianus,  c.  250  A.  D. 
—Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  Jan.  1889. 

TALAMONE= TELAMON  (near  Orbetello). — Discovery  of  a  small  Etruscan 
City. — The  castello  of  Talamone  is  placed  on  the  rock  forming  the  prom- 
ontory within  which  is  the  port  of  Telamon,  well  known  in  ancient  times. 
Opposite  it,  and  enclosing  the  port  on  the  other  side,  is  the  tongue  of  land 
now  called  Talarnonaccio,  and  occupied  by  fortifications.  Anciently,  three 
things  were  distinguished:  the  promontory,  TeXa^wv  axpov;  the  port,  Xifjan/j; 
and  the  city  itself,  mentioned  as  Telamon  in  Pomponius  Mela.  Comm. 
Gamurrini,  in  a  recent  examination,  has  located  the  site  of  the  ancient 
Etruscan  oppidum  on  the  hill  of  Talamonaccio.  This  discovery  was  made 


[ITALY.]  ARCH&OLOGICAL  NEWS.  117 

possible  by  the  recent  work  on  fortifications  at  that  point.  Certain  gen- 
eral facts  were  ascertained.  There  were  two  wall-circuits:  the  first  or 
inner  circuit,  that  of  the  acropolis,  was  the  more  ancient,  and  belonged  to 
the  primitive  foundation :  the  second  was  added  either  on  account  of  an 
increase  of  population  or  for  securer  defense.  Many  of  the  houses  and 
lines  of  streets  have  been  made  out,  and  it  is  evident  that  the  town  did 
not  fall  gradually  into  decay  but  perished  by  conflagration  and  assault. 
This  must  have  taken  place,  judging  from  the  character  of  the  antiquities 
found,  some  time  toward  the  close  of  the  second  century  B.  c.  Traces  of 
the  disaster  still  remain  in  the  general  layer,  about  one  meter  thick,  com- 
posed of  carbonized  objects  and  a  quantity  of  broken  fragments.  At  this 
time,  the  Etrusco-Campanian  ware  was  still  in  use  (in-ii  cent.  B.  c.),  be- 
fore the  introduction  of  Roman  elements.  The  coins  begin  with  the  silver 
coinage  of  Maritime  Etruria  and  Campania  of  the  beginning  of  the  third 
cent.  B.  c.,  and  end  with  the  reduced  uncial  as  and  denaria  coined  toward 
the  end  of  the  second  cent.  B.  c.  From  the  necropolis,  which  extends  be- 
yond the  city  limit  especially  to  the  N.  E.,  have  come  many  fine  bronzes 
of  the  third  century.  The  objects  found  are  divided  into  (1)  architectural 
decoration ;  (2)  sculpture ;  (3)  arms,  etc. ;  (4)  objects  in  terracotta ;  (5) 
coins.  Evidently  the  place  was  one  erected  for  the  defense  of  the  coast. 
Several  roads  branch  from  it  or  pass  by  it,  connecting  it  with  other  Etrus- 
can cities,  especially  Saturnia  and  Caletra.  The  time  of  the  destruction 
is  approximately  dated  by  the  latest  coin,  the  quinarius  of  Caius  Egnatu- 
leius,  coined  in  651  u.  c.  It  was  probably  manned  under  Carbo  by  fol- 
lowers of  Marius,  who  had  previously  landed  here  from  Africa  (Plutarch) 
after  they  were  defeated  near  Saturnia  by  Sylla,  and  met,  at  his  hands, 
the  cruel  fate  that  usually  befell  the  upholders  of  Marius. — Not.  d.  Scavi, 
1888,  682-91. 

CHRISTIAN  ANTIQUITIES  OF   ITALY. 

BOLOGNA.— Early  Christian  Tombs. — In  digging  on  the  left  side  of  the 
church  of  S.Nicolo  degli  Albari,  there  were  found,  at  a  depth  of  two  meters, 
a  large  number  of  small  tombs  built  of  large  bricks  of  the  Roman  type  and 
covered  with  the  same,  arranged  in  the  well-known  method  a  campana  in 
the  form  of  a  gable.  They  were  contiguous,  and  each  contained  a  skeleton. 
On  account  of  the  narrowness  of  the  space  and  the  great  number  of  bodies, 
they  were  placed  even  in  the  triangular  spaces  at  the  intersection  of  the 
gables.  The  tombs  are  Christian,  and  belong  to  the  neighboring  church  of 
S.  Nicolo.  In  one  of  these  tombs,  better  built  and  covered  with  slabs  of 
marble,  was  found  a  slab,  used  as  material,  with  an  inscription  in  fine  letters 
of  the  first  century  of  the  Empire.— Not.  d.  Scavi,  1888,  p.  720. 

REGGIO  (Calabria). — A  Byzantine  Crucifix. — A  small  Byzantine  cross  or 


1 1 8  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y.  [ITALY.] 

staurotheka  has  been  found  seven  centim.  in  length,  with  the  Crucifixion  on 
one  side  and  the  Virgin  on  the  other.  The  former  has  the  inscription  ICXC 
and  N  H  KA  :  the  figure  of  Christ  is  covered  with  a  sleeveless  tunic,  the  feet 
are  nailed  separately,  the  head  has  the  cruciform  nimbus,  and  on  the  scroll 
over  the  head  is  a  cross.  The  Virgin,  on  the  other  side,  is  represented  as 
praying,  in  the  attitude  of  the  cemeterial  orante,  and  has  the  inscription 
eeOTO(/cos).— Not.  d.  Scam,  1888,  p.  754. 

ROMA. —  Cemetery  ofPriscilla. — Comm.  de  Rossi  has  discovered,  in  this  cem- 
etery, three  inscriptions  in  which  the  letter  M .  appears  for  the  first  time.  He 
translates  it  martyr:  .  .  .  .  Rl  ET  MM.  —  SILVIN.  FRT— VERIC  M 
VNDVS  — M  ZOYCTINOC.—  Cron.  mensile  di  Arch,  1888,  pp.  88-90.. 

Basilica  of  San  Valentino. — In  1878,  Professor  Orazio  Marucchi  wrote  a 
monograph  on  the  recently  discovered  early  Christian  cemetery  of  S.  Va- 
lentinus  on  the  Via  Flaminia.  Now,  he  announces  in  the  Bull,  della  Com- 
missione  archeologica  (December,  1888,  pp.  429-78 ;  pis.  xix,  xx),  in  an  ex- 
haustive monograph,  the  recovery  of  the  ground-plan  and  many  parts  of 
the  basilica  erected  there  by  Pope  Julius  I  (337-52).  It  was  built  to  the 
right  of  the  cemetery,  at  a  distance  of  about  20  meters.  It  was  of  consider- 
able size,  and,  with  the  quadriporticus  in  front  of  it,  must  have  nearly 
touched  the  Via  Flaminia.  The  first  information  of  any  restoration  is 
given  by  the  Liber  Pontificalis  under  Honorius  I  (625-38),  who  probably 
also  placed  in  the  confession  of  the  basilica  the  relics  of  the  saint  which 
had  previously  been  left  in  the  cemetery.  To  his  time  and  that  of  his 
successor  Theodorus  (642-9),  who  finished  the  restoration,  belong  proba- 
bly a  number  of  frescos.  A  second  restoration  took  place  four  centuries 
after  under  Nicholas  II  (1058-61)  through  Teubaldus,  abbot  of  the  mon- 
astery annexed  to  the  church,  and  there  are  traces  of  later  work  by  the 
Cosmati.  The  basilica  was  already  abandoned,  however,  in  the  xiv  cen- 
tury. The  church  was  a  three-aisled  construction,  without  chalcidicum; 
and  with  a  simple  semicircular  apse.  The  central  aisle  has  a  width  of 
12.60  met.  The  columns  separating  it  from  the  side-aisles  rested  on  bases 
that  rose  from  a  low  wall  of  separation,  as  was  often  the  custom  in  the 
earliest  basilicas.  In  the  main  apse  was  the  bishop's  throne.  To  it  sev- 
eral steps  led  up  from  the  level  of  the  church.  The  choir  extended 
to  a  considerable  distance  down  the  central  nave,  and  the  present  one  in 
San  Clemente  may  be  taken  as  showing  its  appearance  when  complete. 
Part  of  the  ambone  and  of  the  paschal  candlestick  have  come  to  light. 
In  the  apse,  some  distance  in  front  of  the  episcopal  chair,  was  the  altar. 
Below  it  was  the  shrine  or  confessio,  placed  even  below  the  level  of  the  body 
of  the  church,  and  to  which  the  faithful  had  access  by  a  corridor  commu- 
nicating by  steps  with  the  side-aisles  on  either  side.  This  confessio  and 
passage  are  apparently  the  work  of  Honorius  I,  in  the  seventh  century. 


[KOMA.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  119 

To  this  period  also  seem  to  belong  the  two  small  apses  of  the  side-aisles, 
semicircular  on  the  left,  square  on  the  right,  both  of  which  bear  traces 
of  paintings  with  inscriptions,  some  of  which  were  added  even  as  late 
as  the  eleventh  century  under  Nicholas  II.  The  columns  of  the  nave 
were  Ionic  resting  on  Attic  bases,  three  of  which  are  still  in  place.  Only 
a  single  capital  remains,  and  only  one  shaft.  It  is  known  that 'St.  Zeno 
was  venerated  in  this  basilica  together  with  St.  Valentinus,  and  had  an 
oratory  in  it.  The  inscription  of  Abbot  Teubaldus,  who  restored  the  church 
in  the  eleventh  century,  contains  the  following  details :  HVIVS  ECCLESIAE 

TRES  TRAVES  MVTAVIT  PORTICVSQVE  CIRCA  SVNT  OMNES  RENOVAVIT  .  .  . 
YCONAS  VERO  QVINQVE  FECIT  .  .  .  CAMPANILE  I  CAMPANAS  II  CLAVSTRVM 

MONASTERII  A  FVNDAMENTO  GONSTRvxiT.  This  shows  that  he  restored 
the  portico,  adorned  the  church  with  paintings,  built  a  campanile  and  the 
cloister.  All  this_was  dedicated  in  1060 :  F  E  B  •  D  •  1 1 1  -  INUlC  -XIII- 
TEMPORIB- DNI- NICOLAI  SCDI  PP. 

In  his  previous  monograph,  Professor  Marucchi  had  already  published 
20  inscriptions  from  the  cemetery.  He  here  continues  to  publish  new  ones, 
from  No.  21  to  No.  144.  This  aboveground  cemetery  was  used  up  to  the 
sixth  century  The  first  series  is  of  inscriptions  with  consular  dates,  of 
which  there  are  thirty  with  the  following  dates :  318,  365,  366,  376,  377, 
395,  397, 401,  402,  406,  431  [408],  453,  454,  472  [439].  The  first  of  these, 
of  the  year  318,  is  perhaps  the  earliest  Christian  inscription  yet  found  in 
an  aboveground  cemetery,  and  shows  that  this  particular  open-air  cemetery 
was  begun  even  before  the  erection  of  the  basilica.  There  are  several  long 
inscriptions  in  Greek.  Of  unusual  interest  is  a  Latin  metrical  inscription, 
the  only  one  that  mentions  the  name  of  the  patron  saint,  Valentinus,  and 
at  the  same  time  records  work  executed  in  the  basilica  by  some  one  men- 
tioned in  it.  It  probably  dates  from  the  fifth  century,  and  reads :  me 

PASTOR  MEDICVS  MONVMEN  .  .  .  |  FELIX  DVM  SVPEREST  CONDIDIT  .  .  .  | 
PERFECIT  CVMCTA  EXCOLVIT  QVI  .  .  .  |  CERNET  QVO  JACEAT  POENA  M  .  .  .  | 
ADDETVR  ET  TIBI  VALENTINI  GLORIA  SANCTI  |  VIVERE  POST  OVITVM  DAT 

\Deus  omnipotens  (.*)].  On  one  inscription  the  scene  of  the  Eesurrection 
of  Lazarus  is  cut  in  the  marble,  in  the  style  of  the  catacomb  frescos  and 
the  sarcophagi.  Several  sculptured  sarcophagi  were  found.  Several  pagan 
tombs  came  to  light  during  the  excavations,  and  in  connection  with  them 
over  forty  inscriptions. 

Statue  of  the  Good  Shepherd. — In  a  part  of  the  city-wall  that  was  being 
thrown  down,  near  the  Porta  San  Paolo,  was  found  a  statue  of  the  Good 
Shepherd,  64  cent,  high,  of  Greek  marble,  lacking  the  right  arm  (except- 
ing the  hand),  the  left  hand,  and  the  feet.  He  is  robed  in  mantle  and 
short  tunic,  and  bears  on  his  shoulders  the  lamb,  which  he  holds  with  his 
right  hand  while  with  his  left  he  may  have  held  an  attribute  (staff?).  The 


120  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.  [ITALY.] 

youthful  face,  with  sweet  expression  and  framed  in  long  thick  locks,  is 
turned  to  the  left.  It  is  a  very  interesting  monument  of  Christian  art, 
and  may  date  from  the  third  century.  Only  four  other  similar  statues 
are  known,  the  finest  being  in  the  Lateran. — Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  1888,  p. 
415  ;  Not.  d.  Scam,  1888,  p.  628. 

Portrait  of  St.  Louis. — Near  the  church  of  8.  Lucia  in  Selce,  there  came 
to  light  a  bronze  plate,  42  cent,  in  diameter,  covered  with  figures,  inscrip- 
tions, and  ornaments,  all  executed  in  graffito  with  clearness  and  precision. 
In  the  centre,  surrounded  by  a  circular  maeander,  is  seated  a  King  robed 
in  a  tunic  with  broad  girdle,  and  a  toga  fastened  over  the  chest.  The  face 
is  beardless,  the  head  is  covered  with  a  cap  whose  lower  border  is  encir- 
cled by  a  crown.  In  his  left  hand  he  holds  the  fleur-de-lis,  in  his  right  an 
oval  object  on  which  are  inscribed  some  words,  among  which  H  VM ILITAS 
and  SPGS  are  legible.  The  figure  must  be  that  of  a  King  of  France, 
and,  as  the  fleur-de-lis  was  not  introduced  on  coins  until  the  time  of  St. 
Louis  IX  (1226-70),  it  would  seem  to  be  a  portrait  of  that  monarch.  The 
art  is  good. — Bull.  Comm.  arch.,  1888,  pp.  422-4. 

Exhibition  of  Industrial  Arts. — A  new  special  exhibition  of  Industrial 
Arts — the  fourth  held  within  the  space  of  a  few  years — will  soon  be  inau- 
gurated in  the  Palazzo  delle  Belle  Arti.  It  will  be  contemporary  and  retro- 
spective, and  will  include  keramics,  glass,  and  enamels.  The  contempo- 
rary section  is  reserved  exclusively  for  national  industries ;  the  ancient 
section  is  open  also  to  foreigners.  It  will  remain  open  up  to  June  3. — 
Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  33. 

SIENA. —  Church  of  the  Servi. — In  restoring  a  chapel  of  the  chiesa  dei 
Servi,  was  uncovered  an  interesting  fresco,  much  injured.  It  represents  the 
Massacre  of  the  Innocents,  in  the  style  of  the  Lorenzetti.  Other  frescos  of 
less  importance  were  uncovered  in  a  neighboring  chapel. —  Chronique  des 
Arts,  1889,  p.  19. 

SICILY. 

CEFALU = KEPHALOIDION. — Pelasgic  remains. — W.  J.STILLMAN  writes  from 
Palermo,  Jan.  25:  "It  has  been  a  moot  question  among  Italian  archaeolo- 
gists, whether  the  traces  of  the  Pelasgic  occupation,  which  forms  so  impor- 
tant a  part  of  the  prehistoric  record  of  Italy,  had  ever  extended  to  Sicily. 
With  regard  to  one  point,  the  site  of  Cephaloedium  (Greek  Kephaloidion), 
now  Cefalii,  there  has  been  a  dispute,  and  I  have  just  returned  from  an  ex- 
amination of  the  remains  there.  The  site,  to  a  student  of  prehistoric  archae- 
ology, is  an  extremely  interesting  one,  and  though  the  evidences  of  a  Pelas- 
gic colonization  are  not  conspicuous,  they  are  sufficient  and  unique.  The 
ancient  city  was  built  on  a  point  of  the  hard  limestone  of  which  the  hills 
about  here  are  formed ;  this  point  terminated  in  a  spit,  behind  which  lay 


[SICILY.]  ARCH&OLOGICAL  NEWS.  121 

a  long  sand-beach.  From  this  nearly  level  site  the  ground  rises  slightly  for 
a  few  hundred  feet  to  the  foot  of  a  massive  bastion  of  rock,  an  outlying  spur 
of  the  main  chain  of  hills  in  the  interior,  but  separated  from  the  nearest 
hills  by  nearly  a  mile,  and  presenting  on  every  side  except  one  an  inac- 
cessible cliff,  constituting  a  natural  fortification,  to  which  acccess  was  only 
possible  by  one  break  in  the  cliff.  This  wall  is  from  three  to  five  hundred 
feet  in  height,  and  about  a  mile  in  circumference.  Across  the  space  where 
the  break  occurs,  forming  a  curtain  from  bastion  to  bastion,  is  a  high  wall 
of  mediaeval  construction,  but  in  which  are  stones  of  ancient  workmanship, 
evidently  the  restoration  of  an  ancient  defence. 

"  Inside  of  this  enclosure  is  a  CISTERN  of  an  extremely  interesting  char- 
acter ;  and,  though  the  manner  of  its  construction  is  not  by  any  technical 
test  certainly  referrible  to  the  Pelasgic  epoch,  I  have  found  similar  reser- 
voirs in  several  ancient  and  abandoned  sites,  and  am  disposed  to  assign 
them  generally  to  prehistoric  builders,  There  is  one  in  the  central  enclo- 
sure of  the  Larissa  of  Argos,  of  importance,  but  not  of  the  magnitude  of 
this.  They  are  utilizations  of  the  natural  fissures  or  caverns  in  the  lime- 
stone rock,  enlarged  rudely  and  cemented  so  as  to  hold  water;  and  in  this 
case  the  cement  seems  to  have  served  until  comparatively  modern  times,  as 
mediaeval  structures  over  the  opening  at  the  top  show  it  to  have  been  used 
during  the  later  occupation.  It  may  be  twenty  feet  wide  and  deep,  even 
partially  filled  up  as  it  is  by  rubbish,  and  nearly  a  hundred  long,  with  (at 
the  upper  end,  where  the  crevice  narrows)  a  stairway  made  out  of  the  solid 
rock  apparently ;  but,  as  there  is  no  means  of  access  to  the  passage,  the  rock 
above  having  fallen  in  and  obstructed  the  descent,  the  examination  was  of 
the  most  unsatisfactory  character,  and  must  go  for  what  it  is  worth.  But 
further  on,  and  in  such  a  position  in  relation  to  the  enceinte  of  the  present, 
and  necessarily  of  the  ancient  fortifications,  if  such  existed,  is  a  fragment 
of  what  I  must  consider  a  PALACE  of  excellent  and  marked  polygonal  con- 
struction ;  a  wall  with  a  rather  elaborate  doorway  admitting  to  a  passage 
or  hall,  inside  which  are,  at  right  and  left,  two  similar  doors,  both  utilized 
in  the  construction  of  a  mediseval  house,  and  one  of  which  still  opens  into 
a  vaulted  chamber  of  brick — the  wall  itself  being  also  surmounted  by  a 
portion  of  the  mediseval  structure.  It  is  to  this  utilization  of  the  old  work 
that  its  preservation  is  due.  It  is  of  the  later  Pelasgic  work,  with  some 
architectural  decoration  of  a  simple  kind  and  such  as  could  be  executed  in 
the  neolithic  age — a  doorway  slightly  narrowing  upwards,  and  a  straight 
lintel  like  the  gates  of  Mycenae  and  Alatri,  but  not  higher  than  a  modern 
house  door.  The  attribution  of  the  structure  to  the  period  to  which  I  have 
assigned  it  is  beyond  question,  from  the  character  of  the  work,  at  once  unlike 
the  Phoenician  remains  in  the  island,  and  the  early  Hellenic  of  the  Greek 
colonies,  and  even  earlier  work  in  Greece  proper. 


122  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.          [SICILY.] 

"  The  lower  city  gives  even  more  conclusive  testimony,  for  the  entire  cir- 
cuit of  the  ancient  wall  can  be  followed  by  the  Pelasgic  foundations,  which 
are  in  the  greater  part  of  it  still  standing,  overbuilt  by  Hellenic  and  me- 
diaeval work,  but  still  showing  at  intervals  grand  fragments  of  the  most 
solid  and  ponderous  '  cyclopean  *  (as  the  un worked  stone  is  conveniently 
designated).  Out  from  the  rock  on  which  the  town  is  built  gush,  one  on 
each  side  of  the  town,  two  rivulets  of  crystal  water,  furnishing  the  supply 
to  the  inhabitants.  One,  that  in  the  largest  use,  issues  in  a  huge  pool  of 
considerable  apparent  depth,  but  filled  to  a  certain  height  by  the  fragments 
of  the  vases  which  ill  fortune  has  sacrificed  on  the  spot.  The  other  fountain 
was  in  another  sense  still  more  interesting,  for  the  original  passage  by  which 
the  founders  of  the  city  had  provided  for  the  water-drawers,  with  its  walls 
of  cyclopean  structure,  still  serves  for  the  maidens  to  go  down  to  the  stream." 
— N.  Y.  Nation,  March  7. 

PALERMO. — Early  Greek  Coins. — A  very  important  lot  of  coins  has  been 
discovered  in  the  western  part  of  Sicily,  and  has  been  added  to  the 
Museum  at  Palermo.  It  consists  of  101  pieces,  thus  divided:  Athens  1; 
Leukas  2  ;  Rhegion  2  ;  •  Akragas  2 ;  Kamarina  1 ;  Katane*  3  ;  Gela  9  ; 
Eryx  4 ;  Himera  1 ;  Leontinos  3 ;  Messana  15 ;  Motye"  6 ;  Egesta  1 ; 
Selmous  1 ;  Syrakousai  26 ;  of  the  Carthaginians  in  Sicily  24.  The 
artistic  interest  of  the  find  is  very  great,  as  it  includes  five  decadrachmas 
or  large  medallions  of  Syrakousai  signed  by  Kimon  and  Evenetes,  as  well 
as  superbly  preserved  examples  of  the  rare  and  fine  tetradrachmas  of  Rhe- 
gion, Akragas,  Kamarina,  Eryx,  Messana,  Selinous,  Moty£,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion NiBon.  The  latest  piece  in  the  collection  is  the  tetradrachma  of  Rhe- 
gion with  the  head  of  Apollon  and  the  lion-head,  which  represents,  ac- 
cording to  Professor  Salinas,  the  reduced  coinage  struck  by  Dionysios  of 
Syrakousai  at  Region  after  he  took  the  city  in  387  B.  c.  The  main  artistic 
interest  of  the  collection  is  in  a  tetradrachma  of  Syrakousai  signed  by  a 
hitherto  unknown  artist,  a  worthy  rival  of  Kimon  and  Evenetes :  his  name 
is  EYAPXIAA-,  Evarchidas.  Another  important  tetradrachma  is  one 
struck  by  the  Carthaginians  at  Panormos  signed  with  a  K,  the  initial  of 
Kimon,  and  bearing  on  the  reverse  the  same  quadriga  which  this  artist 
engraved  on  his  Syrakousaian  tetradrachmas.  This  proves  the  important 
fact,  that  this  famous  engraver  of  Greek  coins  worked  in  the  service  of  the 
Carthaginians. — Revue  Numismatique,  1889,  pp.  142-3;  Not.  d.  Seavi 
May,  1888. 

SPAIN. 

Recently  discovered  Necropoli. — Vol.  xi  of  the  Memorias  of  the  Real 
Academia  de  la  Historia  contains  two  important  archaeological  memoirs : 
one  by  JUAN  DE  DIGS  DE  LA  RADA  Y  DELGADO,  is  entitled  Necropoli  de 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  123 

Carmona  (JOURNAL,  vol.  in,  p.  483)  ;  the  second,  by  JUAN  RUBIO  DE  LA 
SERNA,  is  on  the  other  ancient  necropolis  discovered  at  Cabrera  de  Mataro 
in  which  were  found  Latino-Greek  antiquities.  The  latter  is  illustrated 
with  a  large  number  of  plates. 

EBRO  (near  the). — Roman  Inscriptions  in  the  provinces  ofAlava  and  Bur- 
gos. In  August,  Federico  Baraibar  was  charged  by  the  Commission  of 
historical  and  artistic  monuments  of  the  province  of  Alava  to  report  on 
the  Roman  inscriptions  of  this  province.  His  principal  researches  were 
among  the  ruins  of  ASA,  near  the  city  of  Laguardia  in  Alava,  near  the 
Ebro. — Boletin  R.  Acad.  de  la  Historia,  Jan.-Feb.,  1889. 

Rio  TINTO. — Roman  Remains. — A  Roman  treadmill  for  raising  water 
was  discovered  in  the  workings  of  the  Rio  Tinto  mine,  where  its  woodwork 
was  preserved  in  a  very  perfect  state  by  the  action  of  the  copper  in  the 
water.  The  Roman  remains  discovered  in  and  about  the  mine,  which  were 
at  first  unfortunately  dispersed,  are  now  preserved  by  the  Rio  Tinto  Com- 
pany in  a  small  museum  at  Huelva,  belonging  to  M.  Sundheim,  of  that 
place.  There  may  be  seen  the  fetters,  collars,  and  anklets  (of  the  modern 
shape)  of  the  slaves  employed  in  the  mine,  who  worked  the  series  of  tread- 
mills, one  above  another,  by  which  it  was  drained.  Instead  of  leaning  on 
bars,  as  in  the  modern  treadmill,  they  appear  to  have  held  on  to  ropes  (like 
bell-ropes),  of  which  portions  still  remain.  The  extant  wheel  (4?  meters 
in  diameter)  is  so  constructed  as  to  utilize  their  weight  in  the  most  skilful 
manner.  The  pickaxes  in  the  same  collection  are  so  completely  modern 
in  shape  that  it  is  difficult  to  realize  their  antiquity,  while  the  curious  hoe- 
like  spade  of  the  Spaniards  finds  here  its  prototype.  The  same  survival 
may  be  detected  in  the  "  herring-bone  work  "  of  the  Romans  (of  which 
specimens  have  been  found  at  Rio  Tinto),  which  reappears  in  the  Giralda 
at  Seville,  and  is  still  in  full  use.  Among  the  other  metal  objects  are  two 
bronze  urns  and  some  stamped  pigs  of  Roman  lead,  with  a  lead  tube.  In 
pottery  there  are  some  interesting  specimens,  including  one  large  jar,  2  ft. 
10  in.  high,  and  two  amphorae,  one  of  slender  and  elegant  form,  standing 
in  their  original  stone  sockets.  There  are  several  fragments  of  Roman 
glass  and  a  few  perfect  pieces.  Some  coins  have  been  saved  for  the  museum, 
but  many  more  are  in  private  hands,  among  them  a  fine  one  of  Wamba 
(680-687  A.  D.),  implying  that  the  mine  may  have  been  worked  after  Ro- 
man times.  Many  specimens  of  Roman  slag  are  in  the  museum,  as  are 
also  some  lead  weights  with  iron  handles.  Of  the  Roman  town  there  are 
some  striking  remains  in  four  capitals  of  columns,  two  of  sculptured  marble 
and  two  of  ironstone,  one  of  the  latter  measuring  no  less  than  3  ft.  4  in. 
square  by  1  ft.  9  in.  in  height. 

Earlier  than  these  Roman  relics  are  the  stone  hammer-heads  found  about 
the  mine,  all  formed  as  double  bulbs,  with  depressions  in  the  centre  for 


124  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

handles.  Coeval  probably  with  these  are  the  rude  stone  pestles  and  mor- 
tars, which  seem  to  have  been  used  for  pigments.  In  the  same  museum 
are  a  few  objects  from  Merida,  "  the  Home  of  Spain  " ;  among  them  a  lamp 
with  a  most  spirited  basrelief  of  a  fighting  gladiator,  the  details  of  his 
armor  being  clearly  shown.  In  M.  Sundheim's  possession  also  is  an  ex- 
quisite little  lachrymatory  of  opaque  glass,  lately  found  at  Merida,  each 
side  of  which  represents  a  Medusa-head  in  low  relief. — Athenceum,  Jan.  5. 
SANGUESA. —  Church  of  Santa  Maria  la  Real. — This  church  has  been  de- 
clared a  historical  monument.  A  document  in  the  city  archives  shows 
it  to  have  existed  as  early  as  1131,  when  it  formed  part  of  the  palace  or 
fortress  of  the  kings  of  Pamplona. 

FRANCE. 

CHOREY  (near  Beaune). — Roman  Antiquities. — Numerous  traces  of  Gallo- 
Roman  occupation  had  been  already  seen  on  this  site.  Lately,  there  have 
come  to  light  some  fine  fragments  of  friezes,  a  monumental  marble,  frag- 
ments of  vases,  and  two  bronze  coins  of  Faustina  and  Valentinian  II. — 
Courrier  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  31. 

PARIS. — Prehistoric  Congress. — In  1867,  the  international  congresses  of 
anthropology  and  prehistoric  archaeology  were  founded  at  Spezia.  Their 
tenth  session  is  to  take  place  in  Paris,  next  August,  under  the  presidency 
of  Quatrefages,  and  promises  to  be  remarkably  brilliant.  The  last  meeting 
was  at  Lisbon  in  1880,  and  since  then  prehistoric  archaeology  has  taken 
great  strides.— Revue  d'Anthrop.,  1888,  p.  752 ;  Bull.  Palet.  Ital.,  1888,  p.  205. 

The  Hermes  of  Praxiteles. — M.  Heron  de  Villefosse  recently  presented  to 
the  Academic  des  Inscriptions  casts  and  photographs  of  two  Roman  monu- 
ments which  confirm  the  testimony  of  the  Pompeian  fresco  that,  in  the  group 
of  Hermes  holding  the  infant  Dionysos,  Hermes  is  holding  a  bunch  of  grapes 
in  his  right  hand.  The  first  is  a  bronze  statuette,  found  in  Burgundy :  the 
second  is  a  Gallo-Roman  stele  from  Hartrize  (Meurthe-et-Moselle).  In 
both,  Hermes  is  represented  standing,  holding  the  child  on  one  arm  and 
showing  him  a  bunch  of  grapes. —  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  pp.  52,  53. 

LOUVRE. —  Oration  of  Hyperides. — The  Louvre  has  recently  acquired  a 
manuscript  in  which  M.  Revillouthas  found  the  oration  of  Hyperides  against 
Anthogenes  and  for  Phryne,  which  had  been  judged  lost.  Hyperides,  like 
his  friend  Demosthenes,  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  popular  party  against 
Macedonian  influence. — Paris  Temps,  Jan.  19. 

Rearrangement  of  Greek  Vases. — The  work  of  re-arranging  the  vast  col- 
lection of  Greek  vases  in  the  Louvre  is  rapidly  progressing  under  the  di- 
rection of  M.  Edmond  Pettier.  He  has  adopted  the  unusual  plan  of  a 
geographical  arrangement.  He  maintains  that,  while  it  is  comparatively 
easy  for  the  observer  to  classify  the  vases  according  to  shapes  and  even 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  125 

styles,  their  geographical  origin  cannot  be  ascertained  except  by  reference 
to  catalogues  which  are  not  yet  published.  The  work  of  arrangement  by 
this  plan  is  made  extremely  laborious.  At  the  same  time,  M.  Pettier  is 
giving  a  course  of  lectures  on  the  subject  at  the  Louvre  to  a  body  of  work- 
ing students. — Builder,  Jan.  5. 

Statuettes  from  Carthage. — They  are  exhibiting,  in  vitrines  placed  in 
the  approach  to  the  Salle  Louis  Lecaze  of  the  Louvre  from  the  Salles  des 
Dessins,  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  statuettes  in  marble  and  stone  found 
during  excavations  at  Carthage.  In  a  short  time  these  and  other  similar 
objects  will  be  shown  in  a  hall  appropriated  to  them  at  the  Louvre. — 
Athenceum,  Jan.  19. 

New  Mediaeval  Halls. — At  last,  the  mediaeval  art  of  France  has  secured 
recognition  at  the  Louvre,  and  three  halls  have  been  given  to  M.  Courajod 
in  which  to  arrange  the  nucleus  of  a  future  mediaeval  museum.  These 
halls  are  (1)  a  large  hall,  which  was  used  as  a  store-house,  behind  the$a^e 
de  la  Cheminee  de  Bruges;  (2)  a  narrow  hall  following  the  Salle  desAnguier; 
(3)  a  long  gallery  below  the  great  stairway  of  the  colonnade.  The  rooms 
are  to  be  ready  for  the  Exposition.  The  material  collected  from  Saint- 
Denis,  Versailles,  and  the  Louvre  itself  are  stored  up.  The  principal  mon- 
ument in  the  new  collection  will  be  the  superb  mausoleum  of  Philippe  Pot, 
already  mentioned,  vol.  iv,  p.  516. —  Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  pp.  50-1. 

PLESSIS-MACE  (chateau). — Sale  of  Tapestries. — On  Oct.  13,  there  took 
place  here  the  sale  of  an  important  series  of  tapestries,  of  the  beginning 
of  the  xvi  cent.,  which  used  to  decorate  the  choir  of  the  church  of  Ron- 
ceray.  Ysabelle  de  la  Jaille,  whose  arms  and  initials  appear  on  them, 
was  abbess  between  1505  and  1518.  The  donatrix,  Louise  le  Roux,  died 
in  1523.  The  tapestry  was  executed  in  Arras  or  Paris.  It  is  late-Gothic 
in  style,  and  of  remarkable  workmanship,  containing  21  compositions  with 
a  total  length  of  24.35  met.  and  a  height  of  about  1.90  met.  The  tapestry 
was  sold  in  eleven  pieces  to  different  purchasers. — Revue  de  VArt  Chretien, 
1889,  pp.  143-6. 

ROUEN. — An  early  drawing  of  the  Stalls. — In  a  preceding  number  (vol. 
iv,  pp.  117-18),  mention  was  made  of  an  interesting  drawing  said  to  repre- 
sent the  spire  of  the  cathedral  burnt  in  1514  or  a  project  for  a  spire  made 
just  after  the  fire.  In  a  paper  published  in  the  Revue  de  VArt  Chretien, 
Jan.  1889,  the  Abbe  Sauvage  seeks  to  prove  that  this  drawing  is  a  mas- 
terly sketch  for  the  archiepiscopal  chair  among  the  famous  stalls  of  the 
cathedral.  The  artist  was  Laurens  Adam,  assisted  by  others,  between  1465 
and  1469.  at  a  cost  of  over  712  livres. 

SAINT-HILAIRE-LA-COTE.— At  the  sitting  of  Feb.  21,  1889,  of  the  Soeiete 
nationale  des  Antiquaires  de  France,  M.  Roman  announced  the  discovery, 
here,  of  a  Mercury,  two  necklaces,  two  earrings,  two  pendants  and  two 


126  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.        [FRANCE.] 

coins  of  Titus  and  Vespasian ;  the  objects  seemed  to  date  from  the  time 
of  Commodus.— Qour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  80. 

TOULON. — Early  Christian  Tomb. — In  the  ground  of  the  garden  of  the 
hospital  of  Saint-Maudrier,  a  sarcophagus  of  soft  stone  has  come  to  light, 
in  which  were  some  bones  and  a  silver  plaque.  On  the  latter  was  engraved 
a  heart  pierced  with  two  arrows,  and,  above,  a  kneeling  bishop  in  robes, 
praying  before  a  figure  of  Christ  in  the  clouds.  Around  it  is  the  in- 
scription :  Sagittaveras,  tu  Domine,  cor  meum  caritate  tua.  It  is  thought 
that  the  sarcophagus  is  that  in  which  were  placed  the  remains  of  Saint- 
Flavian,  after  his  death  in  512  at  his  hermitage,  which  was  precisely  on 
this  site.  [The  description  of  the  plaque,  however,  shows  it  to  belong  to 
a  much  later  date.— ED.]— Revue  Art  Chretien,  1889,  p.  142. 

TOULOUSE. — A  new  review. — Under  the  title  of  Annales  du  Midi,  the 
publication  has  been  begun  at  Toulouse  of  a  quarterly  review  of  archae- 
ology, history,  and  philosophy.  It  will  represent  the  scholarship  of  South- 
ern France  in  these  departments,  and  will  be  especially  supported  by  the 
Universities  of  Toulouse  and  Lyon. 

VAISON  (Vaucluse). — Age  of  its  churches. — M.  de  Lasteyrie  demonstrated, 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Academic  des  Inscriptions  (Oct.  19),  that,  contrary  to 
the  general  opinion,  the  apse  of  the  church  of  Saint-Quinin  is  neither 
Merovingian,  nor  Carlovingian,  but  dates  from  the  last  years  of  the  xi  or 
the  first  years  of  the  xn  century.  This  mistake  is  all  the  stranger  that 
the  Cathedral  itself  of  Vaison  is  proved  by  formal  texts  to  belong  to  the 
Carlovingian  period,  and,  although  much  changed,  the  original  plan  and 
general  aspect  can  easily  be  restored. — Paris  Temps,  Oct.  20. 

SWITZERLAND. 

AVENCHES= AVENTICUM. — The  Easier  Nachrichten  states  that  M.  Barloud's 
excavations  at  Avenches,  in  Canton  Vaud,  have  just  brought  to  light  in  the 
ancient  Roman  theatre  a  number  of  marble  tablets  bearing  inscriptions. — 
Athenceum,  Jan.  5. 

CARASSO  (Canton  Ticino). — A  marble  altar  has  been  disinterred  68  cen- 
tim.  high  by  60  wide,  being  40  centim.  thick  at  the  base.  From  the  in- 
scription it  appears  to  be  a  votive  altar  to  Jupiter  and  Mercury,  erected 
by  one  Fronto,  son  of  Quintus.  It  has  the  cantharus  and  patera  on  the 
sides. — Athenceum,  Jan.  26. 

BELGIUM. 

BRUGES. — Hans  Memlinc. — Twenty-eight  years  ago  the  first  trustworthy 
documents  relating  to  Hans  Memlinc  were  discovered  in  the  archives  of 
Bruges  by  Mr.  Weale,  and  now  fresh  contemporary  evidence  has  come  to 
light,  which  settles  the  place  of  his  birth  and  the  exact  date  of  his  death, 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  127 

heretofore  unknown.  At  the  end  of  the  xv  century,  there  lived  in  Bruges 
a  priest  of  the  name  of  Rombold  de  Doppere,  who  was  also  a  notary,  and, 
as  it  appears,  a  lover  of  art.  He  kept  a  diary  which  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  Flemish  annalist  Philip  Meyer,  who  drew  largely  from  it.  The  fol- 
lowing entry  relating  to  Memlinc  occurs  among  the  events  recorded  in  the 
year  1494  :  Die  xi  Augusti  Brugis  obiit  magister  Joannes  Memmelinc,  quern 
prcedicabant  peritissimum  fuisse  et  excellentissimum  pietorem  totius  tune  orbis 
Christiani.  Oriundus  erat  Mogunciaco,  sepultus  Brugis  ad  JEgidii.  This 
precious  document  confirms  Mr.  Weale's  contention,  that  the  final  letter 
of  the  master's  name  was  c,  not  g,  that  his  early  years  were  spent  on  the 
borders  of  the  Rhine,  and  that  he  was  probably  buried  in  the  church  of  St. 
Giles.  His  birthplace,  then,  was  Mainz  (Mayence),  and  the  date  of  his 
death,  August  11,  l494.—Athenceum,  Feb.  2. 

HASSELT. — xv- Century  Frescos  in  Saint- Quentin. — Wall-paintings  have 
been  discovered  in  the  church  of  Saint-Quentin.  They  represent  for  the 
most  part  figures  of  saints,  and  are  badly  damaged.  It  will  be  possible  to 
preserve  only  those  on  the  columns  of  the  nave,  which  represent  Sta  Lucia, 
S.  Cornelius  and  S.  Anthony.  Their  date  is  the  xv  century,  and  they  are 
painted  in  flat  tones,  outlined  by  simple  dark  lines.  The  church  is  being 
carefully  restored.— Eevue  Art  Chretien,  1889,  pp.  142-3. 

TOURNAI. — Frescos  at  Celles. — In  the  church  of  Celles  near  Tournai, 
have  been  uncovered  some  wall-paintings,  occupying  part  of  a  pier  dating 
from  c.  1600,  and  representing,  in  six  compartments,  the  legend  of  Saint- 
Martin.— Revue  Art  Chretien,  1889,  p.  143. 

GERMANY. 

BERLIN. — Meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Society. — At  the  December  (9) 
meeting,  Herr  TRENDELENBURG  described  a  mosaic  lately  found  at  Trier, 
called  "  the  Mosaic  of  the  Muses."  In  a  central  octagon  is  Homer  with 
Kalliope  and  "  Ingenium,"  while  the  other  muses  are  placed  in  eight  other 
smaller  surrounding  octagonal  compartments.  The  intervals  and  corners 
are  filled  with  squares  containing  different  figures  of  divinities,  signs  of  the 
months,  etc. — Herr  HARTWIG  presented  a  rich  collection  of  accurate  draw- 
ings of  original  size  of  Greek  drinking-cups  of  the  strong  red-figured  style, 
mostly  signed  with  names  of  favorites.  All  of  these  are  still  unpublished 
and  in  part  still  unknown.  The  collection  is  especially  rich  in  the  works 
of  Euphronios  and  his  school,  but  there  are  important  examples  of  Hieron, 
Duris,  Phintias,  Peithinos.  The  collection  was  commenced  in  Rome  and 
enriched  from  the  Bourguignou  collection  in  Naples  and  the  Van  Bran- 
teghem  collection  in  London.  The  centre  of  study,  for  an  explanation  of 
the  chronological  relation  of  these  masters  and  a  classification  of  their 


128  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.     [GERMANY.] 

works,  is  found  to  be  the  names  of  favorites  inscribed  on  them. — Berl.phil. 
Woch.,  1889,  col.  38-9. 

Recent  addition  to  the  Museum. — The  treasury  of  the  chapter  of  Saint- 
Denis  d'Enger  had  been,  since  1414,  in  the  church  of  St.  John  at  Her- 
ford.  It  has  finally  been  assigned  to  the  museum  of  Berlin.  The  various 
objects  forming  it  date  from  the  time  of  Charlemagne  and  relate  to  the  con- 
version of  Witikind,  who  was  buried  in  the  church  of  Enger.  The  reli- 
quary is  a  production  of  Frankish  art  of  the  vin  century,  and  the  earliest 
work  of  this  school  possessed  by  Germany.  The  other,  pieces,  mostly 
adorned  with  ancient  gems,  date  between  the  vn  and  the  xn  centuries. — 
Chronique  des  Arts,  1889,  pp.  33-4. 

GERINQ  (near  Trier). — In  renovating  the  altar  in  the  very  ancient  par- 
ish-church of  Gering,  the  stone  covering  the  sepulehrum  of  the  altar  was 
raised  and  found  to  be  inscribed  with  an  inscription  of  the  Romano- 
Christian  period  accompanied  by  the  dove.  The  right-hand  part  of  the 
slab  was  gone,  so  that  the  inscription  is  imperfect.  It  is  restored  as  follows : 
hie  in  pace  quiescit  X  |  CARETATE  DEI  rvs(ca  uxorl*)  \  cum  FILIOLVS  (sic) 
svos  (sic)  QVEM  EX  co  (?)  .  .  |  LABACRO  F  .  .  |  etc.  The  stone,  therefore, 
was  part  of  an  early  sepulchral  slab,  and  the  form  of  the  letters  indicates 
the  latter  half  of  the  sixth  century.  Under  this  slab  there  was,  in  the 
sepulehrum,  a  small  wooden  reliquary,  circular  in  form  and  with  a  cover, 
of  much  later  date.  It  is  interesting,  because  it  imitates  in  form  and  poly- 
chromy  the  funeral  urns  of  the  Frankish  period,  instead  of  being,  as  was 
usual  in  the  early  Middle  Ages,  a  leaden  box.  It  is  an  interesting  fact,  that 
most  of  the  decoration  is  composed  of  Kufic  letters.  The  third  object  found 
is  the  wax  seal  of  the  consecrating  bishop,  which  bears  his  image  and  the 
inscription  EG[I/]BERTVS,  who  was  bishop  of  Trier  from  1079  to  1101.  It 
was  only  in  the  xi  cent,  that  the  custom  was  introduced  among  the  bishops 
of  using  an  official  seal  instead  of  their  ring :  consequently,  this  seal  of 
Egilbertus  is  among  the  earliest  preserved. — Zeitschrift  f.  Christl.  Kunst, 
1888,  No.  12. 

STRASSBURG. —  The  Museum. — The  museum  of  art  and  archaeology  which, 
since  1872,  has  been  growing  up  at  the  University  is  described  by  F.  Baum- 
garten  in  the  Berl.phil.  Woch.,  1889,  col.  1-4.  The  catalogue  now  contains 
as  many  as  1470  numbers.  Its  director  is  Professor  Michaelis.  The  histori- 
cal collection  of  casts  of  Greek  sculpture  is  remarkably  good,  though  lack- 
ing some  important  works.  The  decoration  of  the  halls  is  made  to  harmo- 
nize with  the  sculptures,  which  are  thus  placed  in  suitable  architectural 
surroundings.  Gable-sculptures  are  arranged  in  gables,  and  metope-sculp- 
tures have  triglyphs  between  them.  The  Harpy  monument  is  reproduced 
entire.  It  is  strictly  a  working  museum,  and  photographs,  drawings  from 
vase-paintings,  or  anything  else  by  which  any  monument  can  be  illustrated, 
are  placed  in  its  vicinity. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  129 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

BODZA  (on  the). — Bars  from  a  Roman  mint. — A  peasant  found  in  Hun- 
gary, in  the  county  of  Haromszeker,  on  the  Bodza,  some  Roman  gold  bars 
of  the  second  half  of  the  fourth  century,  which  are  interesting  for  the  his- 
tory of  the  mints  of  the  close  of  the  imperial  period.  The  site  is  not  far 
from  where  two  important  discoveries  were  made  in  1837  and  1840 — the 
treasuries  of  Czofalva  and  Petrossa.  Near  by  was  the  city  of  Sirmium, 
which  in  Roman  times  contained  an  important  mint.  There  are  fifteen  of 
these  bars,  broken  into  twenty-three  fragments ;  four  only  being  entire. 
They  are  in  the  shape  of  sticks  of  sealing-wax  and  vary  in  length  from  140 
to  175  millim.,  the  lightest  weighing  248  gr.,  the  heaviest,  c.  500  gr.  The 
greater  part  have  stamped  upon  them,  with  a  puncheon,  either  figures  or 
inscriptions,  as  follows.  1.  Three  imperial  busts,  side  by  side,  with  the 
letters  DDD  NNN  (dominorum  nostrorum) :  they  represent  Gratian,  Val- 
entinian  and  Valens,  and  reproduce  exactly  the  type  of  the  exagium  solidi 
bearing  the  heads  of  these  princes.  2.  A  Female  holding  a  horn  of  plenty 
and  a  palm  with  a  pax  in  the  field  and  the  letters  SIRM — a  frequent  type. 
3.  LUCIANUS  OBR(ysum)  I  •  (primae\[notae]  S\G(navif):  "Lucianus 
stamped  this  as  of  the  first  quality."  4.QUIRILLUS  ET  DIONISUS 
SIRM  (Senses)  S\G(naverunt).  5.  Same  as  prec.  6.  FL-(awW)  FLAVI- 
ANUS-PRO(fomO  SIG(nwm)  AD  DIGMA:  "Flavius  Flavianus,  hav- 
ing seen  the  model,  approved  the  signature."  On  coins  of  these  emperors 
are  found  all  the  signs  on  these  bars — palm,  star,  monogram  of  Christ, 
and  the  mint-mark  SIRM.  The  signatures  are  of  different  officers  of  the 
mint.  Quirillus  and  Dionisus,  whose  respective  marks  are  a  star  and  a 
palm,  are  simple  workmen.  Above  them  is  Lucianus,  the  head  of  the 
atelier,  perhaps  the  exactor  auri  argenti  et  aeris.  Above  him  is  Flavianus, 
perhaps  the  procurator  monetae  or  dispensator  rationis  monetae,  who  acts  as 
general  overseer. — Arch.-epig.  Mitth.  oesterreich-ungarn,  1888,  1  ;  Revue 
Numismatique,  1889,  pp.  143-5. 

ENGLAND. 

Important  Sale  of  Manuscripts. — The  magnificent  collection  of  Manu- 
scripts belonging  to  the  library  of  Sir  Thomas  Phillips  is  being  sold.  The 
heirs  have  obtained  from  the  courts  the  authorization  to  sell  to  govern- 
ments or  to  national  institutions  lots  of  MSS.  Important  purchases  have 
been  made,  on  these  conditions,  by  the  German,  Dutch  and  Belgian  Gov- 
ernments. Italy  and  France  are  negotiating  to  obtain  possession  of  the 
documents  that  concern  their  history,  while  those  that  relate  especially  to 
England  are  reserved  for  the  British  Museum.  The  Revue  de  VArt  Chre- 
tien (1889,  p.  140)  gives  an  account  of  purchases  made  by  Belgium.  The 
9 


1 30  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y.      [ENGLAND.] 

Royal  Library  has  acquired  a  precious  lot  of  about  400  MSS.  dating  between 
the  ix  and  the  xv  cent.,  which  belonged  to  ancient  monasteries.  From 
the  Abbey  of  Villiers,  19  vols.  dating  between  the  xn  and  the  xiv  cen- 
turies, among  which  is  a  chorale  with  a  large  number  of  pieces  of  plain- 
chant  in  neumes  of  the  xiv,  important  in  the  history  of  music.  From  the 
Abbey  of  Cambron,  35  vols.  of  the  xn  and  xin  centuries,  with  their 
primitive  binding  in  untanned  skins  preserving  the  hair.  From  the  Ab- 
bey of  Saint-Ghislain,  23  MSS.  dating  between  the  ix  and  xv  centuries, 
which  are  among  the  finest  examples  of  primitive  local  paleography,  sev- 
eral being  adorned  with  illuminated  letters.  The  library  of  this  monas- 
tery, which  was  famous,  was  dispersed  in  1796.  From  the  famous  Abbey 
of  St.  Martin  at  Tournai,  noted  for  the  accuracy  and  beauty  of  its  tran- 
scriptions, come  30  superb  volumes.  From  the  Abbey  of  Aulne,  110  vol- 
umes of  the  xn,  xin  and  xiv  centuries.  From  the  Abbey  of  Stavelot, 
three  gems — a  life  of  S.  Remacle  of  the  xi  cent.,  a  Josephus,  Antiquitates 
Judceorum,  a  superb  volume,  with  two  miniatures,  of  the  xn  cent.  The 
General  Archives  of  Belgium  also  purchased  from  the  same  collection  a 
series  of  very  interesting  documents  picked  up  in  Belgium  at  the  same 
time  and  under  the  same  circumstances  as  the  above  manuscripts. 

CANTERBURY. — Discovery  of  a  xn-century  Fresco. — A  finely-executed 
fresco  has  just  been  discovered  in  that  portion  of  Canterbury  Cathedral 
which  is  known  at  St.  Anselm's  Chapel,  originally  dedicated  to  SS.  Peter 
and  Paul.  The  removal  of  a  wall,  which  was  probably  erected  shortly 
after  the  great  fire  in  1174,  with  a  view  to  strengthening  the  wall  of  the 
choir,  disclosed  the  painting,  which  represents  St.  Paul  in  the  act  of  de- 
taching from  his  hand  and  shaking  into  the  flames  the  viper  by  which  he 
was  bitten  on  the  island  of  Melita  (Malta).  The  painting  is  about  four 
feet  square.  The  coloring  of  the  fresco  is  in  a  wonderful  state  of  preserva- 
tion ,  and  the  string  course  of  bordering  remarkably  good.  It  was  probably 
executed  towards  the  close  of  the  twelfth  century. — Academy,  Feb.  23. 

Early  wall  of  the  crypt. — At  the  March  6  meeting  of  the  Brit.  Archseol. 
Assoc.,  Canon  Routledge  reported  the  results  of  some  antiquarian  re- 
searches recently  made  in  Canterbury  Cathedral.  The  west  wall  of  the 
crypt  is  found  to  be  of  earlier  date  than  the  Norman  portions,  which  are 
partially  built  upon  it.  The  hardness  of  its  mortar  and  other  indications 
lead  to  the  supposition  that  the  wall  is  of  Roman  date,  and  part  of  the  an- 
cient church  which  Augustine  found  on  the  spot  on  his  arrival  at  Canter- 
bury.— Athenaeum,  March  16. 

HOLDERNESS. — Beneath  the  chancel  floor  of  a  church  in  the  Holderriess 
district,  has  been  discovered  a  bronze  crucifix :  the  figure  of  Christ  is  hol- 
low at  the  back ;  it  is  six  inches  long,  and  the  stretch  of  the  arms  is  five 
and  a  half  inches ;  the  feet  are  separated.  The  full  drapery  round  the 


[ENGLAND.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  131 

waist  is  fastened  with  a  girdle,  and  reaches  nearly  to  the  feet.  The  cruci- 
fix cannot  be  later  than  the  -xu  century,  and  is  possibly  earlier :  it  seems 
probable  that  it  is  of  English  make,  with  certain  Irish  characteristics.  It 
has  evidently  been  attached  to  wood,  possibly  to  a  processional  cross. — 
Athenceum,  March  2. 

LINCOLN. — Tomb  of  Bishop  Button  (1280-99). — On  March  9,  an  interest- 
ing discovery  was  made  in  Lincoln  Minster.  While  the  pavement  of  the 
retro-choir,  which  had  sunk  and  was  in  a  dilapidated  state,  was  being  re- 
laid,  the  workmen  had  occasion  to  raise  the  slab  which  covered  the  grave 
of  Bishop  Oliver  Button,  who  occupied  the  see  from  1280  to  1299.  On 
the  right  side  of  the  skeleton  were  found  a  silver-gilt  chalice  and  paten ; 
and  between  the  bones  of  the  legs  was  a  large  gold  ring  set  with  rock 
crystal.  The  sacred  vessels  were  still  standing  upright,  the  paten  laid 
upon  the  chalice,  and  the  whole  covered  with  a  piece  of  fine  linen,  about 
7  in.  or  8  in.  square,  which  when  first  seen  was  hanging  in  graceful  folds 
all  around :  on  the  admission  of  the  air  the  whole  soon  fell  to  pieces.  The 
chalice  closely  resembles  that  from  Berwick  St.  James,  Wilts,  now  in  the 
British  Museum,  figured,  in  Mr.  St.  John  Hope's  paper  in  the  Archaeological 
Journal  (vol.  xliii,  p.  142) :  it  is  4J  in.  high  ;  the  bowl  (4  in.  in  diameter, 
If  in.  deep)  has  a  slight  quasi-lip  round  the  circumference;  the  foot  is 
circular,  of  the  same  diameter  as  the  bowl ;  there  is  a  bold  knop,  pro- 
jecting half  an  inch  from  the  stem.  The  chalice  was  made  in  three  pieces, 
the  bowl  being  soldered  on,  and  the  knop,  with  a  ring  below  supporting 
it,  riveted  to  the  stem :  the  gilding  is  brilliant  on  the  inside  of  the  bowl, 
but  is  much  corroded  on  the  exterior  of  the  chalice:  the  whole  is  entirely 
destitute  of  ornamentation.  The  paten  also  is  plain,  with  the  exception  of 
the  customary  Manus  Dei  raised  in  benediction  in  the  central  depression, 
which,  as  well  as  the  outer  depression,  is  circular,  uncusped :  the  paten  is 
4|  in.  in  diameter.  The  ring  is  of  pure  gold,  22  carats  fine,  and  as  bright 
as  the  day  it  was  first  put  on :  it  still  bears  the  marks  of  the  burnishing. 
On  the  left  side  of  the  skeleton  was  a  much  decayed  crozier,  the  head  of 
which  has  been  beautifully  carved  with  maple  leaves.  The  staff  had  com- 
pletely rotted  away.  The  skeleton  of  the  bishop  was  fairly  perfect ;  the 
vestments  were  completely  decayed,  only  the  outline  being  visible.  The  re- 
ceptacle of  the  body  was  not,  as  is  commonly  the  case,  a  stone  coffin  hewn 
out  to  receive  the  corpse,  but  a  rectangular  chest,  built  up  of  dressed  stones, 
entirely  lined  with  lead,  and  covered  with  a  large  sheet  of  the  same  metal, 
strengthened  by  transverse  iron  bars  1  ft.  6  in.  apart.  On  this  were  laid 
slabs  of  Lincoln  stone,  with  a  layer  of  rough  stones  and  sand  above  them, 
and  over  all  the  bishop's  memorial  slab  of  Purbeck  marble,  which  through 
the  lapse  of  time  had  been  much  decayed  and  fractured.  The  chalice, 
paten,  and  ring  will  be  added  to  the  museum  of  such  relics  in  the  library. 
— Athenaeum,  March  16. 


132  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.     [ENGLAND.] 

LONDON.— Arrival  of  ancient  Egyptian  Sculptures  from  the  great  Temple 
of  Boubastis— These  sculptures,  granted  to  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund 
by  the  Egyptian  Government,  were  safely  landed  at  Liverpool  on  March 
13  (cf.  JOURNAL,  vol.  iv,  pp.  192-4,  335).  The  consignment  consisted  of 
some  34  huge  cases,  containing  the  upper  halves  of  two  archaic  colossal 
statues,  possibly  ol  the  date  of  the  Ancient  Empire ;  a  black  granite  seated 
statue  of  Rameses  II,  of  heroic  size,  in  two  pieces  ;  two  colossal  red  granite 
portrait-heads  of  the  seme  Pharaoh ;  two  fine  red  granite  slabs  from  the 
Festival  Hall  of  Osorkon  II  (xxn  dynasty),  carved  in  low  relief,  one 
representing  Osorkon  II  and  his  wife,  Queen  Karoama ;  a  huge  capital, 
and  part  of  the  shaft  of  a  red-granite  column  of  the  clustered  lotos  order, 
from  the  Hypostyle  Hall  of  the  Temple ;  an  inscribed  column  with  palm- 
capital,  in  five  pieces,  of  polished  red  granite ;  two  red-granite  Hathor- 
head  capitals  (one  of  enormous  size,  and  quite  perfect)  ;  three  large  frag- 
ments of  an  exquisitely-carved  shrine  of  Nekhthorheb  (Nectanebo  I)  of 
the  xxx  dynasty  ;  a  black-granite  sitting  statue  (headless),  nearly  life-size, 
of  a  scribe  who  lived  during  the  reign  of  Amenhotep  III  (xviu  dynasty)  ; 
some  more  or  less  imperfect  black-granite  statues  of  Ptah,  Sekhet,  and 
other  personages,  divine  and  human,  including  a  beautiful  white-marble 
fragment  of  a  youthful  male  figure,  probably  a  Narkissos,  of  Greek  or 
Graeco-Roman  work ;  and  seven  cases  of  very  pleasing  specimens  of  bas- 
relief  sculptures  of  the  Ptolemaic  period,  discovered  last  year  by  Mr.  F. 
LI.  Griffith  in  the  ruins  of  a  temple  dedicated  to  Hathor  by  Ptolemy  Soter, 
at  Teraneh,  the  Terenuthis  of  antiquity.  Last,  and  chief  among  this  array 
of  treasures,  comes  a  colossal  black-granite  statue  (in  four  pieces,  but  nearly 
perfect)  of  the  Hyksos  King  Apepi,  one  of  two  found  at  Boubastis  by  M. 
Naville  last  season.  Of  the  head  of  this  splendid  specimen  of  one  of  the 
most  obscure  and  interesting  periods  of  Egyptian  art  it  is  not  too  much  to 
say  that  for  intensity  of  expression,  as  well  as  for  power  and  freedom  of 
treatment,  it  is  not  inferior  to  the  best  portrait-sculptures  of  the  best  periods 
of  the  Greek  or  Roman  schools,  as  it  is  undoubtedly  the  finest  known  relic 
of  the  Hyksos  period. — AMELIA  B.  EDWARDS  in  Academy,  March  23. 

Archaeology  at  University  College. — Mr.  R.  S.  Poole,  Keeper  of  the  Coins 
in  the  British  Museum,  was  on  Saturday  last  elected  Yates  Professor  of 
Archaeology  at  University  College,  in  the  place  of  Sir  C.  T.  Newton,  re- 
signed. Mr.  Poole,  we  understand,  proposes  to  invite  acknowledged  author- 
ities in  various  branches  of  the  vast  science  of  archaeology,  such  as  Dr. 
Tylor  and  Mr.  Boyd  Dawkins,  to  deliver  courses  of  lectures  at  the  college, 
and  will  himself  defray  the  attendant  expenses. — Athenceum,  Jan.  19. 


s 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  133 

AMERICA. 
UNITED  STATES, 

PHILADELPHIA. — Babylonian  Antiquities. — The  expedition  organized  by 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania  for  excavation  in  Babylonia,  and  which 
is  now  at  work  in  the  field,  has  already  succeeded  in  securing  for  the  Uni- 
versity several  collections  of  antiquities,  of  which  a  full  account  will  be 
given  in  future  numbers  of  the  JOURNAL.  For  the  present,  simple  men- 
tion will  be  made  of  that  purchased  on  July  21,  1888,  and  called  the 
Joseph  Shemtob  collection.  A  short  paper  concerning  it  appeared  in  the 
October  number  of  the  Hebraica  (pp.  74-6).  The  writer.  Dr.  R.  F.  Har- 
per, says  that  the  collection  contains  about  175  important  tablets  of  almost 
every  description,  and  he  makes  especial  mention  of  the  following:  tablets 
and  a  cone  of  Hammurabi ;  various  tablets  belonging  to  the  reigns  of 
Ammi-satana,  Ammi-zaduga,  Samsu-satana,  Samsu-iluna,  and  others  of  the 
dynasty  of  Hammurabi ;  tablets  of  Abesu  (a  new  king) ;  an  inscribed  mor- 
tar of  Burnaburias ;  inscribed  bricks  of  Esarhaddon ;  large  astrological 
tablet  of  Nabopolassar ;  large  barrel-cylinder  and  inscribed  bricks  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar ;  contract  tablets  of  Neriglassar,  Darius,  Xerxes,  Artaxerxes, 
Kandalanu ;  a  fine,  large  alabaster  vase,  with  quadrilingual  inscription 
containing  the  words,  "Xerxes,  the  great  king";  astronomical  tablet  of 
the  Arsacidae  era. 

MEXICO. 

PALENQUE  (Chiapas  District). — Discovery  of  an  Ancient  Ruin. — An  in- 
resting  ancient  monument  has  recently  been  discovered  here,  upon  the 
River  Xhupa.  Though  now  a  complete  ruin,  three  distinct  stories  are  dis- 
tinguishable. The  ground-floor  measures  120  X  75  feet :  the  floor  above 
is  reached  through  openings  in  the  ceiling;  and  here  is  found  a  room 
measuring  27  X  9  ft.  On  stone  slabs  set  into  the  wall  are  basreliefs  of 
human  figures,  warriors,  etc.  The  slabs  are  in  a  very  bad  state  of  preser- 
ation :  they  are  to  be  sent  to  the  capital  of  Chiapas.  Not  far  from  this 
onument  are  the  vestiges  of  a  quite  large  town,  in  complete  ruin. — 
ientific  American,  in  Amer.  Architect,  Feb.  23. 

Discovery  of  the  Substructures  of  the  Temple  of  the  Cross. — M.  Charnay 
communicated  to  the  Academie  des  Inscriptions,  at  its  meeting  of  Feb.  15, 
the  news  that  the  Temple  of  the  Cross  at  Palenque  had  fallen  in  and 
partly  disappeared.  Captain  Villa,  being  sent  by  the  government,  penetrated 
into  the  substructures.  He  found  immense  halls  adorned  with  polychro- 
matic statues,  and  numerous  sarcophagi  containing  mummies.  Before 
his  arrival,  the  inhabitants  had  penetrated  into  the  interior  of  the  pyramid 
and  carried  off  several  mule-loads  of  objects. — Paris  Temps,  Feb.  16. 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr. 


THE   AMERICAN 

JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY 

AND   OF  THE 

HISTORY  OF  THE  FINE  ARTS. 


THE  JOURNAL  is  the  official  organ  of  the  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTI- 
TUTE OF  AMERICA,  and  of  the  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 
STUDIES  AT  ATHENS,  and  it  will  aim  to  further  the  interests  for  which 
the  Institute  and  the  School  were  founded.  It  treats  of  all  branches  of 
Archaeology  and  Art — Oriental,  Classical,  Early  Christian,  Mediaeval,  and 
American,  and  is  intended  to  supply  a  record  of  the  important  work  done 
in  the  field  of  Archaeology,  under  the  following  categories :  1.  Original 
Articles ;  2.  Correspondence  from  European  Archaeologists ;  3.  Archae- 
ological News,  presenting  a  careful  and  ample  record  of  discoveries  and 
investigations  in  all  parts  of  the  world  ;  4.  Reviews  of  Books ;  5.  Sum- 
maries of  the  contents  of  the  principal  Archaeological  Periodicals. 

The  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY  is  published  quarterly, 
and  forms,  each  year,  a  volume  of  above  500  pages  royal  8vo,  illus- 
trated with  colored,  heliotype,  and  other  plates,  and  numerous  figures. 
The  yearly  subscription  for  America  is  $5.00  :  for  countries  of  the  Postal 
Union,  27  francs,  21  shillings  or  marks,  post-paid.  Vol.  I,  unbound  or 
bound  in  cloth,  containing  489  pages,  11  plates  and  16  figures,  will  be 
sent  post-paid  on  receipt  of  $4 :  Vol.  II,  containing  521  pages,  14  plates 
and  46  figures,  bound  for  $5.00,  unbound  for  $4.50 :  Vol.  Ill,  containing 
531  pages,  33  plates,  and  19  figures ;  and  Vol.  IV,  550  pages,  20  plates, 
and  19  figures ;  bound  for  $5.50,  unbound  for  $5. 

All  literary  communications  should  be  addressed  to  the  Managing  Editor, 
Prof.  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr.,  Ph.  D.,  Princeton  College,  Princeton,  N.  J. : 
all  business  communications,  to  the  Publishers,  GINN  &  COMPANY,  Boston. 

The  Journal  can  be  obtained  from  the  following  firms,  as  well  as  from 
the  publishers  in  Boston,  New  York,  and  Chicago : 

Baltimore,  J.  Murphy  &  Co.,  44  W.  Baltimore  St. 
Boston,  Clarke  &  Carruth,  340  Washington  St. 

Cupples,  Upham  &  Co.,  283  Washington  St. 


Chicago,  A.  C.  McClurg  &  Co.,  117-121  Wabash  Ave. 
Cincinnati,  Robert  Clarke  &  Co.,  61-65  West  4th  St. 
New  York,  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  27  West  23d  St. 
B.  Westermann  &  Co.,  838  Broadway. 
Philadelphia,  Robert  M.  Lindsay,  1028  Walnut^St. 

EUROPE. 

Berlin,  Mayer  &  Miiller,  Franzosische  Strasse  38-39. 
London,  Triibner  &  Co.,  57-59  Ludgate  Hill. 
Paris,  E.  Leroux,  28  rue  Bonaparte. 
Turin,  Ermanno  Loescher,  19  via  di  Po. 
Florence,  Loescher  &  Seeber,  20  via  Tornabuoni. 
Rome,  E.  Loescher  &  Co.,  via  del  Corso. 


REVIEW  OF  PAST  WORK. 

It  has  been  the  aim  of  the  editors  that  the  JOURNAL,  besides  giving 
a  survey  of  the  whole  field  of  Archaeology,  should  be  international  in 
character,  by  affording  to  the  leading  archaeologists  of  all  countries  a 
common  medium  for  the  publication  of  the  results  of  their  labors.  This 
object  has  been  in  great  part  attained,  as  is  shown  by  the  list  of  eminent 
foreign  and  American  contributors  to  the  four  volumes  already  issued, 
and  by  the  character  of  articles  and  correspondence  published.  Not  only 
have  important  contributions  to  the  advance  of  the  science  been  made  in 
the  original  articles,  but  the  present  condition  of  research  has  been  brought 
before  our  readers  in  the  departments  of  Correspondence,  annual  Reviews 
of  various  branches  (like  Numismatics,  Biblical  Archaeology,  Greek  Epi- 
graphy), and  reviews  of  the  more  important  recent  books. 

Two  departments  in  which  the  JOURNAL  stands  quite  alone  are  (1) 
the  Record  of  Discoveries,  and  (2)  the  Summaries  of  Periodicals.  In  the 
former,  a  detailed  account  is  given  of  all  discoveries  and  excavations  in 
every  portion  of  the  civilized  world,  from  India  to  America,  especial 
attention  being  paid  to  Greece  and  Italy.  In  order  to  ensure  thorough- 
ness in  this  work,  more  than  sixty  periodical  publications  are  consulted, 
and  material  is  secured  from  special  correspondents. 

In  order  that  readers  may  know  of  everything  important  that  appears 
in  periodical  literature,  a  considerable  space  is  given  to  careful  sum- 
maries of  the  papers  contained  in  the  principal  periodicals  that  treat 
of  Archaeology  and  the  Fine  Arts.  By  these  various  methods,  all  impor- 
tant work  done  is  concentrated  and  made  accessible  in  a  convenient  but 
scholarly  form,  equally  suited  to  the  specialist  and  to  the  general  reader. 


PROGRAM  OF  VOLUME  V,  1889. 

We  are  glad  to  announce  that  the  Journal  has  been  made  the  official 
organ  of  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens,  and  will  thus 
be  enabled  to  publish  a  large  part  of  the  results  of  the  excavations  so  bril- 
liantly carried  on  during  the  last  two  years  at  Sikyon,  and  Ikaria  as  well 
as  at  Plataia  and  at  Anthedon.  The  report  of  the  excavations  at  Ikaria 
will  include  papers  on  the  topography  of  the  Ikarian  region,  on  the  archi- 
tectural remains  of  the  shrines  of  Dionysos  and  Apollon,  the  inscriptions, 
the  archaic  warrior-slab,  the  sepulchral  stelai,  and  other  pieces  of  sculpture 
of  different  periods.  The  work  in  the  theatre  of  Sikyon  will  be  reported 
by  MM.  McMurtry  and  Earle.  Professor  F.  B.  Tarbell,  Annual  Director 
of  the  School  for  1888-89,  presents  a  study  of  the  Attic  Phratry,  and  will 
write  on  a  fragment  of  the  Preamble  to  Diocletian's  Edict  De  Pretiis  Rerum 
Venalium,  found  at  Plataia.  Also,  Dr.  Charles  Waldstein  has  contributed 
a  paper  on  his  important  discovery,  among  the  recent  finds  on  the  Akropo- 
lis,  of  the  head  of  Iris  belonging  to  the  slab  of  divinities  from  the  eastern 
frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  which  is  in  the  British  Museum.  In  view  of  recent 
acquisitions,  especially  by  the  Baltimore  branch  of  the  Archaeological  Insti- 
tute, there  will  be  articles,  by  Dr.  Hartwig  and  others,  on  a  collection  of 
black-  and  red-figured  vases  signed  by  well-known  Greek  artists,  such  as 
Nikosthenes,  Xenokles,  Epiktetos,  Duris,  Philtias.  The  series  of  papers  by 
Messrs.  Clarke  and  Emerson  on  Greek  antiquities  in  Southern  Italy,  already 
promised,  has  been  delayed,  but  will  soon  be  commenced. 

One  change  in  the  present  arrangement,  to  be  begun  in  volume  v,  will 
undoubtedly  be  welcomed  by  our  readers.  Up  to  the  present,  the  book- 
reviews  have  not  been  numerous:  it  is  now  proposed  to  carry  out  the 
principle  followed  in  the  NEWS  and  the  SUMMARIES  :  that  is,  to  give  a 
condensed  view  of  the  entire  field  by  printing  in  each  issue  a  large  number 
of  notices  of  the  most  important  books  recently  published,  under  the  head- 
ings, Oriental,  Classical,  Christian,  Renaissance,  and  Prehistoric  Archaeology. 

The  various  series  commenced  in  past  volumes  will  be  continued :  such 
as  those  by  Dr.  Wm.  Hayes  Ward  on  Oriental  Antiquities,  by  MM.  Mu'ntz 
and  Frothingham  on  Christian  Mosaics.  Dr.  Ward  will  publish  some 
Hittite  Sculptures ;  an  inedited  archaic  Babylonian  cylindrical  object  from 
Urumya ;  and  a  paper  on  the  so-called  "  human  sacrifices"  on  Babylonian 
cylinders :  Mr.  Talcott  Williams,  a  note  on  the  Arch  of  Chosroes.  Professor 
A.  C.  Merriam  will  review  the  late  discoveries  in  Greek  Epigraphy,  and 
M.  Ernest  Babelon  the  latest  publications  and  discoveries  in  Numismatics. 

The  present  policy  of  making  the  JOURNAL  a  complete  record  of  con- 
temporary archaeological  work,  by  its  correspondence,  book-reviews,  news, 
and  summaries,  will  be  continued. 


NOTICES. 

London  Athenaeum. — We  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  no  other  periodical 
in  the  English  language  is  so  well  fitted  to  keep  the  student  who  lacks  time  or 
opportunity  to  read  all  the  foreign  journals  abreast  of  the  latest  discoveries  in  every 
branch  of  archaeology. 

Gottingische  Gelehrte  Anzeigen. — No  comprehensive  account  of  the  most  recent 
discoveries  exists,  and  the  new  American  Journal  can  do  most  meritorious  work  and 
fill  a  deficiency  which,  since  the  time  of  Gerhard's  death,  has  been  often  deplored  by 
every  archaeologist  who  had  not  the  good  fortune  to  be  at  the  fountain-heads. 

Philologische  Rundschau. — We  may  expect  that  the  American  Journal  of  Archae- 
ology will  take  an  honorable  position  by  the  side  of  those  already  existing  in  Europe. 

Bibliotheque  de  I'Ecole  des  Charles. — As  we  think  it  (the  American  Journal 
of  Archaeology)  is  called  upon  to  render  real  service,  not  only  in  the  United  States,  but 
in  Europe  and  in  France,  we  take  pleasure  in  announcing  it  here.  The  plan  is  vast 
and  well  conceived. 

Archivio  di  Letteratura  Biblica  ed  Orientale  (Turin). — Periodicals  are  divisi- 
ble into  three  categories :  some  have  no  pretensions  to  be  classed  as  learned ;  some 
pretend  to  be  but  are  not  so  in  reality ;  others,  finally,  pretend  to  be  and  really  are. 
The  periodical  which  we  announce  ( The.  American  Journal  of  Archaeology]  belongs  to 
the  last  category. 

New  York  Evening  Post. — The  American  Journal  of  Archaeology  will  not  dis- 
appoint the  hopes  of  the  friends  of  the  science  in  America.  If  not  well  supported, 
it  will  be  because  there  is  little  real  interest  in  America  in  classical  and  mediaeval 
archaeology. 

Chicago  Evening  Journal. — The  American  Journal  of  Archaeology  is  alike  credit- 
able to  the  country  and  to  the  earnest  and  scholarly  gentlemen  who  have  it  in  charge, 
and  we  are  pleased  to  know  that  it  has  already  achieved  an  enviable  reputation  in 
Europe. 

London  Academy. — Mr.  J.  S.  Cotton,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Egypt  Ex- 
ploration Fund  (London,  Dec.  22,  1887),  referred  to  the  American  Journal  of  Arche- 
ology and  the  American  Journal  of  Philology,  which  he  defined  as  being  of  a  higher 
order  of  merit  than  any  publications  bearing  similar  titles  in  Great  Britain. 


GINN  &  COMPANY,  Publishers, 

Boston,  Neiv  York,  and  Chicago. 


AMERICAN 
JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol.V.  JUNE,   1889.  No.  2. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 

STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 

THE  DECREES  OF  THE  DEMOTIONIDAI. 
A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATRY. 


In  the  Athenian  State  as  constituted  by  Kleisthenes,  every  citizen 
belonged  to  three  subordinate  political  corporations ;  he  was  member 
at  once  of  a  tribe,  a  deme,  and  a  phratry.  Of  these  three,  the  last 
was  the  least  conspicuous.  The  phratry  did  not  rival  the  deme  in  the 
frequency  of  its  meetings  and  the  importance  of  its  affairs ;  nor  did  it 
enter,  like  the  tribe,  into  the  political  and  military  organization  of  the 
State.  But  it  had  in  its  keeping  an  important  trust,  that  of  prevent- 
ing the  intrusion  of  illegitimate  members  into  the  body  politic.  This 
trust  it  shared  in  a  measure,  it  is  true,  with  the  deme ;  but  inasmuch 
as  both  male  and  female  children  were  received  into  the  phratry,  and 
that,  as  a  rule,  in  their  earliest  years,  while  the  deme  enrolled  in  its 
register  only  males,  receiving  them  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  we  can 
hardly  go  wrong  in  regarding  the  phratry  as  the  chief  guardian  of  the 
purity  of  Athenian  citizenship.  An  acquaintance  with  it  is  thus  essen- 
tial to  an  understanding  of  Athenian  political  life. 

Our  principal  literary  sources  of  information  on  the  subject  are  as 
follows  r1  (1)  Aristotle,  in  the  'Afyvaiaw  HoXtreta,  gave  an  account 
of  the  organization  which  he  conceived  to  have  existed  at  Athens  be- 
fore the  profound  reforms  of  Kleisthenes.  The  passage  is  preserved 

xSee  especially  PLATNER,  Beitrdge  zur  Kenntniss  des  attischen  Rechts;  MEIER,  De 
gentilitate  attica;  BUSOLT,  Griechische  Staats-  und  Rechtsaltertumer,  $159,  in  Iwan  Miil- 
ler's  Handbuch  der  klassischen  Alter  tumswissenschaft,  Bd.  iv1.  I  have  not  been  able  to 
see  SAITPPE,  De  phratriis  atticis  (Gottingen,  1886/7). 

135 


136  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

in  a  more  or  less  garbled  form  by  Harpokration,  Pollux,  and  other  lexi- 
cographers, and  is  given  verbatim  in  the  Patmian  Scholia  published  in 
the  Bulletin  de  Correspondance  Hellenique  (vol.  I,  p.  152).  According 
to  this,  each  of  the  four  original  tribes  consisted  of  three  phratries, 
each  phratiy  of  thirty  gentes,  and  each  gens  of  thirty  men.  This 
account  is  so  artificial  in  its  numerical  symmetry,  and  so  fanciful  in  the 
reasons  assigned  for  it,  as  to  excite  the  gravest  doubts  of  Aristotle's  com- 
petence as  a  witness  for  the  period  in  question.  Where,  indeed,  could 
he  have  obtained  full  and  trustworthy  information  ?  As  to  whether 
the  phratries  were  affected  by  the  reforms  of  Kleisthenes,  Aristotle  has 
left  us  two  unfortunately  ambiguous  notices.  One  is  in  the  Politics 
(vi.  4 :  Bekk.)  and  seems  to  say  that  the  phratries,  as  well  as  the  tribes, 
were  then  remodelled  and  increased  in  number.  The  other  is  in  the 
recently  discovered  fragments  of  the  'Afyvaicov  TIoTureia  (n,  a  Land- 
wehr)  and  seems  to  say  just  the  contrary.2  (2)  Several  writers  of  the 
fifth  and  fourth  centuries  B.  c.  refer  to  the  phratries  of  their  own  day. 
The  most  instructive  of  these  references  are  in  Isaios  and  the  private 
orations  of  Demosthenes  (genuine  and  spurious).  These  are  the  chief 
basis  of  our  knowledge.  (3)  Scraps  of  relevant  information,  and  of 
misinformation  as  well,  are  preserved  by  scholiasts  and  by  the  lexi- 
cographers, Harpokration,  Pollux,  Hesychios,  Suidas,  etc. 

Inscriptions  have  until  lately  yielded  little  to  supplement  this  scanty 
literary  evidence.  That  little  may  be  classified  thus  :  (1)  the  decrees 
of  the  Ekklesia  conferring  citizenship  on  a  foreigner,  regularly  author- 
ize him  to  be  enrolled  as  a  member  of  such  tribe,  deme  and  phratry 
as  he  may  choose  (elvai  (£>v\fjs  KOI  brffjiov  teal  (frparpias  179  av  fiov^ijTai,, 
or  some  similar  formula.  This  is  the  regular  order  of  mention.  Only 
in  CIA,  II,  1156  do  we  find  STJ/JLOV  KOI  0^X779  real  fyparpla^.  (2)  Two 
temenos  boundary-stones  give  us  names  of  phratries,  the  only  names 
indisputably  known,  and  one  of  these  in  a  mutilated  form,  viz.,  the 
'A^a&u4  and  the  Seppi/c  ....  at.5  Two  other  boundary-stones, 
one  of  the  Za/cvdScu 6  and  one  of  the  'EXacrtSat,7  give  names  with  re- 

2  The  difficulty  of  dealing  with  these  two  statements  is.illustrated  by  the  case  of 
BUSOLT,  who  in  his  Griechische  Geschichte  (pp.  394-5,  published  in  1885)  decides  that 
Kleisthenes  did  not  meddle  with  the  phratries,  but  in  his  Griechische  Altertiimer  (p. 
144(11),  published  in  1887)  reverses  this  decision. 

*Cf. BUERMANN,  Jahrb.fiir Phil., Suppl.,  ix,  643 ;  DITTENBERGER,  Sylloge Inscr.  Graec., 
43,  note  7. 

4  DITTENBERGER,  Sylloge,  302;  CIA,  n,  1653.  5  CIA,  n,  1652. 

6  DITTENBERGER,  Sylloge,  303.  7  Classical  Review,  in,  p.  188. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATRY.  137 

gard  to  which  it  is  impossible  to  decide  whether  they  belonged  to  gentes 
or  phratries.  (3)  Two  short  fragments  of  phratrial  decrees,  eulogizing 
deserving  members,  are  given  in  CIA,  n,  598,  599.  The  Dyaleis  of 
600,  who  enact  a  decree  in  reference  to  the  lease  of  a  piece  of  real 
estate,  are  probably  to  be  regarded,  not,  with  Kohler,  as  a  phratry,  but, 
with  Buermann,8  Gilbert,9  and  Busolt,10  as  a  union  of  two  phratries. 

Such  was,  in  outline,  the  material  available  for  the  study  of  the  Attic 
phratries  down  to  1883.  In  that  year  there  was  found  at  Tatoi,  the 
site  of  the  deme  of  Dekeleia,  a  stele,  on  the  front  of  which  were  pre- 
served 57  lines  of  a  phratrial  decree,  dated  in  the  year  396/5  B.  c.  and 
dealing  with  the  phratry's  most  vital  duties.  This  was  published  by 
Koumanoudes  in  the  'E^yLtepWA/o^atoXoYt/c^  (1883,  69  if.)  and  by 
Kohler  in  the  Addenda  to  the  second  volume  of  the  Attic  Corpus 
(841b).  It  has  been  made  the  subject  of  special  articles  by  Szanto  in 
the  Rheinisches  Museum  (1885,  506-520)  and  by  Gilbert  in  the  Jahr- 
bilcherfur  Philologie  (1887,  23-28).  Szanto's  paper  is  ingenious  and 
suggestive,  but  is  pervaded  by  a  most  improbable  view  of  the  relation 
of  phratry  to  gens,  and  marred  besides  by  some  downright  and  inex- 
cusable blunders.  Gilbert  corrects  Szanto  on  one  important  point,  the 
question  as  to  where  that  portion  of  the  decree  which  was  intended  to 
be  of  permanent  application  begins,  but  hazards  a  theory  of  his  own 
which  is  demonstrably  false.  For  in  the  summer  of  1888  the  stone 
bearing  this  inscription  was  cleaned,  with  the  result  that  the  back  also 
was  found  to  be  inscribed.  Of  the  new  text,  published  by  Pantazides 
in  the 'E^yLcept?  (newspaper)  of  Sept.  1/13,  1888,  and  by  Lolling  in 
the  'Apxcuohoyifcov  AeXr/W  for  August,  lines  1—55  were  engraved  at 
the  same  time  with  the  portion  previously  published  and  form  its  con- 
tinuation. These  lines,  like  those  on  the  front,  are  engraved  a-roL^Tj- 
&6v,  with  occasional  aberrations.  Two  or  three  lines  are  apparently 
all  that  is  lost  at  the  end  of  the  part  on  the  face  of  the  stone.  Lines 
56-68  were  added  many  years  afterward.  So  far  as  I  can  judge  from 
an  excellent  squeeze  (I  have  not  seen  the  stone),  this  portion  would 
belong  to  the  third  cent.  B.  c.  or  the  first  part  of  the  second.  The  let- 
ters are  extremely  irregular  and  unevenly  spaced,  which  makes  a  more 
exact  determination  of  the  date  peculiarly  difficult.  Ae/eeXee?  for 
Ae/ceXea?  in  B,  65  is  probably  only  a  blunder  of  the  stone-cutter.  I 
give  below  the  text  of  the  whole  document,  with  the  restorations  of 

8  Op.  tit.,  645,  Note.  9  Griech.  Staatsaltertumer,  i,  199<3>. 

10  Griech.  Stoats-  und  Rechtsalter  turner,  145<5). 


138  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Kohler  and  Lolling,  followed  by  a  translation.    The  foot-notes  do  not 
touch  upon  orthographical  peculiarities,  of  which  there  are  several. 

TEXT. 

FACE  A. 
Ato9  t&paTpio 

lepevs  @eoSft>/9O9  TSiixfravTiBo  u  dv\ejpa'^re  KOI  ecrTrjcre  Trjv  GTrfkriv.  \ 
5          lepecoa-vva  T&L  lepel  Bioovai  T\dBe  '    OLTTO  TO  /^eto12  K0)\r)v, 
pov,  o|9,13 dpyvpio  \  \ '  CLTTO  TO  Kopeio  /ca)\fj\v,  7r\evpov,  09, 
Xoivitcialiov,  OLVO  r)fjLL%ov,  dpyvpio  K  | 

10          TaBe  eBo^ev  TOLS  fypaTepvi,  67rl|  Qopjjuiwvos  ap^ovTO^  ' 
oi  9,  (j)paTpiap%ovTO<>  Be  IIa^Ta/cXe|o9  e£  Oto*  | 

'Iepo/cX^9  elire'    OTTOCTOI  /JL^TTCO  BieBucdcrlOTjcrav  KCLTO,  TOV  VO/JLOV 
15     TOV  ^irj/jLOTLO)Vi,B\a)V,  BiaBtKacrai,  Trepl  avTayv  ro9  <^paT6p|a9  avTL/ca 

7T/309    TO    A|t09    TO    QpCLTplO,    (frepOVTaS    T7]V 


air 


b  TO  /3&>yLto  '  14    09  S'  av  Sogy  /jurj  wv  cf)pdTTjp  e 


20  €^a\ei^aTco  TO  ovo/xa  avTO  6  /ep|et>9  teal  6  ^paTpiap^o^  GK  TO 
o  TO  ev  ^^oTLwvi^wv15  KOL  TO  avTiypd^o'16  6  Be 
TOV  aTro^iKaaOevTa  6(f)€\i\,€Tc0  e/caTov  Bpa%/jLa$  t 


11  The  words  ®f65a>pos  Ev^avriSo  are  engraved  in  rasura.    The  letters,  if  regularly 
distributed,  would  have  just  filled  the  space.    Instead  of  this,  the  letters  of  &f6Swpos 
are  crowded,  with  the  result  of  leaving  a  blank  space  sufficient  for  two  letters  after 
Eii^ai/TiSo.     I  conjecture  that,  after  the  name  had  been  once  engraved,  the  priest 
desired  to  add  his  demotikon,  and  that  this  was  attempted  and  found  impracticable. 

12  That  the  peiov  was  the  offering  for  a  young  child  and  the  Kovpeiov  that  for  an 
[adopted]  lad  [or  man],  as  AUGUST  MOMMSEN  conjectured  (Heortologie,  308)  and  as 
LIPSIUS,  even  after  the  publication  of  the  first  part  of  this  text,  was  disposed  to  believe 
(Meitr  und  Schoemann's  Attische  Process/2)  3tes  Buch,  Note  165),  is  now  definitively 
disproved.     See  J5,  57-60.     I  can  suggest  nothing  better  than  the  explanation  of 
KOHLER,  which  has  been  generally  adopted,  that  the  pe'iov  was  the  offering  for  a 
daughter,  and  the  Kovpeiov  that  for  a  son. 

13  This  is  the  reading  of  Kouuianoudes.     Kohler's  ttuXriv  ir\evp6vos  is  to  me  unin- 
telligible.    [Compare  the  sacrificial  calendar  from  Kos,  Journ.  Hellen.  Studies,  1888, 
p.  335  :  6v€L  /6pe[i>s  Kal  /epa]  7rape%ei  '  (7)^77  Se  oijara.  —  A.  C.  M.] 

u  A  solemn  mode  of  voting,  perhaps  the  usual  one  in  the  phratries  ;  cf.  HEROD., 
vin.  123;  PLUT.,  Themist.  17;  PLUT.,  Per.  32;  DEM.,  XLIII.  14  (ed.  Bekker). 

15  This  construction  occurs  elsewhere  only  with  deme-names  of  gentile  form,  and 
indicates  that  the  Demotionidai  were  a  local  body.    See  MEISTERHANS,  Gram.  d.  att. 
InschriftenW  \  83,  19(b>. 

16  The  copy,  it  is  implied,  was  not  kept  in  Demotionidai  ;  perhaps  in  Athens.     I 
conjecture  that  the  copy  was  intended  as  a  protection  against  tampering  with  the 
record  and  against  the  confusion  which  would  result  if  the  register  should  be  injured 
or  lost.     That  such  a  safeguard  was  desirable  may  be  seen  from  DEM.,  XLIV.  41  ; 
LVII.  26,  60. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATEY.  139 

25  T&H  Aa  T\WL  Qparpiwi,'  ea-wpaTTev  Se  TO  apjvpi,o\v  TOVTO  rbv 
lepea  teal  TOV  (f>paTpi,ap^o\v  rj  auro?  ofyeikev  .  rrjv  Be  SiaSt,Kaaiav\ 
TO  \OLTTOV  evai  TWL  vcrrepwi  ereu  77  OH  a  v  TO  Kopeov  Ovarji,,  rr)t 

30     Kopeam&t  'A7raT|optft>z>  '  (frepev  Be  rrjv  tyrjfov  drrro  TO  ftw/jLO.    e\av 
Be  Tt?  /3o\r)Tai  efalvai  e?  A?7yu,oTta>z>|  t&a?,  wv  az>  a 
e^elvai  av\TWi'  e\e(r6ai  8e  eV  auTot?  crvwr)<y6pos  T\OV 

OLKOV    7T6VT6    avSpa?    V7T€\p   TpLCLKOVTCL    6T7J  jejOVOTaS,   TOVTO?  $6  \ 

35  e^opKwo-dTW  o  (frpaTpiapxos  teal  6  i€p6\vs  o-vwryyoprja-ev  TO,  Sifcaio- 
TdTa  KOI  OK  I  edaev  oSeva  fjirj  ovra  (frpaTepa  (frpaTpiQev  '  OTO  8'  av 
TWV  efyevTwv  dTro^rjc^icroyvTali,  ATj/jLOTicoviSai,,  6<p6t\6TO)  ^tXta? 

40  Spa|^a?  tepa?  Twt  Att  Twt  QpaTpltoi  '  ea-7rp\aTT€T(o  Se  TO  dpyv- 
piov  TOVTO  6  tepeu?  |  TO  Ae/ceXe^wz^  OLKO  rj  auTO?  o^etXeTw.  e|f  €ti/at 
Se  /cat  aXX&M  Twt  jBoXofJievwi  TW\V  fypaTepwv  eairpaTTev  Tcot  /cot- 

45  van'17  TaO|[Ta]  S'  et'at  a?ro  <&op/jiia)vo$  ap%oi>TO$  ,18  eTrtjf-^rJ^^t^ei/ 
p'Xpv  7T€pl  &v  a\v  SiaSiicd^ev  Serji,  KCLTO,  TOV  WICLVTOV  \ 
eav  8e  /jirj  eTri^lrrj^icrTji,,  o<$>e\€T\wirevTaKoa'la<$$pa'%iJ,a<s 

50  lepa?  TWL  Atl  |  [TJCO^  <&pa,Tpico[(,  '  e^cnrpaTTev  Se  TOV  lepea  \  [/cjat 
a\\o[v  TOV  /3o]Xo/x6i/oi/  TO  dpyvpiov  \  [TO]VT[O  TWL  KOLVWL].  TO 
Be  \OLTTOV  ayev  TCL  \  \_fjuela  KOI  TO,  Kopei\a  e?  A.€/ce\€iav  etrl  T][O^ 

55  /3a)/j,6v  •  eav  8e  pr)  O^vcnji  enrl  TO  (Bw/JLO,  o(j)\^€\eTco  TrevTrj  KOVT~\a 
Spa^yw-a?  lepas  TW\[_L  Au  Twt  QpaTplwi  '  ea^TrpaTTeTco  Be  6  iep\[ev<; 
TO  dpyvpiov  TOVTO  17] 


FACE  B. 

eav  Be  TL  TOVTCOV  Bt,a/cci)\,vrji,,  OTTOL  av  6  l\epev<$  Trpoypdtyrji,,  evOav- 

Oa  a<yev  TO,  yuetja  real  TO,  Kopeua  '  Trpoypdfav  Be  TrpoTre/jLTT^a  TT)? 

5     AopTrta?  ev  TrivatciaM,  \e\evKWfjL\evwt  uij'X.aTTOv20  rj 


17  The  common  fund;  cf.  THEOPH.,  Char.  xxx.  5.    The  fund  of  Zeus  Phratrios  was 
the  fund  of  the  phratry. 

18  According  to  SZANTO,  everything  preceding  ravra  8'  elvai  (except  the  sentence 
rV  5e  .  .  .  .  &ca/j.3,  lines  26-29,  which  he  regards  as  standing  out  of  its  proper  con- 
nection) belongs  to  the  provisions  for  the  immediate  future,  and  the  ravra  8'  elvai  marks 
the  beginning  of  the  permanent  law.    But,  as  Gilbert  pointed  out,  if  the  pronoun 
referred  to  what  follows,  it  would  probably  be  raSe.    More  decisive  is  the  presence, 
in  the  next  clause,  of  Se,  which  is  irreconcilable  with  Szanto's  view.    The  permanent 
law  begins  with  r^v  Se  SiatiiKcuriav  in  line  26.    The  aorists  eAeVflat,  e'£o/j/ca><raTaj,  make 
no  difficulty  ;  cf.  _B,  29  and  MEISTERHANS,  op.  cit.  :  Anm.  1638. 

19SzANTO  twice  (pp.  507,  518)  gives  the  sense  of  this  as  being  dass  der  Phratriarch 
jedes  Jahr  die  Abstimmung  darilber  einzuleiten  habe,  wer  diadikasirt  werden  solle.  As  if 
&v  Uv  SfTi  could  be  an  indirect  question  ! 

20  This  crasis  would  not  occur  in  a  decree  of  the  Ekklesia  ;  MEISTERHANS,  op.cit.,  $  24. 


1  40  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 


OTTO  dv  A|e/C6Xe^?  Trpocrfyoirwa-iv  ev  acrrei.21  TO  B\e  tyrfaicr/jLa  roBe 
KOI  TO,  lepeaxrvva  dva<y\pdtyairbv  lepea  ev  arr)\r)i,  \i6ivrii  Trp\6o-6ev 

10  TO  /3a)/jLO  Ae/ceXeidcriv  re\eai,  TO)??  eavro.  Nt/co^^yu/o?  elrre  '  ra 
fjiev  d\\a  /car\d  ra  Trpbrepa  ^rr^^io-fjiara  a  tcerai  Trepl  r\e<;  elcra- 
70)7779  rwv  TraiBwv  /cat  rfjs  BiaB\iKao-ias,  TO9  Be  /judprvpas  rpes, 

15  09  eiprj  \TCLI  €Trl  T'f]i  dvaKpicrei,,  rrape^ecrOai,  eic,  r  wv  eavro  Oiaawrcov 
fjuaprvpovras  ra  vTrepwrat/jLetya)2'2  \  teal  eTrofjbvvvras  rbv  Ata  TOZ> 
QpdrpioV  |  fjiaprvpev  Be  T09  fj^dprvpa^  real  e7roijivv\vai  e^oyLte^o9 
TO  fifo/Jbd'  eav  Be  fir)  wen  ev  T|w(t)  Qidawi  rbrwi  rocroroi,  rbv 

20  dpi6fjbbv,  e\/c  rwv  d\\(av  cfrparepcov  nrape^ecrdw  .  'orav  \  Be  TJI,  77 
BiaBucaaia,  6  fyparpiap'^ps  fjur)  7r|[p]oTe^o^  BiBorw  Tr/(i 


Trepl  rwv  7raL\Ba)v  Tot9  arcaai  (f>pdrep(ri  rrplv  av  ol  av 


TO  TO  eaa 


25     ryofjLevo  Oiaawrai  /cpvftBrjv  a|[7rjo  TO  fico/AO  (fcepovres  rrjv 

\  io-mvrat  '  real  ras  ^77^09  T«9  rorwv  evav\riov  rwv  airdvrwv 
epwv  ra)v  7rap6v\ra)v  ev  rr)i  dyopdi  6  (j) 

30  adrco  /cal  dvayopeverco  orrorep  dv\  tyr)(f)ia'Q)vrai'  edv  Be 
/jievcov  r&v  0\iaa-(t)r(t)v  evai  avrois  (f>pdrepa  ol  aXXo  i 
d7roty7}<f>LcrQ)vrai,,  o<fcei\ovr\u>v  e/carbv  Bpa^jjids  iepds  rwi  Atl 

35  <&\parpi(Dt,  ol  Oiacrwrai,  rrKrjv  oaoi  av  r&v  \  Oiavwrwv 
rj  evavriofjLevoi  \  fyaivwvrau  ev  rr}i  BiaBucaaiai,  '  edv  Be  \ 
aatvrai  ol  Oiao-urai,  6  Be  elo-d\ya)v  e<f>f)i  et9  T09  a[7r]avra<;,  Tot9  Be 

40     a7racr|t  Bo£ei  %vai  (frpdryp,  ewypacfreaOa)  et9  ra 

edv  Be  tt7ro-v|r77^)io-w|^T[a]t  ol  arravres,  b<j>ei\erw  e/carbv 

lepds  rwi  Att  TOH  Qparpiwi  '  edv  Be    diro-^r^iaa^vwv  rwv  Qia- 

45  awrwv  pr)  e<f)r}\L  els  T09  arravras,  Kvpia  eara)  rj  drro^^^tcri^  r) 
rwv  QiavwTtov*  ol  Be  Otaa-wrat,  jjie\rd  rwv  aXXcov  (frparepwv  /JLTJ 
<j)€povra)V  ri)v  \  ^rj<^ov  Trepl  rwv  TraiBcov  rwv  e/c  TO  didcro  \  TO 


81  Lolling  refers  to  LYSIAS,  xxm.  3,  which  mentions  "  tlie  burlter's  shop  near  the 
Hermne  "  as  the  place  'iva.  ol  Ae/ceA«rs  Trpoa-QoiTua-w.  BLASS  says  that  we  have  no  in- 
dications as  to  the  date  of  this  oration  (Alt.  Beredsamkeit,  I,  632).  But,  surely,  the 
presence  of  Plataeans  in  Athens  implies  a  date  prior  to  387  or  not  much  later  ;  see 
PAUS.,  IX.  i.  4.  This  was  probably,  then,  the  place  in  39(5/5.  But  the  wording  of 
the  clause  ttiro  ....  irpoa-^oiTucriv  provides  for  possible  changes. 

28According  to  LOLLING,  lines  1  1—15  are  written  in  rasura,  which  may  partly  account 
for  the  awkward  and  ungrammatical  expression.  TOVS  ^aprvpas  Tpels  is  anomalous  for 
TOUS  rpe?s  ndprvpas;  cf.  KEIL,  Zur  Syll  inscr.  Boeot.,  p.  620.  irapexeo-dai  does  double 
duty,  being  needed  in  both  relative  and  anUvnlrnt  clauses.  I  do  not  see  the  force 
of  vir6  in  vTrtpwTda/j.ei'a,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  thought  important,  since,  by  omitting 
it,  the  tpuTuufva  could  have  been  written  entire,  whereas,  as  it  is,  the  last  two  letters 
had  to  be  omitted  altogether. 

"These  were  called,  above,  ri»  7pa/uJuaTe?ov  rb  £v  ATjyuoTtwpiSwi'  Kai  rb  avriypaQov. 


A  STUDY  OF  TEE  ATTIC  PHRATRY. 


141 


avrwv.  TO  Se  ^rj^ncrfjLa  roSe  Trpocrava^pa^rdrw  o  lepevs  (e)^9  rrjv 
50  a-rrf\r]v  rrjv  \i\divrjv.  "Op  #09  fJLaprvpwv  eVl  rrji  el<7a<ya)\<y€i  rwv 
'  fjiaprvpS)  ov  elcrdyei,  ea\vrwi  vbv  %vai  rorov  yvr)(nov  ey 
,  d\7]6rf  ravra  VTJ  rov  Ata  roi^  <&pdrpio\v,  evopicb(v)ri  /jiev 
55  IJLOL  TroXkd  teal  dyadd  ev\cu,  el  S'  eTTiop/coirjv,  rdvavrLa.2* 


60 


s  eiTrev  '  BeSo^dat  rot?  (frpdrepcri  Trepl  \  TT}?  elcra>ya)yfj$ 
,  rd  /lev  d\\a  Ka\rd  rd  irporepa  ^Irfj^icrfjiaTa,  OTTCO?  S' 
dv  et'Scocrt  ol  \  ^/oare/oe?  TOV9yLteXXo^Ta?  elo-dyea-Ocu,  d7ro\<ypd$ecr6ai 


TWL  TTpwrwi25  erei  r)  wi  av  TO  Kovpeo\v  d<yei  TO  OVOJJLCL  Trarpodev  /cal 


rov 


65 


Ka     TT 


Trarpodev  /cal  rov  SIJ/JLOV  Trpo?  rbv  \ 

(pparpiap^ov  '  rbv  Se  <$>parpla\jp'%ov  d7ro<ypaTlr]\a/j,eva)V  dvaypd- 
tyavra  eK^riOevai,  OTTOV  dv  Ae/cjjeXee?  Trpocrfyoirwcn,  €Kn,0[evai  8e 
Kal  rbv  leped]  \  dvajpd-^ravra  ev  cravi§i\_WL  Xev/cwi  ev  rwi  iep~\\- 
wi  Tr}?  Ar/ToO?  ,26  TO  Se  ^[^tj(j)La-fj,a  rbSe  Trpoa-avaypdtyai,  \  et?  rrj~\v 
o-rfarjv  [rrjv  \i6ivr)v.~\ 

TRANSLATION. 

Theodores,  son  of  Euphantides,  priest  of  Zeus  Phratrios,  had  this 
stele  engraved  and  erected. 

The  sacrificial  portions  due  to  the  priest  are  as  follows  :  from  the 
melon,  a  haunch,  a  rib,  an  ear,  and  three  obols  of  money  ;  from  the 
koureion,  a  haunch,  a  rib,  an  ear,  a  quart-cake,  a  half-chous  of  wine, 
and  a  drachma  of  money. 

The  following  decrees  were  passed  by  the  phraters  in  the  archonship 
of  Phormion  at  Athens  [396/5  B.  c.]  and  the  phratriarchate  of  Panta- 
kles  of  Oion  : 

On  the  motion  of  Hierokles  :  For  all  who  have  not  yet  been  sub- 
jected to  a  (Uadikasia  according  to  the  law  of  the  Demotionidai,  the 
phraters,  having  promised  in  the  name  of  Zeus  Phratrios  so  to  do,  shall 
hold  a  diadikoMa  immediately,  taking  their  ballots  from  the  altar. 
And,  whoever  be  found  to  have  been  introduced  illegally,  the  priest 
and  the  phratriarch  shall  erase  his  name  from  the  register  kept  in 

81  The  wording  of  this  oath  is  extremely  muddled  ;  probably  the  work  of  Nikode- 
mos,  who  seems  to  have  been  exceptionally  illiterate  and  bungling. 

2o  irpuTca  for  irporffxf  is  extraordinary.  It  may  help  to  prop  up  the  three  similar 
examples  given  by  KUHNER,  Griech.  Gramm.,  n,  22  (ARIST.,  Birds,  824  should  not 
have  been  cited),  two  at  least  of  which  have  been  corrected  by  critics.  Cf.  the  cases 
of  irparos  with  genitive  quoted  in  STEPHANOS,  Thesaurus,  s.  v.  irp&ros. 

26  Probably  in  Dekeleia. 


142  AMKHH'AN  .H)in;.\.\  i,  oi<'  A&CHJBOLOQT, 


i  :m<l   from  the  copy  thereof.     And  lie  who  introduced  the 

rejeeted  member  shall  be  lined  LOO  drachmas,  to  In-  devoied  i<>  /ens 

I'hi-nfrios.  This  money  Ilic  pries!  :ind  (lie  phrnfrinrch  shnll  colled,  or 
l>c  responsible  for  Ihe  simoiinl. 

In  future  I  lie  diadikatiadlB]]  be  held  in  Ilie  yenr  following  thnl  in 
which  (lie  hnurnim  is  Sacrificed,  nn  the  Konreolis  of  Ilie  A  pnl  diiri;i  ,  the 
hnllols  bcinu;  Inken  from  lhe;dl;ir.  And,  if  ;my  disfranchised  member 
wishes  l<>  :i|)pe:d  l<>  Ilie  I  >emol  ionidni,  he  shnll  hnve  Ilie  nidil.  I  n  these 
cases  the  bouse  Of  DekeleiaHS  Shall  ehnnse  live  men  nl.nve  Ihirly  yenrs 
nf  :i;-c  :is  ;id\oe;iles,  In  \\hnin  flic  plir:il  risirch  ;ind  the  priest  sh:dl 
:idniinisler  ;in  n;ilh  In  lie  .-ihsnliilely  jnsl  in  Iheir  ;idvne;iey  ;ind  nnt  to 

allow  any  one  illegal!}'  loU-Inn^  to  the  phratry  ,    And  every  appellant 

rejected  |>y  the  I  )einot  i<  mi<l:ii  shnll  he  lined  I  (  )(  )(  )  d  r:idim:is,  l«»  I  »'  de- 
voted |o  /ens  riirnli'ins.  'This  money  I  he  pricsl  of  the  hnnse  nl'  I  )ekc- 
Icisins  slinll  <-nlleel,  nr  he  responsible  Inr  Ihc  iiiiiniinl.  A  nd  it  .  sluill 
;ilsn  he  perinissihle  I'nr  :iny  oilier  plirntcr  who  wishes  In  collect  this  Cor 
the  common  I'mid.  These  provisions  sliiill  lie  in  force  from  (he  nivhon- 
ship  of  riiormion. 

Tlie  plinilrinn-li  slisill  every  ye;ir  put  to  vole  lh<-  c:iscs  of  those  lor 
whom  :i  (litHliktiKHt.  is  n-ipiired.  (  Mherwise,  he  si  nil  I  he  lined  ;"»()(  hi  nicli- 
in:is,  lo  he  devoted  to  /ens  I  Ninil  rios.  'This  money  Ilie  pries!,  or  :my 
one  else  who  wishes,  shnll  collect  for  I  he  common  fund. 

In  future  Hie  mrin  :m<l  I  he  l:nnm,i  shnll  he  <;iken  lo  I  he  ;dt:ir  in 
hekelein.  And,  if  lliey  he  not  s.'iei'ilieed  on  Ilie  ;dl:ir,  (he  oll'ender 
shnll  he  lined  f>0  drnchnuis,  to  lie  devoled  lo  /ens  I'hrnl  I'ios.  This 
money  the  priest  sluill  collect,  or  he  responsible  lor  the  ninoiini.  .  .  . 
Ami,  ii'nny  of  these  CMIISCS  prevent,  the  nirin  :md  Ihe  knurcia  shnll  he 
<nk<'ii  to  \vhnlev<'r  |>lnce  the  priest  mny  nd\<'rlise,  thesnid  ndvertisc- 
ment  1<>  he  mn<le  lour  dnys  hcfoiv  (he  I  )orpi:i.  on  n  whifew:ished  l»o;ird 
not  less  thnn  n  spnn  hrond  nl  Ihe  nsnnl  resoi'l,  lor  the  lime  hein^,  of 
the  Dekeleinns  in  the  city. 

This  decree,  together  with  Ihe  priest's  portions,  Ihe  pricsl  shnll  hn\e 
cn^rnvcd  nl  his  own  expense  on  n  stone  stele  in  Dekelein  l.eloiv  ihenltnr. 

On  the  motion  of  NikodemOS  !  'The  cni-lier  decrees  in  force  ill  re^-nrd 
lo  the  introduction  of  children  nnd  HM-  <l/<t<H/;rtxi<i  nre  hei-ehy  nmended 
ns  follows  : 

The  three  witnesses  whom  it  hns  been  required  to  produce  for  the 
(  \nminnli<»n  shnll  he  fellow-l  hinsotes  of  the  nppliemil,  testifying  to  the 
matters  of  in<  |  niry  nnd  eonlirmin^  Iheir  word  by  nn  onlh  in  the  nnme 


of  /ens  I'hralrios.  And  the  witnesses  shall  touch  I  he  allar  dunn;- 
their  testimony  and  oalli.  A  IK  I,  if  I  here  l>c  noi  so  many  in  MM-  lliiasos 
in  (pieslion,  they  shall  lie  furnished  from  the  other  phralers. 

At  the  ilitttlikdNitt  the  phral  riarch  shall  not.  permit  the  whole  body 
of  |  »l  i  raters  lo  vole  in  regard  lo  I  lie  children,  nnlil  the  l'ello\v-l  hiasotes 
of  the  candidate  hi  nisei  I'  have  voted  secretly,  taking  llicir  ballots  IVoin 
(he  altar.  An<l  the  phrat  riareli  shall  count  their  ballots  before  the 

whole  body  of  phraterspresenl  at  the  meeting  and  |>roelaim  which  way 

Ihev  ha\'e  voted.  And  if,  when  the  thiasotes  have  voted  favorably, 
(he  rest  of  the  |>hraters  vole  adversely,  the  ihiasotes,  except  those  who 
openly  denounce  or  oppose  |  (lie  child  |  al  llie  <//ti<li/-<i.</<i,  ;-liall  I.e  lined 
Mil)  drachinas  [apiece  |,  to  he  ilevoled  to  /ens  Thra trios.  (  )n  the  other 
liand,  if  the  Ihiasotes  vote  adversely  and  the  applicant  |  /'.  e.t  father  or 

L-il;irdiail  |   appeal     to    llie   whole    body    :m.|     the    whole   body   decide   llial, 

the  child  belongs  lo  the  phrati'N,  he  shall  he  enrolled  in  llie  •••enenil 
registers;  l.lll,  if  the  whole  I  H  ,d  y  vole  advelX'ly,  he  |  /'.  r.,  (he  Calher 
Or  :'iiardian  |  shall  I.e  lined  I  OO  drachmas,  In  I.e  devnled  to  /ens  I'lna 
Hi"  .  And,  if,  when  llie  Ihiasotes  have  voled  adversely,  no  appeal  [fl 
laken  lo  Ihe  \vln»le  l)o<ly,  (he  sidverse  vole  «.('  the  ihiasoles  shall  lie 
dfid  i\e.  And  (he  meinl.ers  (.Cany  thiasos  shall  not  vole  with  I  here.. I 
ol'lhe  phraters  on  (he  children  of  their  o\vn  flu. 

This  additional  decree  the  priest  shall  have  eii'-raved  mi  (he  -.lone 
Stele. 

(  )ath  of  witnesses  at   I  he  in!  rod  net  inn  of  children  :    I    testily  that   the 
child  whom  he  in!  rodnces,  [  saying  |  1  hat   il    i-  hi     laul'nl     -HI   by  a  \\  ed 
ded  wife,  this  is  true  l>y  /ens  I'hratrios,  [and    I    pray  |  thai   milch  i-.,,,.! 
may  liel'all   me  if  I  swesir  truly,  and  the  contrary  il'  I   IW6AT  falsely. 

On  the  motion  of  Menexcnos  :  K'esolved  |»y  the  phralers  lo  amend 
MM-  former  decrees  in  rcL-ard  to  I  he  in!  ro  duel  ion  of  children,  as  follows  : 
In  order  thai  I  he  phralers  may  know  I  hose  who  are  lo  lie  introduced, 
there  shall  I.e  presented  lo  the  phratliarch,  during  the  year  l.clnre  Ihe 
l:nur<i»i,  is  lironn'hl,  a,  written  statement  of  Ihe  name  |  of  each  child  |, 
with  the  father's  name  and  dctne,  as  well  as  the  mother's  name,  with 

r  father's  name  and  deme.  And,  when  Ihe  slatem.  nl  have  l.ecn 
made,  Ihe  phralriarch  shall  inscribe  (hem  and  post  them  up  al  (he  n  ual 
resort,  for  Ihe  time  bein^;,  of  the  I  )el<e|eiaii-.,  and  (he  pri<  I  :il  "  hall 
in  •  ribe  them  on  a  while  board  and  post,  il  np  in  Ihe  temple  of  |,efo. 

Thi:->  additional  decree  -hall   be  em-raved  on  llie     tOH6  Stele, 


144  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

COMMENT. 

The  foregoing  document  is  difficult  of  comprehension  especially  for 
two  reasons.  In  the  first  place,  the  subjects  of  eia-aycoyrj  and  Sta&t- 
Kacria,  with  which  these  psephisms  deal,  are  not  here  taken  up  for  the 
first  time.  As  regards  the  diadikasia,  to  be  sure,  Szanto27  and  Busolt28 
are  (or  were)  of  another  opinion.  Regarding  the  Demotionidai  as  a 
gens,  with  which  our  phratry  was  intimately  connected,  either  as  con- 
tained in  it  (Szanto)  or  containing  it  (Busolt),  they  see  in  the  "law  of 
the  Demotionidai "  a  recent  enactment  of  the  gens,  and  suppose  that 
the  diadikasia  was  in  the  archonship  of  Phormion  first  introduced  into 
our  phratry  and  presumably  into  others  as  well.  Now,  it  may  be,  as 
Szanto  and  Busolt  have  assumed,  that  the  first  of  our  phratrial  pse- 
phisms is  symptomatic  of  the  same  movement  which  found  expression 
in  the  archonship  of  Eukleides  in  the  revival  of  the  law,  that  only 
those  should  be  citizens  both  of  whose  parents  were  citizens,  though  the 
interval  of  time,  eight  years,  is  hardly  favorable  to  such  an  assump- 
tion. Butj  at  any  rate,  the  psephism  of  Hierokles  does  not  introduce 
a  new  practice.  If  the  "  law  of  the  Demotionidai "  had  been  a  recent 
enactment,  it  would  almost  certainly  have  been  called  a  -^nfjfyicrpa : 
and  the  language,  "all  who  have  not  yet  been  subjected  to  a  diadi- 
kasia according  to  the  law,"  implies  that  some  have  already  passed 
that  ordeal.  The  law  is  not  a  novelty,  but  it  has  been  laxly  observed, 
and  is  now  to  be  again  enforced.  Furthermore,  as  we  now  know,  there 
have  been  one  or  more  earlier  psephisms  of  the  phratry  in  regard  to 
elcra'yM'yrj  or  SiafctKacria  or  both.  The  irporepa  ^rj^icriJiara  to  which 
Nikodemos  refers  (B,  11)  may  include  the  psephism  of  Hierokles,  but 
imply  at  least  one  besides.  The  measures  now  enacted  presuppose  the 
immemorial  vopos  and  the  previous  legislation,  of  whose  precise  nature 
we  are  ignorant.29 

In  the  second  place,  the  style  of  our  document  is  extremely  clumsy 
and  inexact.  Attention  has  been  called  above  to  the  illiterate  syntax 
of  certain  passages.  What  is  far  more  serious  is  the  inconsecutiveness, 
the  incompleteness  and  the  ambiguity  in  statement  of  principles.  It 
requires  talent  and  training  of  a  high  order  to  frame  a  good  law,  and 
these  the  legislative  methods  of  the  Athenians  did  not  tend  to  develop. 

27  Op.  cit.,  507.  28  Griech.  Alt.,  \  160. 

29  The  words  ots  ftpyTai  eVl  ry  avaitpio-fi  Trape'xea-flcu  seem  to  me  to  refer  to  a  previous 
psephism.  The  novelty  in  Nikodemos'  measure  was  not  the  requirement  of  witnesses, 
but  the  requirement  that  they  should  be  of  the  thiasos  of  the  candidate. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATRY.  145 

Least  of  all  were  such  qualities  likely  to  be  found  in  the  subordinate, 
rural  corporations,  as  these  psephisms  bear  witness.  Hence  it  is  use- 
less to  bring  to  bear  upon  them  strict  rules  of  interpretation. 

In  consequence  of  these  difficulties,  a  complete  and  certain  explana- 
tion of  these  decrees  is  impossible  so  long  as  our  materials  remain  what 
they  are.  The  way  in  which  the  newly  discovered  text  has  thrown 
some  ingenious  theories  to  the  winds  is  a  warning  against  over-confi- 
dence in  dealing  with  riddles  still  unsolved.  Nor,  even  if  the  consti- 
tution and  procedure  of  this  particular  phratry  lay  clearly  before  us, 
would  it  be  safe  to  assume  that  all  the  Attic  phratries  were  cut  out  on 
the  same  pattern  and  pursued  the  same  methods.  There  was  of  course 
a  fundamental  likeness  between  phratry  and  phratry.  The  conditions 
of  membership  must  have  been  the  same  for  all,30  being  none  other  than 
the  conditions  of  Athenian  citizenship.  But  beyond  this  the  variation 
may  have  been  wide.  Our  stele  shows  us  one  phratry  modifying  its 
rules  and  regulations.  If  the  same  phratry  performed  its  duties  in 
different  ways  at  different  times,  how  much  more  is  such  difference 
likely  to  have  existed  between  different  phratries.  Yet,  in  spite  of  all 
these  difficulties  and  limitations,  the  new  text  sheds  enough  additional 
light  to  justify  a  review  of  the  whole  subject. 

One  thing  which  is  now  put  beyond  a  peradventure  is,  that  the  mem- 
bers of  this  phratry  did  not  all  belong  to  one  deme.  Szanto,  who  regards 
the  phratries  in  general  as  subdivisions  of  the  denies,  saw  no  difficulty 
in  supposing  that  all  the  members  of  this  phratry  were  of  the  deme 
ion,  to  which  the  phratriarch  Pantakles  belonged,  in  spite  of  the  facts 
at  the  inscription  was  found  at  Dekeleia  and  the  meetings  for  the 
mission  of  children  were  required  to  be  held  in  that  deme  (A,  52  ff.). 
is  view,  always  improbable  enough,  is  now  shown  to  be  certainly 
se.  It  is  scarcely  conceivable  that  the  rendezvous  of  the  Dekeleians 
in  Athens  should  have  been  selected  as  the  place  to  post  notices  intended 
reach  all  members  of  the  phratry  (B,  5-6,  64.-65),  unless  there  had 
n  Dekeleians  in  the  phratry.  A  still  more  cogent  proof  is  supplied 
y  the  provision  of  B,  61.  If  the  members  had  all  belonged  to  one 
deme,  it  would  have  been  idle  to  require  the  mention  of  the  father's 
demotikon.  But,  besides  Dekeleia  and  Oion,  we  cannot  name  any  deme 
represented  in  this  phratry,  nor  can  we  say  whether  there  were  any 
others.  If  there  were,  they  were  probably,  like  Oion  (i.  e.  no  doubt 


30  Except  that  some  phratries  were  by  law  not  open  to  S^oTi-ony-rot;  see  BUERMANN, 
Jahrbucher  fur  Philologie,  Supp.,  ix,  643. 


146  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Dekeleia.  At  least,  the 
presumption,  derived  from  other  sources,  that  the  phratries  were  unions 
of  neighbors,  receives  some  confirmation  from  our  inscription.  It  looks 
as  if  this  phratry  were  localized  in  and  near  Dekeleia,  not,  indeed,  in 
the  sense  that  all  the  members  actually  lived  in  that  neighborhood, 
but  that  they  belonged  to  that  group  of  demes.  But,  whether  all  the 
members  of  these  demes  or  of  any  one  of  them  belonged  to  the  phratry, 
we  cannot  tell.  If  the  Dyaleis  of  CIA,  n,  600  are  rightly  regarded 
as  a  union  of  two  phratries,  then,  as  the  two  phratriarchs  there  men- 
tioned were  both  Myrrhinusians,  it  follows  that  members  of  the  same 
deme  might  belong  to  diiferent  phratries.  The  same  inference  has  been 
drawn  by  Buermann  from  the  formula  of  the  decrees  conferring  citi- 
zenship, elvai  <j)V\f)s  Kal  SIJ/JLOV  KOL  $paTpla<$  ^?  av  {3ov\r)rai,  which 
suggests  that,  as  after  the  choice  of  a  tribe  there  was  still  open  the 
choice  of  a  deme,  so  after  the  choice  of  a  deme  there  was  still  open  the 
choice  of  a  phratry.  It  may  be  then  that  the  demesmen  of  Dekeleia 
and  Oion  were  not  all  enrolled  in  our  phratry.  And  thus  we  are  as 
far  as  ever  from  being  able  to  estimate  even  approximately  the  size 
of  an  Attic  phratry,  or,  what  comes  to  the  same  thing,  the  number  of 
phratries  in  the  State.  Between  the  twelve  commonly  accepted  until 
lately  and  the  three  hundred  and  sixty  once  proposed  by  Buermann, 
there  is  still  room  for  indefinite  guessing. 

Nor  does  the  new  text  supply  any  decisive  answer  to  the  important 
question  raised  by  Szanto,  Are  the  Demotionidai  a  gens  or  a  phratry?31 
and  answered  by  him  in  favor  of  the  former.  It  should  be  premised 
that  the  Demotionidai,  if  a  gens,  are  to  be  regarded,  not  with  Szanto 
as  a  wider  organization  including  the  phratry,  but  rather  with  Busolt 
as  the  nucleus  around  which  non-gentiles  were  grouped  to  form  the 
phratry.  Now  the  first  two  occurrences  of  the  name  do  not  favor  the 
view  that  the  Demotionidai  are  a  gens.  The  "  law  of  the  Demotio- 
nidai "  is  the  law  of  the  phratry  (A,  14)  ;  ergo,  one  naturally  infers, 
the  Demotionidai  are  the  phratry.  Busolt,32  to  be  sure,  asserts,  Die 
Satzungen  des  Geschlechts  galten  auch  fur  die  Pkmtrie,  but  the  passage 
in  Isaios  to  which  he  refers  aifords  no  confirmation  of  the  assertion, 

31  There  is  a  third  alternative  possible,  viz.,  that  both  gens  and  phratry  were  called 
Demotionidai.   In  that  case,  we  could  understand  the  phratry  in  the  first  two  instances 
and  the  gens  in  the  third.     I  should  prefer  this  to  Szanto's  view,  but  do  not  think  it 
necessary. 

32  Griech.  Alt.,  \  159,  with  references  to  this  inscription  and  ISAIOS,  vn.  15. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATEY, 


147 


and  the  general  impression  produced  by  the  psephisms  before  us  is 
that  the  phraters  were  a  law  unto  themselves.  Again,  as  the  phratry 
as  a  whole  has  control  of  the  register  (J5,  39-40;  A,  19-20),  it  is  hard 
to  see  why  a  gens,  and  not  the  phratry,  should  be  named  as  the  body 
with  whom  the  register  is  kept  (A,  21}.  But  the  "  appeal  to  the  Demo- 
tionidai  "  (A,  30)  makes  a  difficulty.  How,  asks  Szanto,  not  without 
force,  can  there  be  an  appeal  from  a  body  to  the  same  body  again  ? 
On  the  other  hand,  we  may  ask,  Why  should  the  phraters,  who  in  gen- 
eral manage  their  affairs  collectively,  abdicate  in  favor  of  a  section  of 
their  number  in  the  most  important  of  their  proceedings?  The  ques- 
tion is  more  forcible  now  than  before,  because,  in  the  detailed  regula- 
tion of  the  diadikasia  by  the  psephism  of  Nikodemos,  we  find  no  dis- 
position to  accept  as  final  the  decision  of  any  subordinate  body.  On 
the  whole,  therefore,  I  am  disposed  to  see  in  the  Demotionidai  the 
phraters,  and  the  phraters  only.  If  this  be  right,  the  word  "appeal  " 
is  indeed  not  strictly  appropriate,  but  perhaps  the  interpretation  sug- 
gested below  for  the  passage  in  question  may  make  the  employment 
of  the  word  more  intelligible. 

If  our  inscription  teaches  nothing  about  the  relation  of  gens  to 
phratry,  it  redeems  this  silence  by  the  proof  it  brings  that  every  mem- 
ber of  the  phratry  belonged  also  to  some  one  or  other  of  a  number  of 
religious  associations  or  thiasoi.  We  can  with  some  confidence  go  a  step 
further.  If  any  dependence  is  to  be  placed  on  the  literal  meaning 
of  .B,  23—J[£,  all  the  members  of  any  thiasos  were  expected  to  take 
part  at  the  diadikasia  of  the  child  of  one  of  their  own  number,  and 
were  all  liable  to  be  fined  ;  in  other  words,  the  thiasoi  were  subdivisions 
of  the  phratry.  Further,  according  to  the  present  wording  of  our 
text,  these  thiasoi  were,  at  least  in  some  instances,  very  small  bodies  ; 
the  possible  case  is  considered  of  the  membership  being  less  than  four 
(B,  18-19).  But  it  may  be  that  in  the  first  version  of  lines  11-15  a 
larger  number  of  witnesses  than  these  was  prescribed.  As  to  the  nature 
of  these  thiasoi,  we  learn  nothing  beyond  what  the  name  itself  implies, 
nor  do  other  sources  of  information  have  much,  if  anything,  to  say  of 
such  associations,  at  least  under  that  name.33  But,  inasmuch  as  Qia- 
awTdi  and  bpryewves  are  practically  synonymous,  it  seems  permissible 
to  bring  these  thiasoi  into  connection  with  a  much  debated  statement 
of  Philochoros.  His  words,  as  quoted  by  Photios  and  Souidas,  s.  v. 


33  The  "thiasoi  of  Herakles,"  mentioned  in  ISAIOS,  ix.  30  may  be  analogous. 


148  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 


are  as  follows  :  rou?  8e  (frpdropas  eTrdvay/ces 

/cat  rou?  ofJLO<yd\aiCTas,  ou?  ryevvrfras  /ca\ovfj,ev.  Opin- 
ions have  differed  as  to  whether  o#?  here  refers  to  both  opyewvas  and 
6fj,oyd\aKTas,  or  only  to  6/jLoyd\aKTa^.  But,  even  without  the  con- 
text, the  latter  alternative  seems  to  me  almost  certain,34  and  those  who 
had  the  context  so  understood  it.35  See  Harpokration  s.  v.  Tevvijrcu, 
and  Bull,  de  Corr.  HelUn.,  i,  152,  from  which  we  learn  further  that  the 
sentence  in  question  was  taken  from  the  fourth  book  of  Philochoros' 
Atthis.  This  book  covered  the  latter  half  of  the  fifth  century  B.  c.,  so 
that  the  statement  quoted  probably  referred  to  the  phratries  of  the  post- 
Kleisthenean  period.  We  thus  learn  that  a  phratry  consisted  of  two 
classes  of  members,  yevvfjrai,  or  members  of  a  gens  (or  gentes)  based 
upon  real  or  fictitious  kinship  and  opyewves  or  members  of  a  religions 
union  or  unions,  perhaps  not  laying  claim  to  kinship.  Conformably  to 
the  statement  of  Philochoros,  we  find  admission  to  a  phratry  coupled 
with  admission  to  a  gens  in  Isaios,  vn.  16  and  Dem.  LIX.  77,  and  with 
admission  to  a  body  of  bpyewves  in  Isaios,  n.  14.  But  now,  although 
opyewves  might  be  contrasted  with  yevvfjrai,  and  were  so  contrasted 
by  Philochoros,  yet  the  name  in  its  broad  sense  is  applicable  to  any 
religious  association.  A  gens  was  a  religious  association  ;  hence  a  body 
of  gentiles  could  be  called  opyewves.  Such  at  least  is  the  clear  statement 
of  the  Etymologicum  Magnum,  s.  v.  Tevvrirai,m  and  I  see  no  ground  for 
doubting  it.  The  combined  testimony  of  these  passages  may  be  summed 
up  by  saying  that  a  phratry  consisted  of  two  or  more  religious  associ- 
ations, one  at  least  of  which  was  or  might  be  a  gens.  Probably  then, 
by  the  thiasoi  of  our  inscription,  we  are  to  understand  any  gens  (or 
gentes)  included  in  the  phratry  and  a  number  of  non-gentile  associa- 
tions. Possibly  the  OIKOS  Ae/ceXetw^  may  have  been  a  gentile  or  quasi- 
gentile  thiasos.37 

So  much  for  the  constitution  of  the  Demotionidai.  What,  now,  were 
the  special  circumstances  which  evoked  the  psephisms  of  396/5  ?  As 
I  conceive  the  situation,  there  had  been  in  our  phratry  three  closely 
connected  abuses,  to  the  reform  of  which  the  psephism  of  Hierokles 

34  <7/.  BUSOLT,  Griech.  Gesch.,  i,  395  0). 

35  Except  perhaps  POLLUX,  in  in.  52  ;  so  BUSOLT,  loc.  cit. 

36  The  confused  words  of  the  same  lexicon,  s.  v.  'Opye&ves:  StWcrx^o  n  avSpuv,  &s 
T&V  'yevvr]Tu>v  nal  <f>par6pcav,  seem  to  point  the  same  way. 

37  That  the  ol/cos  Ae/ceAet<£i>  was  a  religious  association  is  evident  from  its  having  a 
priest  (A,  41-42}.     Whether  this  priest  was  identical,  as  some  suppose,  with  the 
priest  of  the  phratry,  is  not  clear. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATRY.  149 

was  directed.  (1)  Meetings  for  the  reception  of  children  had  been  held 
elsewhere  than  at  Dekeleia.  This  is  a  certain  inference  from  A,  52  if., 
and  that  the  practice  was  considered  an  abuse  is  almost  equally  certain. 
I  think  we  can  plausibly  conjecture  how  the  abuse  arose.  During  the 
years  413—404,  Dekeleia  had  been  continuously  occupied  by  a  Spartan 
garrison,  and  the  residents  of  the  neighborhood  had  been  shut  up  in 
Athens.  During  these  years,  whatever  meetings  the  Demotionidai 
held  must  have  been  held  in  the  city.  Moreover,  when  the  war  was 
over,  it  is  likely  that  many,  habituated  to  city  life,  did  not  return  to 
their  country  homes,  but  remained  in  the  capital.  What  more  likely 
than  that  the  Demotionidai,  having  got  into  the  way  of  it,  should  have 
found  it  convenient  to  continue  meeting  and  transacting  business  in 
Athens  ?  (2)  But  the  irregularity  went  further  than  is  implied  in  the 
mere  substitution  of  one  meeting-place  for  another.  These  meetings 
had  been  held  without  the  presence  and  sanction  of  the  priest  of  Zeus 
Phratrios.  This  is  clear  from  the  priest  being  appointed  to  collect  the 
fine  from  future  offenders — an  unintelligible  provision  if  he  were  an 
aider  and  abettor  in  the  offense.  Naturally,  if  the  priest  was  not 
present,  he  did  not  receive  the  sacrificial  portions  to  which  he  was 
entitled.  The  instructions  of  B,  7,  and  the  consequent  announcement 
of  the  iep€(0crvva  at  the  head  of  the  stele,  bear  witness  to  an  attempt 
to  restore  neglected  rights.  Henceforth  the  priest  is  made  the  judge  as 
to  whether  circumstances  necessitate  a  meeting  elsewhere  than  at  Deke- 
leia, and  it  falls  to  him,  if  need  be,  to  choose  and  advertise  another  place, 
fact,  all  that  part  of  the  first  decree  which  relates  to  ela-aycoyr)  was 
in  the  interest  of  the  priest — a  fact  which  may  explain  the 
uirement  that  he  shall  bear  the  expense  of  the  stele.  (3)  The  names 
f  new  members  had  been  entered  in  the  register  without  the  diadi- 
'«.  This  was  simply  part  and  parcel  of  that  confusion  into  which 
e  affairs  of  the  phratry  had  fallen.  The  psephism  of  Hierokles 
imed  at  correcting  these  laxities  and  restoring  the  traditional  order, 
at  of  Nikodemos,  on  the  other  hand,  bringing  the  tkiasoi  into  promi- 
nce  and  making  them  jointly  responsible  for  their  members,  seems 
introduce  innovations.  What  the  occasion  of  this  move  was  I  am 
nable  to  say. 

Let  us  now  attempt  to  realize,  step  by  step,  the  process  established 
by  the  decrees  of  396/5  for  seeking  admission  to  the  phratry  of  Demo- 
tionidai. There  is  probably  no  fixed  rule  as  to  the  age  at  which  a  child 


1 50  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJSOLOG  Y. 

shall  be  presented,  but  the  ceremony  under  ordinary  circumstances  takes 
place  within  the  first  three  or  four  years  of  the  child's  life. 

The  regular  occasion,  according  to  the  evidence  of  several  scholiasts 
and  lexicographers,  is  the  Koureotis,  the  third  and  last  day  of  the 
Apatouria-festival.  This  statement  has  been  disputed  by  August 
Mommsen,38  who  assumes  that  the  presentation  began  on  the  Dorpia, 
the  first  day  of  the  festival,  on  no  better  ground  than  that  it  would 
have  been  a  bad  arrangement  to  postpone  the  serious  business  till  the 
last.  But  the  evidence  of  the  grammarians  receives  some  confirmation 
from  our  inscription,  which  fixes  the  diadikasia  upon  the  Koureotis. 
And  it  may  well  be  doubted  whether  an  attendance  of  the  scattered 
phraters  sufficient  to  transact  business  could  have  been  secured  for 
more  than  a  single  day.  Unless  insuperable  obstacles,  such  as  war, 
intervene,  the  meeting  is  held  at  Dekeleia.  Thither  are  brought  the 
children,39  male  and  female,  and  with  them  the  victims  and  other  offer- 
ings which  law  or  custom  prescribed.  Schoemann  conceived  such  meet- 
ings as  being  held  in  the  fypdrpiov,  which  according  to  Pollux  (in.  52) 
was  TO  lepbv  et9  o  o-vvyeaav  (sc.  ol  <j)pdropes).  It  is  noteworthy  that 
Stephanos  of  Byzantion  (s.  v.  fyarpia)  and  Eustathios  (ad.  II.,  239.  30 
and  735. 50)  know  the  fypdrpiov  only  as  a  TOTTO?  or  TOTTO?  wpicr/jievo^. 
At  all  events,  the  Demotionidai  meet  in  the  open  air  for  the  ela-aycoyr) 
as  well  as  for  the  SiaSitcaa-ia :  for  they  are  in  presence  of  the  altar,40 
and  that  this  was  not  in  a  covered  building  we  may  infer,  not  only 
from  its  use  for  burnt  sacrifices,  but  also  from  the  phraseology  of  S,  9; 
one  would  not  say  "in  Dekeleia  before  the  altar,"  if  this  altar  were  in 
a  building.  The  meeting  is  presided  over  by  the  phratriarch.  Each 
applicant  presents  his  child,  and  is  subjected  to  an  examination,  search- 
ing or  perfunctory  according  to  circumstances.  Then,  while  the  sacri- 
ficial portions  assigned  to  Zeus  Phratrios  burn  upon  the  altar,  he  takes 
oath  that  the  child  he  presents  is  yvrja-io^  ey  yaperrj^.  Following  the 
oath  of  the  father  or  guardian,  comes  the  examination  of  the  three  wit- 
nesses whom  he  produces  from  among  the  members  of  his  thiasos.  They 
testify  with  one  hand  upon  the  altar  and  confirm  their  testimony  with 
an  oath.  We  should  expect,  then,  to  find  the  phraters  proceeding  at 
once  to  vote  on  the  application,  and,  in  case  of  acceptance,  to  enter  the 

38  Heortologie,  308-310. 

39  That  the  candidates  were  presented  in  person  appears  from  ISAIOS,  vn.  16;  DEM., 
LVII.  54:  cf.  ANDOK.,  i.  126,  for  admission  into  a  gens. 

40  See,  especially,  B,  17-18. 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHRATRY.  151 

name  of  the  child  in  the  register.  Such  was  the  practice  in  other  phra- 
tries,  so  far  as  known  to  us  :41  but  the  practice  of  the  Demotionidai,  as 
regulated  by  the  psephism  of  Hierokles,  seems  to  have  been  different. 
For  a  year  later  the  child  is  still  6  ela-ayo/jievos  (B,  24)  and  the  father 
or  guardian  6  elo-dyav  (B,  37-38),  and  not  till  after  a  favorable  issue 
of  the  Sia&iKao-ia  does  registration  take  place  (B,  39).  I  would  sug- 
gest, therefore,  that  the  diadikasia  of  the  Demotionidai,  instead  of  being 
a  procedure  otherwise  unknown  to  us,  was  nothing  more  or  less  than 
the  trial  and  vote  which  every  well-conducted  phratry  held  on  the  ad- 
mission of  each  new  child,  the  peculiarity  lying  solely  in  the  interval 
of  a  year  required  between  the  first  presentation  and  the  vote.  The 
object  of  this  arrangement  would  be  to  secure  due  advertisement  of  the 
names  and  alleged  antecedents  of  the  candidates,  and  thus  to  prevent 
fraud.  At  the  meeting  on  the  Koureotis  of  the  next  year  following, 
the  phratriarch  is  required  to  bring  up  each  case  in  turn.  There  is 
opportunity,  for  whoever  will,  to  make  objections  (B,  34--36).  Then 
follows  the  vote,  which  may  result  in  any  one  of  five  ways.  (A)  If  the 
child's  felloAv-thiasotes  vote  favorably,  the  case  must  then  go  before  the 
remaining  phraters.  (1)  If  they  vote  favorably,  the  child's  name  is 
enrolled  in  the  two  registers  (this  case,  as  being  self-evident,  is  not  men- 
tioned by  Mkodemos).  (2)  If  the  phraters  vote  unfavorably,  the  child 
is  rejected  and  each  thiasote  (or  the  thiasos  collectively?)  including  pre- 
sumably the  father  or  guardian  (unless  the  latter  should  not  belong  to 
the  thiasos),  but  excluding  any  who  may  have  opposed  the  candidate 
in  the  previous  discussion,  is  fined  100  drachmas.  (B)  If  the  child's 
fellow-thiasotes  vote  unfavorably,  then  an  appeal  may  or  may  not  be 
taken  to  the  remaining  phraters.  (3)  If  no  appeal  is  taken,  the  child 
is  rejected,  but  there  is,  apparently,  no  fine.  If  an  appeal  is  taken  and 
(4)  the  action  of  the  thiasos  is  sustained,  the  child  is  rejected  and  the 
eladycw  is  fined  100  drachmas  ;  but  (5),  if  the  decision  of  the  thiasos 
is  reversed,  the  child  is  accepted  and  his  name  enrolled.  For  cases  (2) 
and  (4)  there  remains  the  possible  appeal  to  the  Demotionidai.  The 
subject  is  beset  with  difficulties,  and  I  do  not  pretend  to  clear  them  away. 
But  it  is  noteworthy  that,  whereas,  in  case  a  child  is  rejected  at  the  or- 

41IsAios,  vii.  16-17 ;  DEM.,  XLIII.  13-14 ;  DEM.,  LIX.  59 :  cf.  ANDOK.,  1. 127.  The 
phratry  of  DEM.,  XLIII,  might  be  the  Demotionidai,  since  Eubulides  was  of  the  deme 
Oion.  But  this  may  have  been  Oloj/  Kepa^et/c 6v ;  or,  if  it  was  Olov  AfKe\eii<6v,  the 
phratry,  as  shown  above,  may  have  been  different.  The  apparent  difference  of  prac- 
tice points  to  a  different  phratry. 

2 


152  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

dinary  diadikasia  by  his  fellow-thiasotes,  it  is  the  elcrdywv  who  is  said 
to  appeal  (B,  3$),  and,  whereas  at  the  extraordinary  diadikasia  of  396/5 
it  is  the  elcraryaya)v  of  a  rejected  member  who  is  fined  (A,  ##—£$),.  here 
the  rejected  person  is  himself  authorized  to  appeal,  and,  in  the  event 
of  failure,  the  fine  is  said  to  fall  upon  him  (A,  30-31,  38-39}.  Is  this 
a  mere  carelessness  of  language,  as  Gilbert  thought?  Possibly  so.  But 
may  we  not  take  the  language  literally  ?  In  that  case,  this  paragraph 
provides  that  one  who  had  been  rejected  in  infancy  may,  as  an  adult, 
seek  admission  again  in  his  own  person.  He  refers  his  suit  anew  to 
the  phratry  ;  the  years  that  have  elapsed  since  he  was  on  trial  before 
disguise  a  little  the  inappropriateness  of  the  word  e^irjfjn,.  Such  a 
renewed  application,  made  when  proof  would  be  harder  than  ever  to 
obtain,  would  be  a  serious  matter  and  would  call  for  great  caution. 
The  oZ/eo?  Ae*;eXeKHi>,  which  holds  a  position  of  dignity  in  the  phratry, 
appoints  five  synegoroi,  whose  duty  it  is  to  oppose  the  claims  of  the 
applicant.  The  case  is  brought  to  trial  before  a  meeting  of  the  phra- 
ters.  If  the  applicant  succeeds  in  securing  a  majority  vote,  he  is  of 
course  at  once  admitted ;  if  he  fails,  he  is  visited  with  a  heavy  fine, 
1000  drachmas,  and  remains  what  he  was,  a  metic. 

At  a  much  later  day,  in  the  Macedonian  period,  it  was  thought  de- 
sirable to  make  still  ampler  provision  than  had  existed  for  the  adver- 
tisement of  the  names  of  candidates.  It  was  now  required  that,  at 
some  time  during  the  year  preceding  the  Apatouria  at  which  applica- 
tion was  to  be  made,  the  name  of  each  child  should  be  reported  to  the 
phratriarch.  When  the  time  allowed  had  elapsed,42  the  list  was  posted 
at  the  rendezvous  of  the  Dekeleians  in  Athens  and  in  the  temple  of 
Leto  in  Dekeleia,  each  name  being  announced  in  the  form,  Mevcov 
M.ev€J;evov  ef  Oi'ou  KOI  Nt/caper^  KaXXtTrvrou  TFkwdew?.  Perhaps, 
at  this  time,  the  meetings  of  the  phratry  were  so  thinly  attended  that 
the  mere  presentation  of  a  child  did  not  constitute  a  sufficient  adver- 
tisement. At  any  rate,  the  psephism  of  Menexenos  gives  us  a  fresh 
glimpse  of  laxity  in  the  conduct  of  the  affairs  of  the  phratry,  and  of 
an  effort,  probably  ineffectual,  to  secure  reform. 

POSTSCRIPT.  —  The  Berliner  philologische  Wochenschrift  for  Feb. 
16  and  23,  1889,  containing  a  short  discussion  by  Buermann  of  the 

42  Of  course,  if  the  announcement  was  to  be  of  any  use,  it  must  be  made  some  time 
before  the  ela-ayca-y-f),  but,  with  characteristic  carelessness,  that  point  is  not  made  clear 
in  the  psephism.  The  language  used  would  allow  the  presentation  of  names  to  the 
phratriarch  up  to  the  date  of  the  Koureotis :  or  should  we  understand  rf  irpdry  ere* 
as  meaning,  in  the  preceding  civil  year,  i.  e.,  before  midsummer? 


A  STUDY  OF  THE  ATTIC  PHEATRY.  153 

new  part  of  this  inscription,  reached  me  as  I  was  finishing  the  fore- 
going article.  Buermann's  interpretation  differs  from  mine  on  some 
important  points.  The  most  serious  divergence  concerns  the  elo-a<ycoyr), 
which,  by  implication,  he  puts  in  the  year  following  the  offering  of 
the  koureion,  and  consequently  immediately  before  the  diadikasia. 
Conformably  to  this,  he  takes  rw  Trpcaray  erei  rj,  in  B,  60,  as  equiva- 
lent to  TO)  vcrrepw  era  77.  The  phrase  is  a  strange  one,  but  I  do  not 
believe  it  can  be  so  understood.  Apart  from  this,  I  think  my  views 
preferable.  That  ela-ajcoy^  and  $LaSi,/ca<ria  are  two  distinct  acts  ap- 
pears from  A,  13-19,  B,  12-13,  20-21,  in  spite  of  ela-ayo/jievo  and 
ela-dywv  (B,  2£,  37-38}.  As  far  as  that  goes,  they  might  both  come  on  the 
same  day.  But  the  dissociation  of  the  ela-aywyrj  from  the  offering  of 
the  victim  on  behalf  of  the  child  creates  great  difficulties.  I  will  not 
press  the  argument,  that  Hierokles  ought  to  have  written  rrjv  Be  ela-a- 
rywyrjv  KCU  rr)V  $ia$iKa(Tiav  TO  \OITTOV  elvai  TO>  varepo)  erei  K.  T.  X., 
if  such  was  his  intention.  But  what  meaning  could  the  sacrifice  have, 
if  the  child  was  not  presented  at  the  same  time  ? 

Buermann  infers  from  the  terms  of  the  oath  (B,  52)  that  only  sons, 
and  not  daughters,  were  enrolled.  He  might  have  quoted,  further, 
A,  28  and  B,  60.  But,  for  the  admission  of  daughters,  we  have  the 
evidence,  not  only  of  the  Scholiast  on  Aristophanes,  Acharnians  146, 
but  also  of  Isaios,  in.  73-76.  I  therefore  think  it  more  likely  that 
the  omission  of  reference  to  daughters  in  the  oath  and  the  psephisms 
is  due  to  carelessness. 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Professor  Pantazides,  I  have  seen  also,  at 
the  last  moment,  the  advance  sheets  of  his  discussion  of  the  inscrip- 
tion, shortly  to  appear  in  the  'E^/^epl?  ^Kp^aioKoyucr),  and  have  been 
able  to  appropriate  from  him  two  or  three  valuable  suggestions  in 
regard  to  minor  points. 

F.  B.  TAEBELL. 

American  School,  Athens, 
March  12, 1889. 


PAPERS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 

STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES  IN  THE  ATTIC  DEME  OF  IKARIA, 

1888.* 


IV.    CHRONOLOGICAL  REPORT  OF  EXCAVATIONS. 

[PLATES  III,  IV,  V.] 

For  an  account  of  the  manner  in  which  our  attention  was  directed  to 
Dionysos,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the 
American  School  at  Athens,  containing  Professor  Merriam's  report  as 
Director  of  the  School  for  1887-8.  I  was  appointed  by  him  to  super- 
intend excavations  at  Dionysos,  in  case  it  should  seem  advisable  to 
undertake  such  work,  and  toward  the  last  of  October  1887  we  made 
a  trip  to  examine  the  district ;  as  a  result  of  this,  Professor  Merriam 
decided  to  take  down  the  walls  of  the  ruined  church  and  see  if  the  iden- 
tity of  the  spot  could  not  be  fixed  beyond  doubt  by  inscriptions  and 
other  data.  Permission  to  excavate  was  applied  for  at  once,  but  was 
not  obtained  till  the  month  of  January ;  and  on  Monday,  Jan.  30, 
work  was  begun  with  six  workmen,  the  plan  being  to  clear  the  ground 
in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  church  and  to  remove  the  walls. 
PLATE  in  gives  the  appearance  of  the  church  before  work  was  begun, 
and  shows  the  ancient  monument  which  had  been  transformed  into  the 
apse  of  the  church.  The  most  important  find  made  during  the  first 
three  days  was  that  of  the  wall-blocks  and  flat  roof-pieces  of  this 
monument.  These  were  found  directly  behind  the  apse,  where  the 
architrave  had  been  lying  ever  since  the  time  of  Chandler.1  On 
Thursday  I  took  two  workmen  to  show  me  a  stone  which  had  "  flowers 
and  letters  "  on  it.  They  led  me  nearly  to  the  western  extremity  of  the 
valley,  and  on  a  ridge  called  Kotc/civo  Kopdfa,  a  short  distance  to  the 
north  of  the  road  to  Kephisia,  they  pointed  out  a  grave  partially  un- 

*  I  desire  to  make  acknowledgment  of  my  great  obligation  to  Professor  Merriam 
for  his  direction,  advice  and  constant  assistance  in  all  my  work,  and  also  to  Dr.  Wald- 
stein  and  Dr.  Tarbell  for  assistance  and  suggestions  in  the  arrangement  of  this  report. 

1  Travels  in  Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  vol.  n,  p.  200. 

154 


REPOR  T  OF  EXCA  VA  TIONS  IN  IK  ART  A .  155 

covered,  and  close  to  it  the  torso  of  a  seated  woman  in  very  high  relief, 
the  head  of  which  had  been  broken  off  and  sent  to  Germany. 

The  grave  was  of  a  late  period,  though  possessing  an  earlier  bound- 
ary-wall of  good  construction.  For  one  of  the  sides  had  been  used  a 
sepulchral  stele  which  bore  two  rosettes  and  an  inscription  of  the  4th 
century  recording  the  names  of  the  two  deceased,  one  a  Plotheian  and 
the  other  an  Ikarian.  This  inscription,  as  I  believed,  had  never  been 
published,  and  it  seemed  a  discovery  of  importance  in  relation  to  the 
sites  of  the  denies  of  Ikaria  and  Plotheia,  the  proximity  of  which 
had  already  been  surmised.  Not  till  some  months  later  was  it  found 
that  our  inscription  had  already  been  seen  and  copied  by  Milchhofer.2 
On  the  same  day  there  was  found  to  the  west  of  the  church  a  massive 
marble  seat  (PLATE  iv  and  Fig.  28)  which  had  been  brought  here  from 
its  original  position,  as  was  determined  afterward  by  the  discovery  of 
other  seats  of  similar  form  remaining  in  situ  (at  K  on  PLAN  l). 

On  Friday,  Feb.  3,  work  was  carried  on  north  of  the  church,  and 
resulted  in  the  most  important  discoveries  of  the  first  week,  including 
a  nude  male  torso  of  archaic  style ;  a  draped  statue  of  a  young  woman, 
wanting  the  arms  and  head ;  a  female  head  (afterward  stolen)  found 
directly  above  the  draped  statue  but  perhaps  too  small  to  belong  to 
it ;  a  fragment  of  a  relief  of  the  best  period,  representing  a  seated  woman 
with  a  vessel  in  her  right  hand  while  with  the  left  she  holds  the  mantle 
away  from  her  breast;  three  inscriptions,  one  a  boundary-stone,  the 
other  two,  decrees  of  the  Ikarians.  The  one  which  came  to  light  first 
was  on  a  stele  in  perfect  preservation  and  supplied  absolute  proof  that 
here  was  actually  the  site  of  the  deme  of  Ikaria  (see  A.  J.  A.,  iv,  p.  421) — 
more  than  this,  that  the  official  seat  or  centre  of  the  deme  could  not  be  far 
distant.  Gravestones  with  mention  of  the  deme  to  which  the  deceased 
belonged  establish  nothing  more  than  a  possibility  that  the  place  of 
finding  may  have  been  the  actual  deme-site,  but  it  is  hardly  conceivable 
that  a  public  decree  of  a  deme  concerning  only  its  internal  affairs  should 
be  set  up  anywhere  but  within  the  limits  of  the  deme.  Thus,  by  the 
discovery  of  this  inscription  alone,  the  first  object  of  our  excavations 
was  accomplished.  During  the  remainder  of  this  week  the  finds  were 
of  no  special  importance,  and  on  the  first  of  the  following  week  a 
violent  snowstorm  obliged  us  to  return  to  Athens. 

Wednesday,  Feb.  15,  work  was  resumed,  and  the  remainder  of  the 
week  was  devoted  mainly  to  taking  down  the  walls  of  the  church  and 

*Mitih.  Inst.  Athen.,  1887,  p.  312. 


151)  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

to  digging  beneath  it.  These  walls  were  formed  chiefly  of  large  blocks 
of  marble  taken  from  other  structures,  such  as  architraves,  pieces  of 
flooring,  blocks  from  peribolos-walls,  slabs  ornamented  in  the  Byzan- 
tine style  and  belonging  to  an  earlier  church ;  but  with  these  were  found 
also  a  large  number  of  fragments  of  reliefs,  statues,  and  inscriptions. 
Beneath  the  flooring  in  the  centre  of  the  nave  we  came  upon  the  torso 
of  an  archaic  draped  statue ;  between  the  narthex  and  the  nave  was 
found,  doing  service  as  a  sill,  the  archaic  stele  of  a  hoplite  closely  re- 
sembling the  stele  of  Aristion  (see  A.  J.  A.,  v,  pp.  9—17)  ;  and  from  the 
substructure  of  the  front  wall  there  was  taken  a  colossal  head  in  the 
archaic  style,  and  a  stone  having  inscribed  on  one  side  a  long  pre- 
Eukleidean  decree,  and,  upon  the  other,  various  accounts  of  moneys 
transferred  from  demarch  to  demarch.  These  are  of  different  periods, 
the  oldest  showing  the  three-barred  sigma.  The  two  bases  indicated 
on  PLAN  I  of  the  excavations  as  B  and  C  were  below  the  level  of  the 
church,  of  which  the  front  wall  passed  over  C,  and  one  of  the  side 
walls  over  B. 

The  work  of  the  following  week,  beginning  with  Monday,  Feb.  20, 
was  devoted  to  laying  bare  the  walls  ac  and  cd  of  the  structure  D,  and 
resulted  in  the  finding  of  the  upper  portion  of  the  torso  of  a  Seilenos, 
a  child's  head,  a  bronze  anathema  incised  with  the  figure  of  some 
divinity,  and  a  tragic  masked  head.  During  the  week  beginning  Mon- 
day, Feb.  27,  the  few  days  on  which  the  weather  was  clear  were  em- 
ployed in  sinking  trenches  on  the  slight  eminence  immediately  to  the 
south  of  the  site  of  the  church.  While  some  of  these  trenches  yielded 
no  result,  one  of  them  struck  the  large  base  or  platform  indicated  on 
the  plan  as  J,  and  another  led  to  what  proved  to  be  the  pronaos  of  the 
Pythion,  where  we  found  a  small  relief  representing  Apollo  sitting  on 
the  omphalos  with  an  adorant  before  an  altar  in  front,  and  the  inscribed 
threshold  of  the  naos  (Fig.  27).  Work  was  continued  at  the  same  time 
on  the  lower  level.  The  wall  ab  of  D  was  laid  bare,  and  just  outside 
of  it  were  found  two  hands,  one  of  colossal  and  the  other  of  less  than 
life  size — both  of  fine  workmanship.  A  portion  of  the  next  week  was 
employed  in  digging  to  a  considerable  depth  within  the  walls  of  D  and 
inside  the  peribolos-wall  E,  where  there  was  a  large  mass  of  rubbish 
which  had  evidently  been  thrown  in  designedly  as  filling.  This  labor 
was  well  rewarded  by  the  discovery,  within  the  structure  D  about  a 
meter  below  the  bottom  of  the  wall,  of  a  portion  of  the  beard  of  the 
archaic  colossal  head,  every  fragment  of  which  is  of  value  for  deciding 


REPORT  OF  EXCAVATIONS  IN  IK  ARIA.  157 

the  important  questions  suggested  by  it.  A  trench  3  m.  deep  and  10 
long  Avas  run  west  from  the  end  of  the  peribolos-wall  without  finding 
anything.  On  the  upper  level  were  disclosed  the  walls  L,  M,  N,  0,  and 
the  seats  at  K.  Two  days  were  devoted  to  work  on  a  second  site, 
about  half  a  mile  N.  w.  from  the  principal  excavations,  near  the  road, 
where  a  column  with  its  drums  strewn  on  the  ground,  and  a  portion 
of  a  wall  seemed  to  invite  investigation  (see  PLAN  n).  At  the  end  of 
the  column  were  found  fragments  of  a  large  marble  vase  (Fig.  30\ 
and  near  these  the  heads  and  necks  of  three  griffins  (Fig.  31). 

On  the  week  beginning  Monday,  March  12,  one  day  was  given  up 
to  the  thorough  clearing  out  of  the  little  enclosure  in  the  locality  just 
referred  to,  but  the  remainder  of  the  time  was  spent  on  the  principal 
site,  in  laying  bare  the  whole  of  the  Pythion  and  the  structure  O  ;  so 
that  all  the  outlines  can  be  made  out  (PLATES  iv,  v).  This  completed 
our  work  for  the  spring  of  1888. 

On  November  13,  work  was  resumed  with  the  object  of  clearing  away 
the  large  mass  of  soil  between  the  Pythion  and  the  two  bases  on  the 
lower  level.  Last  spring,  a  trench  was  cut  here  down  to  virgin  soil, 
without  revealing  anything,  but  it  seemed  advisable  to  clear  out  the 
whole  mass,  in  order  to  leave  no  possibility  untested.  The  results  were 
of  less  importance  than  those  previously  attained,  but  were  still  of  value, 
especially  when  we  remember  that  every  stone  in  situ  is  of  the  greatest 
moment  in  making  out  any  general  plan.  South  of  the  base  B  were 
found  two  smaller  bases  for  votive  offerings.  The  wall  0,  which 
seemed  last  spring  to  belong  to  some  building,  was  found  to  extend  both 
ways  for  a  short  distance,  then  to  diverge  at  each  end  for  about  two 
meters,  and  there  stop.  This  wall  is  thus  shown  to  be  of  entirely 
different  character  from  what  had  been  supposed.  The  sculptural  finds 
in  this  part  of  the  excavations  consisted  of  a  haunch  of  a  lion  or  griffin 
and  a  male  portrait-head  of  the  Roman  period.  An  overhauling  of  the 
debris  on  the  southeast  of  the  apse  yielded  a  few  fragments  which  had 
been  overlooked  last  year,  one  of  these  of  great  importance,  namely, 
the  left  thigh  of  the  archaic  draped  torso,  proving  that  it  was  a  seated 
statue.  To  the  north  of  wall  E  there  was  found  last  year  a  platform 
of  rather  rough  stones  laid  close  together.  It  was  our  intention  to  follow 
out  this  platform  this  year,  and  discover,  if  possible,  what  it  was.  For 
this  purpose  a  passage  was  cut  along  the  wall  bo  of  D  in  order  that  the 
workmen  might  have  an  easy  exit.  About  half-way  between  the  two 
ends  of  be  was  found  a  huge  marble  slab  cut  pyramidally  on  one  side  and 


158  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

hollowed  out  on  the  other.  On  the  side,  along  the  three  edges  which 
are  intact,  are  sculptured  five  strange  objects.  A  corner  piece  having 
on  it  a  similar  object  was  found  last  year.  The  platform  was  found 
to  continue  to  the  west,  but  the  great  depth  of  the  soil  deposited  over 
it  made  the  work  so  slow  that  it  seemed  best  to  abandon  it,  at  least 
temporarily,  and  to  devote  all  our  resources  to  clearing  up  the  whole 
space  within  the  precinct. 

Some  excavations  on  a  small  scale  were  made  in  various  parts  of  the 
region  where  it  seemed  that  there  might  be  graves.  Upon  the  ridge 
which  runs  down  from  Pentelikon  close  to  the  site  of  the  chief  exca- 
vations, we  found  a  sarcophagus  of  Hellenic  workmanship,  absolutely 
without  ornament  but  very  beautifully  finished.  It  contained  a  skele- 
ton, but  no  remains  of  vases.  In  another  place,  to  the  west  of  the 
principal  site,  we  discovered  a  wall  14.85  m.  long,  constructed  of  two 
courses  of  blocks  averaging  1.20  m.  long,  and  0.80  m.  high.  A  space 
about  6.00  m.  wide  was  cleared  away  behind  this,  and  at  a  depth  of 
1.60m.  a  marble  urn  was  found,  filled  with  ashes  and  the  bones  of  a 
child,  together  with  a  few  fragments  of  vases.  There  was  a  precisely 
similar  urn  in  the  nave  of  the  old  church  before  our  excavations  were 
begun,  this  having  probably  served  as  a  font :  the  bottom  of  still 
another  one  was  found  in  the  course  of  the  excavations :  we  have 
thus  abundant  evidence  that  at  Ikaria,  as  perhaps  in  all  parts  of 
Greece,  cremation  was  practised  contemporaneously  with  the  burial 
of  the  body.3 

In  the  valley  along  the  course  of  the  old  road,  northwestward,  are 
several  short  walls  forming  the  front  of  separate  grave-enclosures, 
perhaps  family  /jLVijfjLara.4 

In  the  second  week  in  January,  1889,  the  excavations  were  continued 
during  a  few  days.  The  platform  outside  wall  E  was  entirely  cleared, 
and  a  trench  was  sunk  in  the  terrace  N.  w.  of  the  excavation.  The 
virgin  soil  was  reached  at  a  depth  of  over  two  meters,  but  nothing  was 
found.  We  must  therefore  be  content  with  a  negative  result,  which, 
indeed,  is  not  without  value. 

V.   TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE  IKARIAN  DISTRICT. 

A  word  may  first  be  said  upon  the  name  of  the  district  where  the 
excavations  were  made.  In  a  note  which  the  Ephor-General  of  Anti- 

3  Of.  BECKER-GOLL,  Charikles,  m,  p.  132  ff. ;  HERMANN,  Privatalterthumer,  §  40. 

4  DEMOSTHENES,  vs.  Eubulid.  \  28 ;  vs.  Makart.  \  79. 


TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE  IKARIAN  DISTRICT.  159 

quities,  Mr.  Kabbadias,  furnished  to  Professor  Merriam  in  the  autumn 
of  1887,  giving  directions  for  finding  the  site,  the  name  was  written 
<7To  kiovvcro.  Afterwards,  I  was  careful  to  note  how  the  workmen,  who 
were  peasants  from  the  surrounding  region,  spoke  of  the  place,  and 
I  never  once  heard  <TTO  AioVvo-o  except  where  the  preposition  efc  would 
naturally  be  used  (e.g.,  ITa/xev  CTTO  Aiovv<ro=  TLrjyaLVOfjLev  et9  TO  Ato- 
vvcro).  However,  this  would  not  determine  whether  the  name  were 
masculine  or  neuter,  since  the  vernacular,  with  certain  exceptions,  drops 
the  final  v  of  the  masculine  accusative  singular.  Mr.  G.  Heliopoulos, 
the  brother  of  the  owner  of  the  property,  informs  me  that  AtoVuo-09  is 
the  correct  form,  and  that  it  is  so  written  on  the  old  Turkish  map  which 
came  into  the  owner's  hands  at  the  time  the  property  was  purchased. 
Dionysos  is,  moreover,  the  form  given  on  Leake's  map  in  some  of  the 
later  copies  of  his  Demi  of  Attica,  and  also  by  Rangabe".1  Curtius  and 
Kaupert2  write  Dionyson,  which  is  undoubtedly  incorrect. 

In  the  speech  of  the  people  it  is  always  Dionyso.  It  seems  extremely 
probable  that  the  name  is  a  reminiscence  of  the  cult  of  Dionysos  applied 
to  the  whole  region,  and  has  remained  in  the  mouths  of  the  people  for 
more  than  two  thousand  years.  According  to  Chandler,3  who  visited 
the  place  in  1766,  the  church  was  sacred  to  St.  Dionysios,  and  so  it  is 
given  on  Finlay's  map4  of  the  region,  but  Rangabe"  "would  not  ven- 
ture to  say  that  the  church  was  dedicated  to  this  saint."  While  we 
were  taking  down  the  walls  of  the  church,  some  of  the  workmen  spoke 
of  St.  Dionysios  being  present ;  but  this  may  have  entered  their  heads 
merely  from  the  similarity  of  the  name.  Mr.  Heliopoulos  says  that  it 
is  not  known  to  what  saint  the  church  was  dedicated,  and  there  seems 
to  be  now  no  solid  tradition  that  it  was  sacred  to  St.  Dionysios.  But 
nearly  all  of  the  peasant  families  in  Stamata  are  newcomers  of  the 
present  century,  and  perhaps  among  the  inhabitants  whom  Chandler 
found  in  Old  Stamata  there  may  have  been  a  genuine  tradition.  If  the 
older  church  structure  was  actually  sacred  to  St.  Dionysios  the  Areopa- 
gite,  not  the  Zakynthian  saint,  this  would  be  an  instance  of  the  frequent 
transfers  from  the  ancient  religion  to  hagiology.  But  that  in  any  case 
the  name  of  the  region  owes  its  origin  directly  to  the  ancient  cult  of  the 
wine-god  and  not  to  the  saint  succeeding  him  is  evidenced  by  the  fact 

1  Antiquites  Helleniques,  No.  985.  2  Karten  von  Attika,  xn  (Pentelikon). 

3  Travels  in  Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  .vol.  II,  p.  200. 

4  Remarks  on  the  Topography  of  Oropia  and  Diacria.    This  map,  somewhat  reduced, 
was  used  for  the  Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  School,  and  is  again  utilized  here. 


160  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

that  the  name  is  Dionysos  not  Dionysios.  Here,  then,  at  Dionysos  we 
have  the  site  of  the  deme  of  Ikaria.  The  spot  at  which  the  principal 
excavations  were  made  appears  on  the  upper  edge  of  Curtius  and 
Kaupert's  map  of  Pentelikon.  Here  was  the  eSpa,  the  political  and 
religious  centre  of  the  deme.  Let  us  attempt  to  determine  its  boun- 
daries. To  the  north,  close  to  the  deme-centre,  looms  up  the  height 
which  on  Leake's  map  is  called  Aforismd  and  on  that  of  Curtius  and 
Kaupert,  Stamatavuni.  The  name  Aphorism6  is  sometimes  applied 
more  distinctively  to  the  height  at  the  end  of  the  range,  close  to  V rana.5 

The  name  Stamatavuni  (Stamata  Mountain)  is  unknown  among  the 
peasants  here  who  call  it,  rather,  in  Albanian  Mal/6  Dionyso  (Moun- 
tain of  Dionysos).  This  height  is  the  turning-point  of  a  whole  range 
reaching  to  the  Marathonian  plain  on  the  north  and  the  Kephisian  plain 
on  the  west,  but  towers  far  above  the  rest  of  the  range  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Aphorismo,  which  seems  to  be  of  about  the  same  elevation. 
Here  we  certainly  have  the  ancient  Mons  Icarius,  the  name  being,  per- 
haps, extended  to  the  whole  range. 

To  the  east  of  the  excavations  are  three  terraces,  on  one  of  which  are 
remains  of  a  fine  marble  wall  of  a  good  period,  which  must  have 
belonged  to  a  building  included  in  the  limits  of  the  deme.  Beyond 
these  terraces  is  a  deep  ravine,  through  which  a  path  leads  to  Marathon, 
and  here  may  be  placed  the"  eastern  boundary  of  the  deme.  Crossing 
several  ridges  beyond  this  ravine,  we  arrive  at  the  ruined  village  of 
Rapedosa,7  where  Leake  placed  Ikaria ;  and  Hanriot,8  Tithras.  This 
locality  would  naturally  be  a  site  for  a  deme,  but  there  are  no  remains 
in  the  village  to  show  that  there  actually  was  here  a  deme-centre  of 
importance;  There  is  hardly  a  piece  of  marble  to  be  found,  all  the 
walls  being  composed  of  rough  blocks  of  mica-schist.  Still  further  to 
the  east  is  the  range  called  Argaliki,  which  skirts  the  coast,  leaving  room 
for  the  present  carriage-road  from  Athens  to  Marathon.  This  is  the 
mountain  which  Leake  thought  to  be  Mons  Icarius.  The  southern 

6  LEAKE  fixes  the  name  here  in  his  text  (Demi  of  Attica,  p.  78),  though  he  gives 
it  a  wider  range  on  his  map. 

6  Pronounced  nearly  mdlya. 

7  Kapentosa,  Rapendosa,-  or  Rapendosia  are  the  usual  spellings,  but  Rapedosa  as 
given  in  Curtius  is  correct,  as  it  is  an  Albanian  word  (JRape-dosa),  and  has  no  n-sound. 
Kapentosa  must  be  a  mere  transliteration  of  the  modern  Greek  pronunciation.    But 
neither  in  English  nor  in  German  is  there  any  excuse  for  inserting  n.     Rapatosa 
and  Rapotosa  are  given  on  Finlay's  two  maps  of  this  region. 

8  Recherches  sur  la  topographie  des  d&mes,  p.  168. 


TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE  IK  ART  AN  DISTRICT.  161 

boundary  of  Ikaria  is  formed  by  the  steep  and  rugged  side  of  Penteli- 
kon,  from  which  a  low  ridge  runs  down  to  the  seat  of  the  excavations. 
Upon  the  eastern  side  of  this  ridge  was  found  the  unomamented  Greek 
sarcophagus  described  above.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  there  were  build- 
ings belonging  to  the  deme  along  the  ridge ;  several  terrace-walls  are 
still  visible  on  the  slopes.  To  the  east  of  this  elevation  the  plain  extends 
for  a  considerable  distance  before  meeting  the  main  range  of  Pentelikon, 
and  there  was  room  here  for  a  considerable  population.  But  habitable 
land  in  greater  extent  is  afforded  by  the  valley  which  stretches  north- 
westward from  the  deme-centre,  between  Pentelikon  on  the  southwest 
and  the  range  which  begins  in  the  Kephisian  plain  on  the  north,  and 
rises  gradually  until  it  culminates  in  the  height  Mai'  Dionyso.  The 
ancient  road  leading  through  the  valley  can  be  traced  in  several  places 
by  its  border-lines  of  graves.  The  enclosure  with  the  fallen  column 
(see  PLAN  n)  was  close  to  the  road  directly  opposite  a  grave-enclosure. 
About  a  quarter  of  a  mile  west  of  KOKKWO  ~Kopd<f)t,  are  several  huge 
marble  blocks  which  must  have  belonged  to  a  structure  of  large 
dimensions.  One  of  these  blocks  is  1.68  m.  long,  1.20  m.  wide,  0.60  m. 
thick.  The  inscription  on  the  stele  found  at  K.OK/UVO  Kopd<f>i,  estab- 
lished a  certain  probability  that  the  site  of  the  ancient  deme  of  Plotheia 
was  near;  but  the  recent  excavations  conducted  for  the  American 
School  by  Mr.  Washington  at  Old  Stamata  have  resulted  in  the  finding 
of  three  dedicatory  inscriptions  of  Plotheians,  one  of  them  upon  a  large 
altar  not  easily  to  be  moved  any  great  distance ;  so  that  the  Plotheian 
deme-seat,  with  its  various  temples,  mentioned  in  an  inscription  pub- 
lished many  years  ago,9  may  be  placed  almost  with  certainty  at  Old 
Stamata,  which  is  situated  just  beyond  the  ridge  that  bounds  the  Ikarian 
valley  on  the  northeast.  A  road  leads  from  Old  Stamata  across  the 
ridge  to  the  road  which  passes  through  the  valley  to  Dionysos,  the 
journey  from  Plotheia  to  Ikaria  requiring  about  an  hour.  Another 
road  leads  up  from  KOKKIVO  K.opd<f>i  to  the  present  village  of  Stamata, 
passing  quite  near  Old  Stamata.  It  is  not  impossible  that  the  territory 
of  Plotheia  extended  down  to  KOKKLVO  Kopdfa  and  touched  the  terri- 
tory of  Ikaria  in  the  valley ;  but  the  range  of  hills  seems  a  natural 
boundary,  and  I  am  more  inclined  to  think  that- the  whole  valley,  in- 
cluding the  locality  where  our  stele  was  found,  was  within  the  limits 
of  Ikaria. 

9  C.  L  A.,  ii,  570. 


162  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Now  that  the  sites  of  both  Ikaria  and  Plotheia  have  been  determined, 
we  ought  to  be  able  to  make  a  reasonable  conjecture  as  to  the  position 
of  another  deme  which  is  usually  grouped  with  these  two,  namely  Sema- 
chidai.  The  similarity  of  the  myths  of  Ikaria  and  Semachidai  has  been 
noted  by  Leake10  as  evidence  of  the  contiguity  of  these  two  demes ;  and 
that  Semachidai  was  near  Plotheia  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  they  were 
both  members  of  a  community  called  Epakria,11  of  which  more  below. 
Now,  in  which  of  the  neighboring  localities  where  ancient  remains  are 
visible  can  we  with  the  greatest  probability  place  the  site  of  Semachidai  ? 
About  a  quarter  of  a  mile  west  of  Old  Stamata  is  a  small  hill,  called 
Bala  by  the  Albanians,  upon  the  sides  of  which  are  a  few  unimportant 
remains,  mentioned  by  Milchhofer.12  Still  further  to  the  west,  beside 
the  road  leading  from  Kephisia  to  Stamata,  are  some  ancient  remains, 
including  some  large  bases  for  votive  offerings.  The  locality  is  called 
Old  Spata.  The  place  called  Bala  was  undoubtedly  a  portion  of  Plotheia, 
and  the  remains  at  Old  Spata  are  not  of  a  nature  to  encourage  the  hypo- 
thesis that  there  was  a  distinct  deme-centre  there.  North  of  the  present 
village  of  Stamata,  at  a  distance  of  perhaps  a  mile  and  a  half  from  Old 
Stamata,  is  a  place  called  Amygdalesa.  Here  excavations  were  made 
by  Mr.  Washington,  but  no  inscriptions  identifying  the  place  were 
found.  Although  the  remains  show  that  there  were  ancient  buildings 
on  this  site,  I  do  not  feel  satisfied  that  it  indicates  the  position  of  a  deme- 
centre.  But  the  site,  which  is  only  a  few  rods  away  from  the  present 
road  to  Marathon,  would  be  entirely  suitable  for  the  deme  of  Hekale.13 
Hanriot 14  maintains  that  the  present  village  of  Stamata  is  on  the  site  of 
Hekale,  and  Lolling 15  thinks  this  possible.  But  at  Stamata  itself  there 
are,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  ancient  remains  whatever.  Leake 16  placed 
Hekale  at  the  village  of  Grammatiko,  Kastromenos 17  prefers  Kalentzi. 

Following  the  road  to  Marathon  over  several  ridges,  after  a  walk  of 
about  three-quarters  of  an  hour  from  Stamata,  a  vale  called  Kov KOV- 

10  The  Demi  of  Attica,  p.  104. 

11  STEPHAN.  BYZ.  :  277yua%i8at,  STJ/UOS  'ATTLK^S,  airb  STf/ua^ou,    V  Ka^  T0"s  Ovyarpaffiv 
firf£ev<t>dri  Ai6vv(ros,  afi  £>v  al  lepeTat  avrov.     "Ecrri  Se  rrjs  'AvTiox'iSos  (f>v\TJs.  4>t\^opos  Se 
TT)S  'ETra/cpias  (pTjffl  rbv  Srjfj.ov.      C.I.  A.  II,  570:   'dmoi  kv  5e[y  HAjcofle'as  airavras  rtXtlv 
apyvpio[v  es  t]epa,  ^  es  U\caBeas  %  e's  'E7roK/jea[s  3)  e's  'Aj^Tji/atous,  KTA.,  where  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  words  seems  to  indicate  a  progress  in  each  case  from  a  smaller  to  a  larger 
body. 

12Mitth.  Inst.  Athen.,  1887,  p.  312,  where  the  name  is  wrongly  spelled  Pala. 
"PLUT.  Theseus,  $  14.  l4  Recherches  sur  la  topographic  des  denies,  p.  167. 

15  BAEDEKER,  Oriechenland  (1888),  p.  127.  16  The  Demi  of  Attica,  p.  122. 

"Die  Demen  von  Attika,  p.  80. 


TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE  IKAEIAN  DISTRICT. 


163 


vdpt  is  reached,  lying  at  the  foot  of  Mt.  Aphorism6,  and  shut  in  on  all  sides 
except  the  south.  At  about  the  centre  of  the  opening  there  are  ruins  of 
a  church  and  a  monastery,  in  the  walls  of  which  are  utilized  many  large 
blocks  that  must  have  belonged  to  ancient  structures.  Two  reliefs  men- 
tioned by  Milchhofer 18  are  lying  on  the  ground  close  by.  This  spot  has 
not,  so  far  as  I  know,  been  mentioned  as  a  deme-site  by  any  of  the  numer- 
ous writers  on  Attic  topography,  but  there  are  few  places  of  which  such  an 
assertion  can  be  made  with  greater  plausibility.  The  circumstance  that 
the  plain  is  shut  in  on  nearly  all  sides  practically  excludes  the  possibility 
that  the  remains  which  are  here  visible  have  been  brought  from  a  distance. 
If  the  ancient  road  to  Marathon  followed  the  same  course  as  the  present 
one,  which  crosses  the  northern  extremity  of  this  open  space,  and  then 
divides,  one  branch  leading  to  Vrana,  the  other  to  Marathona,  then 
Koukounari  would  be  as  likely  a  site  for  Hekale  as  Amygdale'sa.  But 
the  ancient  road  to  Marathon  may  have  been  more  direct  than  that  of 
to-day,  which  turns  rather  abruptly  to  the  right  just  after  passing 
Amygdale'sa.  The  demolition  of  the  walls  of  the  structures  here  would 
probably  lead  to  the  discovery  of  some  inscription  which  would  settle 
the  identity  of  the  site ;  but  the  owner,  Mr.  Heliopoulos,  is  not  at  present 
willing  that  this  should  be  done.  I  am  disposed  to  think,  however,  that 
we  have  here  the  site  of  the  deme  of  Semachidai.  We  have  literary  evi- 
dence that  the  Epakrian  community  was  situated  near  the  Marathonian 
Tetrapolis,19  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  on  Finlay's  map20  of  this 
district,  Epakria  is  so  placed  as  exactly  to  cover  this  vale  of  Koukou- 
nari, and  to  include  Old  Stamata,  also  running  down  to  the  south 
into  the  region  of  Rapedosa  and  Ikaria.  In  his  text,  Finlay  says . 
"  Epakria  bordered  on  the  Tetrapolis  and  apparently  embraced  the 
northern  and  eastern  slopes  of  Pentelicus,  but  neither  its  extent  nor 
the  situation  of  its  capital  can  be  determined."  Hanriot  and  others 
have  attempted  to  locate  it  in  the  region  north  of  Marathon.  Now 
that  we  can  form  a  more  accurate  idea  of  its  position,  having  definitely 
located  one  village  included  in  it,  we  have  new  reason  to  look  with 
interest  upon  the  history  and  development  of  the  community. 

Philochoros,  as  quoted  by  Strabo,21  states  that  Kekrops  first  brought 

18  Mitth.  Inst.  Athen.,  1887,  p.  313,  where  the  place  is  wrongly  called  Kukunarti. 

19  BEKKER,  Anecdota  Graeca,  I,  p.  259  :  'EiraKpia  •  ovo/j-a  x<*>Pas  ^^rja-iov  TerpairfaeoDS 
K€Lfj.fvi]s.  20  Remarks  on  the  Topography  of  Oropia  and  Diacria. 

21  STRABO,  IX.  1.20:  KfKpoira  trpSirov  fls  5wSe/ca  ir6\eis  awoiKiffai  rb  Tr\r)Qos,  wv  ov6- 
,uciTa  Ke/cpOTna  Tfrpdiro\is  'EiraKpia  Ae/ceA.eta  'E\fv<rls  "A<pi5va  (Xfyovffi  8e  nai  irXyQwr i- 
KUS  'A<f>i8vas)  &6piKos  Bpavpwv  Kvdrjpos 


164  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

the  population  of  Attika  together  into  twelve  vroXet?  (which  must- mean 
communities  rather  than  cities),  and  he  gives  the  names  of  these  with 
one  omission.  One  of  these  was  Tetrapolis,  which  we  know  was  made 
up  of  the  four  villages,  Marathon,  Oinoe,  Probalinthos,  and  Trikory- 
thos ;  another  was  Epakria.  The  statement  of  Philochoros  is  undoubtedly 
founded  on  a  genuine  tradition,  although  we  cannot  put  confidence  in 
the  number  twelve,  which  may  have  been  chosen  by  the  historian  as 
corresponding  to  the  number  of  the  original  phratries.  As  Wilamowitz 
suggests,22  topographical  researches  are  the  most  trustworthy  means  of 
determining  how  many  of  these  old  communities  there  were.  It  is  use- 
less to  attempt,  with  Leake,23  to  reconcile  with  the  statement  of  Philo- 
choros a  certain  passage  which  occurs  in  nearly  the  same  form  in  both 

X^  O        '  */ 

the  Etymologieum  Magnum  and  Souidas  :  'E-Tra/cpia  %fc>pa-  'A^zWou? 
TraXat  Kco/jLrjSbv  oltcovvras  TrpeoTO?  KeKpcoifr  a-vvayayo)V  Karw/cicrev 
et?  TroXet?  SvorcaiBeKa '  ical  rrjv  rwv  TTO\I,TWV  eTrcwv/jbiav  d(f>  eavrov 
Ke/cpoTriav  Trpocrrjyopevcre  '  Bvo  Se  TeTpa7roXe£9  e/cdXea-ev,  etc 
7r6\ea)v  e/carepav  polpav  Karacrrrjcra^  '  rpels  Be  ra?  XotTra?  e 
tov6fj,aore  •  real  TJ  Trpocre^T)?  %&>/oa  ravrais  rat?  rpialv  aural? 
€fca\eiTo.  This  must  be  looked  upon  as  merely  a  forced  attempt  to 
make  up  the  number  of  twelve  communities  from  the  few  which  sur- 
vived as  such  in  the  historical  period.  The  only  value  of  the  passage 
lies  in  its  record  of  the  tradition  that  Epakria  was  composed  of  three 
villages,  and  this  is  generally  accepted  as  a  fact  by  modern  writers  on 
Greek  Constitutional  History.  Thus  Busolt 24  speaks  of  der  Semachidai, 
Plotheia  und  eine  dritte  Gemeinde  umfassende  Verein  der  Epakrier. 

What  was  this  third  village?  Hanriot25  conjectured  that  it  was 
Ikaria,  but  he  had  nothing  on  which  to  support  his  conjecture,  as  he 
did  not  know  the  site  of  even  one  of  the  three  denies,  nor  was  he  able 
to  prove  that  Ikaria  was  in  the  vicinity  of  Plotheia.  But,  now  that  we 
know  that  Ikaria  and  Plotheia  were  adjacent  denies,  I  think  that  his 
conjecture  may  be  renewed  with  much  greater  probability.  Let  us  con- 
tinue with  the  history  of  Epakria,  which  gains  a  new  interest  for  us 
if,  as  I  believe,  Ikaria  was  actually  the  third  member  of  the  union. 
Now,  although  these  old  unions  had  already  lost  all  political  significance 
previous  to  the  historical  period,  some  of  them  survived  all  the  reforms, 
even  that  of  Kleisthenes,  under  the  guise  of  religious  communities.  Thus, 

22  Philologische  Untersuchungen,  I,  p.  123.          23  The  Demi  of  Attica,  p.  30. 
24  Staats-  und  Rechtscdterthumer,  g  115,  in  Handbuch  d.  kl.  Alter. 
85  Recherches  sur  la  topographic  des  dimes,  p.  152. 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IK  ARIA.  165 

an  inscription26  found  between  the  present  village  of  Marathona  and  the 
sea  shows  that  in  the  fourth  century  the  four  demes  of  the  Tetrapolis 
maintained  a  religious  community  of  which  there  was  an  archon,  per- 
haps chosen  in  turn  by  the  different  demes,  and  also  four  /epo-Trotot, 
one  from  each  deme.  The  decree  of  the  deme  of  Plotheia,  already 
referred  to  more  than  once,  shows  that  Epakria  also  survived  as  a  re- 
ligious community  after  it  had  lost  all  political  significance. 

The  name  of  Epakria  is  met  with  in  certain  inscriptions  in  a  quite 
different  sense,  namely,  as  a  TpiTTvs.27  A  rpirrvs  was  a  third  part  of 
a  tribe,  a  division  adopted  for  convenience  in  naval  assessments.28  Late 
historians  and  lexicographers  speak  of  the  rptrru?  as  a  division  of  the 
old  tribes  prior  to  Kleisthenes ;  but  this  may  be  nothing  more  than  an 
attempt  to  trace  a  historical  institution  back  to  the  mythical  period. 
But  Epakria  as  a  T/HTTU?  cannot  be  identical  with  Epakria  as  a  com- 
munity, for  one  deme,  Semachidai,  belonged  to  the  tribe  Antiochis, 
while  Plotheia  and  Ikaria  were  of  the  tribe  Aegeis.  Dittenberger29 
suggests,  however,  that,  while  these  religious  communities  were  usually 
composed  of  demes  of  different  tribes,  it  would  be  natural  that,  because 
of  the  membership  of  one  or  more  demes  of  a  tribe  in  such  a  com- 
munity, one  T/HTTU?  of  this  tribe  should  be  named  from  it.  Applied 
to  the  particular  case  in  point,  this  would  imply  that  the  most  important 
demes  in  one  rpirrvs  of  the  tribe  Aegeis  were  Ikaria  and  Plotheia ; 
and  that,  since  these  were  two  of  the  three  demes  constituting  the  re- 
ligious community  of  Epakria,  the  name  of  this  community  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  T/HTTV?. 

VI.    ARCHITECTURAL    REMAINS.* 

[PLATES  III,  IV,  V.] 

Our  architectural  work  at  Ikaria  centres  about  the  remains  of  a  monu- 
ment of  semicircular  form  (A:  PLAN  I ;  see  PLATES  in  and  iv),  used  in 

KMitth.  Inst.  Athen.,  1878,  p.  261  =  DITT.,  SylL,  304. 

27  Koss,  Demen  von  Attika,  p.  8 ;  DITT.,  Syll.,  300. 

88DEMOSTH.  xiv.  23.  w  Hermes,  xvi,  p.  187. 

*  Thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge  for  making  the  original  plan  of  the  ex- 
cavations, to  Messrs.  H.  S.  Washington  and  E.  W.  Schultz  for  additions  and  elevations, 
and  to  Professor  W.  R.  Ware  for  preparing  these  for  reproduction,  and  for  the  res- 
toration "of  the  semicircular  monument  showing  the  object  of  the  vertical  band  on 
the  front  stones,  viz.,  to  produce  the  effect  of  pilasters.  The  Plates  are  from  photo- 
graphs by  Professor  Louis  Dyer. 


166 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 


later  times  to  form  the  apse  of  a  Christian  church.  The  front  portion 
of  the  substructure,  the  pavement,  and  the  first  course  of  blocks  have 
the  appearance  of  being  in  situ;  but  the  rear  of  the  substructure  has 
been  repaired  at  a  late  time,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  presence  in  it  of 
bricks  and  mortar,  and  of  a  block  which  was  originally  one  of  the 
end  pieces  of  the  uppermost  course,  holding  the  architrave.  The  floor 


FIG.  21. —  Upper  surface  of  roof  of  Choregic  Monument. 


FIG.  22. — Lower  surface  of  roof  of  Choregic  Monument. 

has  spread  somewhat,  and  one  of  the  blocks  in  the  lowest  course  has 
been  broken,  allowing  its  fellows  to  slide  in  toward  the  centre.  A 
groove  in  the  upper  stones  of  the  substructure  shows  the  original  posi- 
tion of  the  lowest  course.  In  the  second  course,  as  now  existing,  all  the 
blocks  are  of  diiferent  heights.  One  block,  now  in  the  interior,  appears 
to  have  been  originally  an  end  piece,  as  is  shown  by  the  projecting  ver- 
tical band  at  the  end,  so  that  not  more  than  one  block  of  this  course  can 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IK  ARIA. 


167 


be  in  situ.  Behind  the  apse,  an  architrave  with  an  inscription  had 
long  been  exposed  to  view,  and,  during  the  first  few  days  of  our  exca- 
vations, there  were  found  two  large  slabs  fitting  together  and  form- 
ing a  semicircular  roof,  and  also  seven  blocks  similar  to  those  in  the 
apse.  As  the  roof-pieces  afford  the  surest  basis  for  a  reconstruction  of  the 
monument,  both  lower  and  upper  sides  are  shown  in  Figures  £1,  <2!2.  The 


fiWOTSeW«^ 


FIG.  23. — Choregic  Monument  restored. 

under  side,  which  is  worked  smooth,  is  surrounded  by  a  shallow  channel, 
0.10  m.  wide  and  0.015  m.  deep,  the  edges  of  which  are  carefully  bev- 
eled. This  channel  undoubtedly  overlapped  the  walls  at  the  sides  and 
the  architrave  in  front,  the  overlapping  portion  forming  a  simple  cor- 
nice. Taking  the  measurements  inside  the  channel  as  representing  ac- 
curately the  dimensions  of  the  original  walls,  we  will  compare  them  with 
those  taken  from  the  other  pieces.  The  length  of  the  interior  arc 
3 


1 68  AMERICAN  JO  UENAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 

is  4.83  m.  The  present  interior  length  of  the  first  course,  of  which 
the  height  is  0.82  m.,  is  4.74  m.,  leaving  0.09  m.,  which  is  accounted 
for  by  the  end  blocks  at  both  sides  being  broken.  The  height  of  the  two 
blocks  which  supported  the  architrave  is  0.635  m.,  and,  taking  the 
other  two  stones  that  have  the  same  height  as  also  belonging  to  the 
upper  course,  we  obtain  a  length  of  4.82  m.  The  blocks  are  roughly 
cut,  so  that  a  difference  of  one  centimeter  in  the  measurements  may 
be  passed  by.  For  the  two  original  intervening  courses,  there  are 
eight  blocks,  four  having  a  height  of  0.65  m.,  and  four  of  0.625  m. 
Of  the  four  of  the  latter  height  every  stone  is  intact,  and  these  give 
a  length  of  arc  of  exactly  4.83  m.  One  block  of  the  remaining  course 
is  broken  on  one  edge  •  and  the  length  of  the  stones  of  this  course 
comes  to  4.81  m.  The  front  width  of  the  roof-pieces  inside  the  chan- 
nel is  2.83  m.,  which  agrees  perfectly  with  the  length  of  the  archi- 
trave. The  extremities  of  the  architrave  are  not  square,  but  are  cut 
with  a  curve  corresponding  to  that  of  the  Avails.  Comparing  the  meas- 
urements of  the  architrave  with  those  of  the  end  pieces  of  the  upper 
course,  the  widths  of  the  cutting  and  of  the  architrave  are  found  to 
be  exactly  the  same,  being  0.36  m.,  but  the  depth  of  the  cutting  is 
0.40  m.,  while  that  of  the  architrave  is  only  0.315  m.,  leaving  a  space 
of  0.085  m.,  which  must  have  been  filled  by  small  capitals.  Fig.  *23 
gives  the  front  elevation  of  the  monument,  as  restored  from  the  exist- 
ing remains.  There  may  also  have  been  columns,  one  on  each  side, 
as  in  a  temple  in  antis;  but  no  remains  of  such  columns  were  found, 
nor  does  the  architrave  show  any  trace  of  such  supports.  The  roof 
undoubtedly  held  adornment  of  some  sort,  as  is  shown  by  the  cut- 
tings on  the  upper  side  of  the  stones.  The  presence  of  such  adorn- 
ment and  the  inscription  on  the  architrave,  besides  the  general  form 
of  the  structure,  constitute  the  data  from  which  we  must  form  our 
conclusion  as  to  the  character  of  the  monument.  That  it  was  a  me- 
morial of  victory  is  set  forth  by  the  inscription  ;  but  are  we  justified 
in  holding  that  the  victory  had  connection  with  the  choregia,  and  thus 
in  calling  it  a  choregic  monument  ? 

The  choregic  monuments  of  which  we  know  the  exact  form  are  three, 
all  at  Athens  :  the  well-known  monument  of  Lysikrates  in  the  Street 
of  the  Tripods  ;  the  monument  of  Thrasyllos,  which,  up  to  the  time  of 
the  Greek  Revolution,  stood  above  the  Dionysiac  Theatre  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Akropolis,  drawings  of  it  being  given  by  Stuart  and  Revett ; l 

1  Antiquities  of  Athens,  vol.  ir,  chap,  iv,  pis.  i,  11,  m,  ff. 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IKARIA.  169 

and  the  monument  of  Nikias,  which  Dr.  Dorpfeld  has  reconstructed 
from  the  fragments  found  in  the  Beule  gate.2  The  monument  of  Lysi- 
krates  is  an  elaborately  ornamented  circular  building,  counted  among 
the  earliest  surviving  examples  of  Corinthian  architecture.  Upon  the 
roof  is  a  large  three-branched  akroterion  disposed  as  a  base  for  hold- 
ing the  tripod,  and  the  architrave  bears  the  inscription,3  which  has  the 
regular  form  of  an  official  choregic  memorial.  The  monument  of  Thra- 
syllos  was  in  the  form  of  a  portico,  having  upon  the  roof  a  statue  of 
Dionysos,  which  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  Whether  the  tripod 
rested  on  the  knees  of  the  seated  statue,  as  some  maintain,  or  was  dis- 
played in  the  interior  of  the  structure,  is  still  an  unsettled  question. 
For  the  inscription,  see  "Choregia."  The  monument  of  Nikias  had 
the  fa9ade  of  a  small  hexastyle  Doric  temple.  There  is  nothing  to 
show  where  the  tripod  was  placed.  For  the  inscription  on  the  archi- 
trave, see  " Choregia" 

We  will  now  compare  the  Ikarian  monument  with  these  three  chief 
examples.  The  Nikias  and  Thrasyllos  monuments  are  both  of  such 
form  that  they  admit  of  being  called  vaoi,  the  word  which  Pausanias 
uses  in  describing  the  structures  on  the  Street  of  the  Tripods.  The 
foundation  of  a  fourth  choregic  monument,  now  exposed  in  the  cellar 
of  a  house  near  the  Lysikrates  monument,  is  of  quadrangular  shape. 
A  semicircular  exedra-like  form,  such  as  that  of  the  Ikarian  monu- 
ment, has  been  unexampled  among  choregic  monuments ;  but  the  num- 
Iber  which  we  know  is  so  small,  and  the  variety  exhibited  by  even  these 
few  so  great,  that  this  does  not  make  positively  against  identification  of 
the  monument  at  Ikaria  as  choregic. 
The  surface  of  the  upper  side  of  the  roof-stones  (Fig.  21)  is  rough, 
and  the  top  is  surrounded  by  a  bevel  0.11  m.  wide  on  the  curved  side 
and  0.13  m.  across  the  front.  The  socket  at  d  is  circular  with  a  diam- 
eter of  0.22  m.,  that  at  e  is  about  0.32  by  0.24  m.,  but  very  roughly 
made.  The  right-hand  side  of  the  central  socket  has  been  split  away, 
as  is  indicated  by  dotted  lines  in  the  sketch,  but  a  fragment  found  in 
the  debris  shows  that  the  original  cutting  was  the  same  as  on  the  other 
side ;  a  and  b  form  one  continuous  cutting,  but  b  is  cut  two  centimeters 
deeper  than  a ;  the  cutting  c  is  only  0.03  m.  deep.  I  have  no  opinion 
to  advance  as  to  the  nature  of  the  object  which  these  cuttings  were 
made  to  receive.  I  hold  that  they  could  not  have  been  intended  for 
the  direct  support  of  a  tripod,  and  that  so  complicated  an  arrangement 

*Mitth.  Tnst.  Athen.,  1885,  p.  217  ff.  3  DITT.  Syll,  415. 


170  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

would  not  be  necessary  for  a  tripod-base.  If  the  top  of  the  monument 
was  adorned  with  a  group  of  figures,  a  tripod  might  have  been  displayed 
in  connection  with  the  figures,  or  within  the  monument.  As  I  take  it, 
the  roof-pieces  furnish  no  data  which  make  decisively  either  for  or 
against  the  choregic  character  of  the  monument. 
The  inscription  on  the  architrave  (Fig.  23)  reads  : 

ArNIA^EANOIPPOSEANOIAHSNIKHSANTESANEOESAN 


"Hagnias,  Xanthippos,  and  Xanthides,  having  won,  dedicated  (this 
monument)." 

The  height  of  the  letters  varies  from  0.05  to  0.06  m.  This  in- 
scription was  first  seen,  in  1766,  by  Chandler,  who  gave  the  first 
word  as  AtVta?.4  AtWa?  is  given  also  by  Bockh,5  by  Rangabe",6 
and  again  by  Milchhofer  in  his  letter  to  the  Philologische  Woehen- 
schrift.7  But  the  second  letter  of  the  first  name  is  certainly  a  gamma, 
and  thus  we  have,  in  place  of  a  name  of  which  there  is  no  absolutely 
certain  occurrence,8  a  name  by  no  means  uncommon  and  used  in  Ikaria, 
as  we  know  from  two  inscriptions9  in  which  onecA7^ta9'I/ea/Keu910 
is  mentioned  as  a  trierach.  The  use  of  dveOea-av  and  the  circum- 
stance that  the  victors  are  three  in  number  would  show  that  the  in- 
scription, if  choregic  at  all,  belonged  to  the  class  of  private  monu- 
ments. But,  even  under  this  supposition,  there  would  be  difficulties, 
inasmuch  as  the  two  known  choregic  inscriptions  in  which  three  vic- 
tors are  mentioned11  seem  best  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  three 
are  of  one  family,  while  in  the  present  case  there  is  nothing  to  in- 
dicate any  relationship.12  But,  aside  from  the  preceding,  the  fact 

4  Travels  in  Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  vol.  u,  p.  200. 

5  a  I.  G.,  237.  6  Antiques  HeUeniques,  vol.  n,  985. 

7  The  inscription  is  repeated  in  the  volume  of  the  C.I.A.,  n,  which  has  just  ap- 
peared, No.  1317,  and  A  I  N  I  A^  is  given  on  the  authority  of  Lolling.    KOHLER  re- 
marks that,  if  confidence  can  be  placed  in  Lolling's  copy,  the  inscription  cannot  be 
earlier  than  the  beginning  of  the  second  century  B.  c.  ;  but  I  see  nothing  in  it  which 
would  preclude  the  idea  that  it  is  as  early  even  as  the  fourth  century. 

8  C.  I.  G.,  4668:  5377,  7789  are  fragments,  and  the  exact  form  of  the  name  is  not 
certain. 

9C./.J.,  n,  794,  811. 

10  See  Seventh  Annual  Report  of  Am.  School  at  Athens,  pp.  87-8. 

11  DITT.,  Sytt.,  422,  and  Inscr.  No.  7  from  Ikaria  (Amer.  Journal  of  Archaeology,  v,  28). 

12  REISCH.  De  Musicis  Graecorum  Certaminibus,  takes  this  as  a  choregic  inscription 
of  a  nature  similar  to  that  in  Dittenberger  referred  to  in  last  note,  which  he  believes 
to  relate  to  several  different  contests. 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IKARIA.  171 

remains,  that  there  is  no  mention  whatever  of  the  choregia  in  the  in- 
scription. What  justification  is  there  for  holding  that  xoprjyovvres  or 
%oprjyrj(ravT6<;  was  tacitly  understood,  as  one  is  compelled  to  hold  if 
he  maintains  that  the  monument  is  choregic  ?  To  be  sure,  from  the 
size  of  the  monument,  it  is  not  easy  to  believe  that  it  was  commemo- 
rative of  any  less  important  victory  than  that  of  the  choregia,  and  if 
the  presence  of  a  tripod  could  be  proved,  as  it  can  be  in  the  case  of  an- 
other base  the  inscription  upon  which  omits  the  ^opTjywv  (Ikarian 
Inscr.  No.  6,  Amer.  Journal  ofArchceology,  v,  27-8),  we  should  be  jus- 
tified in  supplying  xoprjyovvre?  in  the  inscription.  But  the  remains 
preserve  nothing  to  show  decisively  that  the  monument  was  choregic ; 
so,  while  not  absolutely  denying  that  the  monument  may  have  been 
choregic,  it  seems  to  me  that  this  attribution  should  still  be  held  in 
suspense.13 

The  base  B  (PLAN  i),  measuring  2.615  by  1.66  m.,  is  constructed  of 
three  marble  blocks  fitted  closely  together  but  not  held  by  clamps. 
The  surface  is  well  finished,  but  the  edge  toward  the  base  C  is  smoother, 
showing  that  another  course  of  slabs  covered  the  whole  surface  except 
at  this  edge.  Close  to  this  base,  and  at  the  same  depth,  was  found 
the  torso  of  an  archaic  seated  statue ;  and  it  seems  probable  that  this  was 
the  object  which  the  base  supported.  The  three  blocks  rest  directly  on 
the  earth,  without  any  substructure.  The  base  C  consists  of  a  substruc- 
ture of  large  roughly-hewn  stones,  and,  above  these,  two  marble  blocks, 

13  [I  cannot  agree  with  Mr.  Buck  here.  A  careful  review  of  all  the  evidence 
before  us  has  led  me  to  the  belief  that  this  monument  could  be  choregic  only,  and 
I  have  so  called  it  (Report,  p.  54,  etc.}.  The  monument  itself  and  the  form  of  the 
inscription  had  already  led  RANGABE  (Antiq.  Hellen.,  No.  985),  MILCHHOFER  (Ber- 
lin, philol.  Wochenschrift,  June  18,  1887),  REISCH  (Mus.  Gr.  Cert.,  p.  46)  to  this  con- 
clusion, without  the  results  of  our  excavations  before  them,  by  which  the  decisive 
proof  has  been  furnished.  BOCKH  (C.I.G.,  237)  and  KOHLER  (C.I.A.,  n,  1317) 
classed  the  inscription  among  those  of  agonistic  or  uncertain  type.  But  its  form  is 
most  closely  allied  to  that  of  the  Ikarian  choregic  Ergasos  monument  (see  Mr.  BUCK'S 
article  "  Choregia,"  Inscription  No.  7),  and  that  of  Timosthenes  ("  Choregia,"  Note  9, 
DITTENBERGER,  Sylloge,  422),  which  has  recently  been  found  by  Milchhofer  to  have 
been  rural  likewise,  from  the  Mesogaia  near  Kalyvia  (Mittheilungen  Inst.  Athen.,  1887, 
p.  281).  The  omission  of  xop^yowres  and  of  the  designation  of  kinship  are  due,  I 
think,  to  one  and  the  same  cause,  the  thought  that  these  were  immaterial  in  consid- 
eration of  the  position  of  the  monument,  and  a  desire  not  to  cumber  the  architrave 
with  too  much  detail,  conspicuousness  being  preferred  to  exactness.  The  omission  of 
Xop-ny&v  occurs  in  four  inscriptions  of  G.I.  A.,  n  (1248,  1283,  1285,  1286),  where  the 
employment  of  x°PV  renders  the  reference  certain.  More  important  is  the  Ikarian 
Archippos  inscription  ("  Choregia"  Inscr.  No.  6)  mentioned  above,  in  which  the 


1 72  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 

smooth  on  the  top  and  sides  and  bolted  together  by  two  clamps  shaped 
thus  | — |,  the  surface  measuring  1.88  by  1.61  m.  Two  upright  bolts 
indicate  that  another  course  rested  upon  the  two  blocks  in  situ,  and  a 
border,  of  which  the  surface  is  slightly  smoother,  enables  us  to  give 
the  dimensions  of  the  second  course  as  1.54  by  1.27  m.  The  remains 
would  be  well  adapted  for  an  altar-base.  A  large  marble  altar  was 
found  in  the  front  wall  of  the  church,  its  dimensions  being :  height, 
1.115  m. ;  sides,  0.87  and  0.665  m.  Around  the  upper  margin  runs  a 
moulding,  and  in  the  top  there  is  a  cutting  0.06  m.  deep  and  0.10  m.  wide. 
Around  the  bottom  edge,  also,  a  moulding  was  carried,  this  being  now 
entirely  broken  away.  Estimating  its  thickness  at  0.02,  and  adding 
twice  this,  0.04,  to  the  measurements  of  the  altar,  we  get  for  the  bearing 
surface  0.91  by  0.705  m.  If  we  suppose  this  to  have  rested  on  the 
second  course  of  the  base  last  considered,  we  shall  have  left  a  margin 
of  0.32  by  0.28  m. ;  but,  if  this  seems  too  wide,  we  may  insert  a  third 
step  having  the  dimensions  of  1.22  by  0.985  m.,  thus  giving  two  steps 
about  0.15  by  0.14  m.  In  the  structure  D,  ab  and  be  are  foundation- 
walls  formed  of  large  oblong  blocks  roughly  hewn  on  the  outer  side,  and 
lined  on  the  inner  side  with  small  uncut  stones.  The  average  length 
of  the  blocks  is  a  trifle  over  one  meter ;  the  thickness  of  the  wall  is 
0.65  m.  The  width  of  the  facing-blocks  varies  from  0.35  to  0.50  m. 
Of  the  wall  ad  only  a  portion  of  the  substructure  is  left  and  one  stone 
of  the  upper  course,  distant  1.77  m.  from  the  corner  a.  In  cd,  there 

omission  is  quite  as  striking  as  in  the  monument  under  consideration.  (To  this  may 
be  added  as  a  parallel  case  the  omission  to  name  the  kind  of  chorus  in  three  out  of 
22  inscriptions  collected  by  Reisch  ;  see  "Choregia.")  This  only  reiterates  a  not  un- 
commonly recurring  fact,  that  the  precinct  itself  was  often  regarded  as  sufficient  indi- 
cation of  the  purpose  of  a  monument.  The  importance  of  the  site  of  our  excavations 
as  a  centre  for  dedications  may  be  seen  from  the  fact  that  27  bases  for  this  purpose 
were  found.  Of  these,  8  were  in  situ  and  5  were  inscribed.  All  the  latter  related 
either  to  the  drama  or  to  its  patron  divinity.  The  only  contest  here  of  which  our 
materials  give  any  trace  is  that  of  the  drama,  and  as  the  Hagnias  monument  is  a 
local  one,  set  in  the  midst  of  Dionysiac  dedications,  to  what  god  should  it  be  dedi- 
cated except  to  him  before  whose  statue  it  probably  stood  ?  The  question  of  a  tripod 
is  immaterial ;  indeed,  according  to  Mr.  Buck's  argument  in  his  "Choregia"  the  mon- 
ument, if  choregic,  should  have  no  tripod.  The  question  whether  one  victory  is 
intended,  or  more,  and  whether  these  victories  were  gained  by  father  and  sons  or  by 
each  separately,  is  also  immaterial.  Certain  it  is,  that  there  is  victory,  and  there  is 
dedication — undoubtedly  to  Dionysos.  The  monument  is  therefore  choregic,  and 
matches  fitly  with  the  record  of  Hagnias'  two  liturgies  as  trierarch  of  the  State.  And 
Hagnias  is  the  only  Ikarian  of  whom  we  have  mention  as  displaying  such  liberality 
toward  the  State  and  toward  his  native  deme. — A.  C.  M.] 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IKARIA. 


173 


is,  besides  the  substructure,  a  course  of  the  wall  itself.  This  is  of  the 
peculiar  double  construction  seen  in  all  the  walls  here  which  are  in  any 
way  finished.  They  are,  as  shown  in  Fig.  24-,  made  up  of  stones  cut 
evenly  on  the  outside,  but  irregular  on  the  inside,  and,  as  an  inner 
facing  for  these,  of  smaller  stones  cut  evenly  on  the  exposed  side.  The 
walls  ge,  which  are  of  irregular  polygonal  stones,  have  no  apparent 
connection  with  the  building,  and  are  probably  older.  Their  upper 
surface  is  below  that  of  the  substructure-walls  of  the  building.  About 
0.50  m.  from  the  corner  d  and  1.25  m.  below  the  wTall  cd,  lies  a  sort 
of  trough  of  schistous  stone,  the  outside  measurements  of  which  are 
1.32  by  0.80  m.,  the  inside,  0.84  by  0.50  m.  The  depth  of  the  hollow 
is  0.18  m.  This  trough  or  basin,  evidently  in  situ,  at  such  a  depth  must 
point  to  some  very  early  occupation  of  the  site.  Exactly  what  was  the 


FIG.  24. 


FIG.  25. 

purpose  of  the  structure  D,  I  am  unable  to  suggest.  The  wall  E, 
12.10  m.  long,  forms  part  of  the  peribolos-wall,  which  was  in  part  made 
up  by  the  walls  of  some  of  the  buildings  enclosed  within  the  sacred 
precinct.  This  wall  also  is  double,  but  the  blocks  are  of  large  dimen- 
sions on  both  sides,  as  is  shown  in  Fig.  25.  Fig.  26  gives  a  side  viewr  of 
the  substructure  and  of  the  upper  course,  which  now  begins  4.03  m. 
from  the  corner  c.  The  Figure  shows  the  peculiar  cutting  upon  the 
face  of  these  stones,  namely,  in  long  nicks  arranged  alternately.  The 
length  of  these  nicks  varies  from  0.02  to  0.05  m.  Along  the  whole  length 
of  this  wall  there  extends  on  the  outside,  upon  a  level  with  the  lower 
part  of  the  substructure,  a  platform  formed  of  irregularly  shaped  slabs. 
The  greatest  width  of  this  platform  is  2.28  m.,  but  the  average  width  is 
about  2  m. 


174 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


The  wall  F,  which  terminates  in  a  Byzantine  grave,  belongs  to  a  late 
period,  and  is  built  of  small  stones.  Upon  it  rested  the  column  with  the 
Ergasos  inscription  (No.  7).  We  turn  now  to  the  building  H,  which,  as  we 
know  from  an  inscription  on  the  door-sill,  was  the  Py  thion,  or  temple  of 
the  Delphian  Apollo  (PLATE  v).  This  building  is  on  a  much  higher 
level  than  the  remains  heretofore  mentioned,  the  difference  in  level  be- 
tween the  base  B  and  the  threshold  of  the  Pythion  being  2.074  m. 
Though  much  of  the  north  side14  of  the  temple  has  disappeared,  not  even 
the  substructure  of  the  wall  on  this  side  being  left,15  the  material  for  a  res- 


or 


FIG.  26. 


V* 


-***1' 

77f£  THRESHOLD  Of  THE  PYTH/O/1 

FIG.  27. 

toration  is  ample.  The  anta  6,  in  the  front,  is  1.35  m.  from  the  corner 
a.  At  the  point  c,  the  lower  part  of  the  opposite  anta  remains,  broken 
off  short ;  and,  measuring  1.35  m.  from  this,  we  have  the  position  of  the 
corner  d,  of  which  the  substructure  is  still  extant.  From  the  point  A,  on 
the  line  drawn  at  right  angles  to  the  corner  as  found,  to  g,  the  end  of  the 
threshold,  is  2.95  m.,  while  from  the  other  end  to  the  exterior  face  of  the 

14  More  properly  northeast  side,  as  the  front  does  not  face  the  east,  but  the  south- 
east. 

15  This  may  be  due  in  part  to  the  fact  that  the  water  from  the  higher  ground  found 
an  outlet  by  the  north  side,  and  had  cut  a  channel  several  feet  deep  beside  it,  passing 
over  the  foundations  of  the  building  G. 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IK  ARIA.  175 


wall  e  is  3.73  m.  This  threshold,  shown  in  Fig.  27,  is  of  very  careful 
workmanship,  and  compares  favorably,  for  instance,  with  the  threshold 
which  was  unearthed  by  the  excavations  of  the  Athenian  Archaeolo- 
gical Society  in  the  Peiraieus.16  Upon  the  surface  is  the  inscription 
I KAPIQNTO  P  V0ION—  'Iieapiwv  rb  Uv6iov,  the  Pythion  of  the  Ikari- 
ans.17  The  height  of  the  letters  varies  from  0.06  to  0.07  m.  They  are 
of  the  fourth  century ;  and,  though  the  0  and  0  of  the  last  word  are 
much  worn,  their  outlines  are  still  visible.  It  is  very  unusual  for  a 
Greek  temple  to  be  "labeled"  in  this  way.  At  i  and  k  are  two  upright 
slabs,  0.82  m.  apart,  probably  holding  up  another  slab,  making  a  kind 
of  table  or  altar ;  in  front  of  these  was  found  the  relief  with  Apollo, 
Artemis,  and  an  adorant.  /,  m,  n,  o  and^>  are  all  bases  for  votive  offer- 
ings, as  in  the  pronaos  of  the  Heraion  at  Olympia,  and  are  apparently 
in  situ.  The  internal  dimensions  of  the  pronaos  are :  width,  6.63  m. ; 
depth,  1.83  m. 

The  cella  is  nearly  square,  its  depth  being  6.40  m.  and  its  width 
6.63  m.  At  the  point  q,  3.72  m.  distant  from  the  wall  of  the  pronaos 
(measured  in  the  interior),  an  insignificant  wall,  2.55  m.  long,  pro- 
jects toward  the  altar  r,  which  is  formed  of  four  slabs  of  mica-schist 
overlapping  each  other  at  the  ends,  and  filled  in  with  small  stones.18 
From  the  north  side  of  the  altar  to  the  line  of  the  north  wall  of  the 
temple  the  distance  is  2.78  m. ;  the  altar,  like  the  door,  was  thus  not 
in  the  axis  of  the  building,  but  was  somewhat  nearer  to  the  south 
wall,  while  the  door  was  considerably  nearer  to  the  north  wall. 

At  s  is  a  wall  which  separates  the  cella  from  a  small  chamber 
(dSvrov)  in  the  rear,  which  had  no  entrance  from  the  outside.  At 
2.00  m.  from  s  a  base  (t)  is  inserted  for  some  votive  offering ;  v  and  w 
are  two  marble  slabs  similar  in  purpose  to  those  (i  and  k)  in  the  pro- 
naos. The  depth  of  the  rear  chamber  is  1.36  m.  The  interior  wall 
of  the  Pythion  is  double,  and  is  built  with  small  stones  on  each  face.19 

16  Cf.  UpaKTiKa  Of  1 886,  p.  83  and  iriva.%  2. 

17  Cf.  MEISTERHANS,  Grammatik  d.  att.  Inschriften^,  \  55,  9,  and  Note  1019. 

18  [These  were  packed  so  firmly  within  the  upright  slabs  that  they  have  seemed 
to  me  to  indicate  a  foundation  especially  prepared  for  a  very  heavy  object,  such  as  a 
large  statue.— A.  C.  M.] 

19  [Dr.  DORPFELD,  who  kindly  visited  the  site  with  me,  called  my  attention  to  a 
terracotta  fragment  among  many,  mainly  roof-tiles,  which  I  had  saved  from  the 
earth-heap.    This  fragment  showed  that  it  was  originally  about  a  foot  in  diameter, 
formed  like  a  pipe  with  a  rim  around  the  bottom.     This  was  used,  Dr.  Dorpfeld 
said,  for  the  purpose  of  admitting  light  through  the  roof  into  the  garret  above  the 
ceiling,  and  was  similar  to  contrivances  found  at  Pompeii. — A.  C.  M.] 


176  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Abutting  on  the  Pythion  in  the  rear  is  the  structure  G,  possibly  for 
the  priests.  Of  its  wall  ab  the  substructure  is  complete ;  of  ac  only 
scattered  blocks  of  the  substructure  remain ;  of  cy  we  have  both  sub- 
structure and  some  of  the  upper  wall :  cy  was  not  built  into  xz,  but 
terminated  against  it,  yz  forming  a  common  party-wall  for  the  two 
buildings. 

/is  a  large  base  or  platform  made  up  of  at  least  twenty  marble  slabs, 
of  which  fifteen  are  still  in  place.  Here  may  have  been  the  great  altar 
of  the  deme-centre.20 

At  K  there  are  two  massive  marble  seats,  one  a  double  seat  (arms 
broken)  finished  smooth  on  the  right-hand  side,  and  on  the  other  side 
finished  smooth  only  on  the  edges,  evidently  intended  to  fit  to  another 
seat.  The  other  seat  is  single,  and  is  so  worked  as  to  show  that  it  was 


CMC  0FT//F  2WU8LE  &EAT3 

FIG.  28. 

fitted  to  others  on  both  sides.  The  back  of  this  seat  is  quite  gone. 
The  heavy  slabs  upon  which  the  seats  rest  are  in  situ,  although  they 
have  been  much  canted,  and  they  show  that  the  seats  are  in  their 
original  position.  Another  double  seat,  which  was  found  near  the 
church  during  the  first  week  of  the  excavations,  and  is  the  best  pre- 
served, is  shown  in  Fig.  28  (see  PLATE  iv).  It  has  precisely  the  same 
measurements  as  the  double  seat  at  K,  and  is  worked  smooth  on  the 
left-hand  side  only.  It  is  thus  plain  that  this  seat  was  carried  from 
K,  where  it  originally  belonged,  so  that  the  series  of  five  seats  was 

20  [The  axis  of  the  threshold  of  the  Pythion  and  of  its  altar  or  statue-base  appears 
to  intersect  the  centre  of  this  platform.  If  we  take  the  platform  as  the  site  of  the 
chief  altar,  the  unusual  and  unsymmetrical  placing  of  the  doorway  of  the  Pythion 
may  find  a  possible  explanation  in  the  desire  to  leave  the  line  of  vision  unobstructed 
from  the  statue  of  Apollo  to  the  great  altar  of  the  deme. — T.  W.  L.] 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IKARIA. 


Ill 


originally  placed  as  shown  on  the  plan.21  The  length  of  the  base 
is  3.55  m.,  the  combined  length  of  the  two  double  seats  and  one 
single  one,  3.48  m.  L,  M,  and  N  are  rude  walls  of  uncut  stones.  0  is 
of  the  same  construction,  but,  on  account  of  its  shape,  is  more  inter- 
esting. The  length  of  the  straight  portion  ab  is  10.60  m.  At  both 
ends,  the  walls  ae  and  bd  are  carried  out  at  approximately  the  same 
angle,  each  about  two  meters  long,  e  and  /  are  short  foundation- 
walls  intended  to  support  the  slab  g  of  corresponding  dimensions, 
which  was  found  near  them.  I  do  not  see  how  this  wall  could  have 
formed  part  of  any  temple-building,  nor  does  it  appear  to  have  any- 
thing to  do  with  a  peribolos.  Can  it  be  part  of  a  rude  structure  for 
theatrical  representations?22  The  slight 
eminence  behind  the  marble  seats  would 
be  an  excellent  sitting-place  for  an  au- 
dience, commanding  a  view  of  the  plain 
of  Marathon  and  water  beyond  between 
Aphorism6  and  Argaliki  on  the  left, 
and  of  the  sea  between  the  coast  of 
Attika  and  Euboia  directly  in  front. 
The  wall  M  cannot  be  part  of  an  origi- 
nal choroSj  or  dancing-place,  for  vari- 
ous reasons.  It  is  not  a  continuous 
curve ;  and,  if  it  were,  it  would  meet 
the  hill  behind  the  marble  seats  before 
becoming  a  circle.  If  it  is  taken  as  a 
wall  of  the  orchestra,  the  seats  for  the 
priests  come  in  a  straight  line  across 
the  centre  of  the  orchestra.  Such  an 
arrangement  is  unheard  of  in  any  known 
Greek  theatre.  Still,  the  theatres  in  the  rural  demes  must  have  been 

21  [In  a  line  with  these  seats  toward  /was  another  with  a  rounded  back :  total  height, 
0.95m..;  height  of  seat  above  ground,  0.38  ;  width,  0.71 ;  horizontal  depth  of  chair  out- 
side, 0.57  ;  depth  of  seat  inside,  0.34 ;  width  of  seat,  0.48.  With  these  seats  one  may 
compare  the  four  in  situ  at  Rhamnous,  described  by  Lolling,  Mittheilungen  Inst.Athen., 
1879,  pp.  284-6.  Others  existed  originally  beside  them.  By  their  inscription,  they 
were  consecrated  to  Dionysos,  and  this  has  led  Lolling  to  conjecture  that  they  stood 
before  a  sanctuary  of  that  deity.  At  Ikaria,  I  would  suggest  that  their  site  was  that 
of  the  deme  agora,  of  which  mention  is  made  by  inscriptions  in  other  demes  (C.  I. 
A.,  n,  571,  573).  We  sunk  a  trench  in  front  of  these  seats  toward  the  wall  0  to 
a  depth  of  3  meters:  only  ordinary  soil  was  found. — A.  C.  M.] 

28  [Or  the  Aeo-x??,  as  in  the  deme  of  A^j/?7,(7.  J.C?.,93?— A.  C.  M.] 


cr- CAP 


FIG.  29. 


178 


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 


rude  affairs  at  best,  and  may  often  have  differed  very  widely  from  gen- 
erally received  principles  of  construction.23 

Besides  the  remains  in  situ,  there  are  on  the  ground  many  archi- 
tectural fragments,  both  structural  and  ornamental,  including  some 
good  akroteria.  Two  drums  of  fluted  poros  columns  were  found.  One 
was  broken  at  one  end  ;  diameter  of  the  other  end  0.42  m.  The  second 
drum  measured  0.41  m.  in  diameter  at  one  end,  0.42  m.  at  the  other. 
There  are  also  some  fine  examples  of  Byzantine  decorative  ornament, 
which  would  be  of  interest  to  students  of  that  art. 

PLAN  n  shows  the  remains  of  importance  found  upon  the  second 
site  where  excavations  were  carried  on.  AB  is  a  well-built  wall,  13.65 

m.  in  length.  The  lowest  course, 
made  up  of  well-finished  blocks 
0^40  m.  high  and  averaging  about 
1 .36  m.  long,  is  still  in  situ,  though 
some  of  the  blocks  have  slipped 
toward  the  decline  and  are  some- 
what out  of  line.  There  are  blocks 
forming  a  substructure  under  the 
east  end,  but  the  west  end  rests 
directly  on  the  ground.  Upon 
this  foundation  rested  two  courses 
of  blocks  set  upright.  One  of 
these,  1.85  m.  long  and  0.38  m. 
high,  is  still  in  position.  CD  is  a 
poor  wall  of  unfinished  slab-like 
stones,  17m.  long.  In  about  the 

middle  there  is  an  opening,  perhaps  the  entrance  to  the  enclosure.  E 
is  a  base  of  mica-schist  blocks  upon  which  stood  the  column  that  now 
lies  stretched  out  on  the  ground  over  a  space  of  ten  meters.24  This 
column  consisted  of  seven  unfluted  drums  secured  together  by  iron 
bolts.  The  holes  for  these  bolts  are  of  peculiar  and  ingenious  shape  for 
securing  firmly  the  lead  by  which  they  were  fastened,  when  once  run  in 
and  set.  In  the  top  of  each  lower  drum  there  is  a  socket  about  0.15  m. 
deep,  0.05  m.  broad,  and  about  0.15  m.  long  at  the  top  but  narrowing 
down  at  one  end  for  about  half  the  depth  and  then  widening  again.  A 
small  channel  for  running  in  the  lead  communicated  with  the  socket 

33  Some  of  the  walls  mentioned  may  have  been  terrace  walls. 
24  \_Cf.  PLUT.,  ViL   Isocr.:    avrf  S"ltroKpaTei   eVl  rov  yuHjjuaros  eVrjj/  Kicav 
W,  €$'  ov  2et/>V  ir-rix&v  evrd.     This  was  near  Kynosarges. — A.  C.  M.] 


FIG.  30. 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IK  ARIA. 


179 


from  the  outer  edge  of  the  drum.  The  corresponding  socket  in  the 
bottom  of  the  upper  drum  is  not  so  long,  and  is  a  plain  cutting  of  the 
same  section  throughout.  The  uppermost  drum  is  ornamented  with  a 
narrow  moulding  (Fig.  29)  and  has  on  the  top  a  circular  socket  0.55  m. 
in  diameter  and  0.03  deep.  Lying  exactly  at  the  head  of  the  column,  as 
it  lay  pn  the  ground,  were  found  fragments  of  marble  which  make  up  a 
large  vase-shaped  object  with  beautiful  guilloche  and  fluted  ornaments 


-  Front/  •>- 


Side 


FIG.  31. 


(Fig. .30).  Close  to  this  spot  were  also  found  two  griffin-heads  with  a 
portion  of  the  neck  ( Fig.  31) ;  and  a  third  head  was  found  below  the 
wall  AB.  The  whole  of  the  ground  between  the  two  walls  AB  and  CD 
was  thoroughly  cleared,  but  nothing  else  was  discovered.  The  few 
objects  mentioned  are  accordingly  the  only  materials  from  which  to 
form  a  conjecture  as  to  the  occupation  of  the  site.  The  enclosure  lies 
exactly  on  the  line  of  the  ancient  road  leading  through  the  valley  to 
Ikaria.  Two  vases  similar  to  ours  are  shown  on  a  Panathenaic  vase 


180  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

set  up,  apparently  as  votive  offerings,  on  slender  columns.26  For  the 
decoration  of  such  vessels  with  griffins'  heads,  we  have  not  merely 
literary  evidence,  such  as  the  krater  dedicated  by  the  Samians  and 
described  by  Herodotos  (iv.  152)  as  having  heads  of  griffins  ranged 
about  it  at  intervals,  but  extant  examples,  as,  for  instance,  two  bronze 
kraters  in  the  Vatican  Museum,  one  with  six  griffins'  heads  turned 
inward,  and  another  with  five  heads  facing  outward.  Our  griffins' 
heads  are  of  a  later  type  than  those  found  at  Olympia  and  the  few 
specimens  found  in  Athens  on  the  Akropolis.  Furtwangler 26  has 
made  a  careful  classification  of  griffin  types,  which  do  not  concern  us 
except  in  their  relation  to  Greek  art  in  general.  The  griffins  found  by 
Schliemann  at  Mykenai  are  closely  akin  to  some  Egyptian  types  of 
xviii— xx  dynasties,  which  are  again  borrowed  from  Syrian,  prob- 
ably Hittite,  art.  The  first  purely  Greek  type  presents  the  eagle's 
head  with  wide-open  mouth  (in  earlier  types  the  mouth  is  always  closed 
or  only  half-open),  locks  hanging  down  the  neck,  and  large  ears  be- 
tween which  is  a  horn-like  projection.  In  the  later  examples  of  this 
type,  the  projection  becomes  a  mere  conventional  knob.  This  is  the 
only  type  found  at  Olympia.  It  is  also  found  in  many  other  places, 
and  is  shown  on  the  oldest  coinage.  In  the  fifth  century  this  type  dis- 
appears. Its  successor  keeps  the  ears  but  removes  the  middle  pro- 
jection and  the  side  locks,  substituting  a  mane  or  comb  running  over 
the  top  of  the  head  and  the  back  of  the  neck.  To  this  last  class  our 
griffin-heads  belong,  though  they  have  the  mouth  closed,  a  still  later 
variation.27 

25SALZMAN,  Oamiros,  pi.  57:  cf.  Jahrbuch  Arch.  Inst.,  n,  p.  151. 

26  ROSCHER,  Lex.  Myth.,  "Gryps." 

27  [The  enclosure  was  situated  upon  a  small  ridge  running  back  toward  Pentelikon 
from  the  ancient  roadway,  elevated  some  four  or  five  meters  above  it,  and  sloping  in 
all  directions  except  behind.     Graves  existed  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road ;  but 
we  found  that  these  had  already  been  opened.     Many  pieces  of  marble,  some  finely 
cut,  lay  about.     The  despoilers  had  also  torn  up  the  foundation  of  the  column  in 
search  of  treasure,  and  had  dug  underneath  it.     Two  large  blocks  of  schist  were  still 
in  place,  and  part  of  a  third  extending  between  them.     Upon  these  blocks  there 
had  undoubtedly  been  slabs  of  marble  upon  which  the  column  immediately  rested. 
One  of  these  lay  close  by,  a  fragment  only,  and  in  it  was  the  dowel  hole  for  a  clamp 
of  this  shape  I— — I.    The  vase  which  stood  on  the  column  was  composed  of  several 
pieces,  and  within  was  roughly  hollowed  out  somewhat.     We  succeeded  in  piecing 
together  two  sections  only  in  height,  and  only  one  side  of  these,  less  than  a  half,  though 
there  were  many  other  fragments.     The  two  sections  were  of  nearly  equal  height, 
amounting  together  to  0.98  m.  measured  on  a  perpendicular;  largest  diameter,  1.33  m. ; 


ARCHITECTURAL  REMAINS  IN  IKARIA. 


181 


length  of  fluting,  0.72 ;  width  of  flutes  at  bottom,  0.03  m.,  at  top,  0.09  m. ;  width  of 
guilloche,  0.21  m.  Upon  the  top  of  the  upper  section  something  else  rested.  At  in- 
tervals of  0.61  m.  on  the  upper  surface,  just  within  the  edge,  were  sockets  about  0.08 
m.  wide,  sloping  inward  about  0.05  m.  to  the  depth  of  a  centimeter.  There  were  three 
of  these  on  the  portion  built  up,  and  no  doubt  the  series  was  continued  at  equal  inter- 
vals about  the  entire  circumference.  These  sockets  could  not  have  been  for  the  griffins' 
necks,  as  the  tenon  of  one  of  the  latter  still  exists,  and  is  considerably  longer  than  the 
sockets,'  and  of  a  totally  different  shape.  That  the  griffin-heads  ornamented  the  upper 
part  of  the  vase  as  a  whole  seems  necessary,  but,  to  admit  of  this,  the  vase  must  have 
had  a  third  section,  which,  being  lighter  than  the  lower  portions,  was  secured  by 
means  of  the  notches  just  described.  This  section,  narrowing  above,  as  is  usual  with 
sepulchral  vases,  would  finally  give  a  proper  support  for  the  three  griffin  protomai, 
serving  a  decorative  purpose.  The  use  of  such  heads  in  this  way  is  said  by  Furt- 
wangler  to  have  ceased  in  the  fifth  and  fourth  centuries  (op.cit.,  p.  1771).  It  is  at 
this  period  that  I  place  the  monument,  for  many  reasons.  Not  only  is  this  the  epoch 
of  the  I— H  bolt,  but  it  does  not  seem  to  me  possible  that  so  exquisite  an  example  of 
the  double  guilloche  ornament  (Fig.  30}  could  belong  to  a  later  time.  Both  in  this 
ornament  and  in  the  flutings,  the  simplicity,  purity  and  perfection  of  touch  exhibit 
the  highest  art.  The  peculiar  form  of  this  guilloche  is  found  in  a  severe  type  upon 
the  gable  ornamentation  of  the  treasury  of  the  Geloans  at  Olympia  (cf.  BATJMEISTER, 
Denkmdler,  p.  1075),  on  terracottas  of  Sicily  (W.  ZAHN,  Ornamente  klass.  Kunst-Epoch., 
IV  Heft,  Taf.  16),  and  is  employed  by  HITTORFF  in  his  restoration  of  the  interior 
decoration  of  Temple  Tat  Selinous.  The  griffin  with  closed  mouth  appears  on  coins 
of  Abdera  in  the  first  part  of  the  fourth  century,  and  especially  on  the  gold  medallion 
from  Koul  Oba  representing  the  head  of  the  Parthenon  statue  of  Pheldias.  This 
medallion  cannot  be  later  than  350  B.  c.  and  is  probably  much  earlier,  and  it  is 
claimed  by  KIESERITZKY  (Mittheilung.  Inst.Athen.,  1883,  p.  315)  to  represent  the  origi- 
nal most  faithfully.  Finally,  all  the  buildings  that  we  know-in  Ikaria  show  a  uni- 
formity in  their  mode  of  construction,  even  in  slight  details,  which  brings  them  closely 
within  a  restricted  period.  Earlier  temples  existed  there  during  the  fifth  century, 
as  appears  from  an  inscription ;  and  the  necessity  for  rebuilding  within  the  fourth 
century  may  be  guessed  as  one  stands  near  the  entrance  of  the  valley  and,  casting  his 
eyes  across  upon  Dekeleia,  observes  how  completely  defenceless  was  Ikaria  against 
the  raids  of  the  merciless  Spartans  and  still  more  merciless  Athenian  exiles,  in  the 
Dekeleian  war.  And  if  I  were  to  hazard  one  guess  among  many  that  might  be  made, 
as  to  the  purpose  of  this  unusual  monument,  it  would  be  that  it  was  erected  as  a 
cenotaph,  after  the  return,  in  honor  of  the  dead  of  that  long  reign  of  terror — Ovs  Se 
yu$7  fvpiffKov  KfVOTo.cpi.ov  ovToTs  eTTOtTjtrav  peya.  XEN.,  Anab.,  VI.  4.  9. — A.  C.  M.J 


Athens, 
January,  1889. 


CARL  D.  BUCK, 

Member  of  the  American  School 
of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens. 


NOTES  ON  ROMAN  ARTISTS  OF  THE  MIDDLE  AGES. 


I. 

From  the  close  of  the  xi  to  the  beginning  of  the  xiv  century,  there 
flourished  various  groups  of  Roman  artists — architects,  sculptors,  painters 
and  mosaicists — many  of  whose  works  are  still  found  in  Rome  itself  and 
scattered  through  the  surrounding  provinces.1  According  to  the  best 
authorities,  the  following  groups  can  be  clearly  made : 

I.  School  of  Paulus :  c.  1100-1180. 


1100  Paulus 
1 

1148-54  Petrus 

loannes              Angelus             Sas 
1160-80  Nicolaus 

ii.  School  of  Ranucius :  e.  1135-1209. 

c.  1135  Kanucius  =  Rainerius 

I 


1143  Petrus 


Nicoh 


1168  Johannes  1168  Guitto 

1209  Johannes 

1  The  following  is  a  brief  bibliography  of  the  subject :  WITTE,  in  the  Kunstblatt 
for  1825  (No.  41);  GATE,  in  the  Kunstblatt  for  1839  (Nos.  61-4);  PROMIS,  Notizie 
Epigrafiche  degli  artisti  Manmorarii  Romani  dal  X  al  XV  secolo,  1836;  BOITO,  L'archi- 
tettura  Cosmatesca,  1860 ;  BARBIER  DE  MONTAULT,  in  Didron's  Annales  Archeologiques, 
xvm,  pp.  265-72  (1858) ;  GREGOROVIUS,  Geschichte  der  Stadt  Rom  im  Mittelalter,  t.  v, 
p.  618  sqq;  RoHAULT  DE  FLEURY,  Le  Latran  au  Moyen  Age,  p.  174 ;  CROWE  and  CAVAL- 
CASELLE,  A  History  of  Painting  in  Italy;  J.  H.  PARKER,  in  his  series  of  pamphlets  on 
Rome  (cf.  the  catalogues  of  his  photographs) ;  G.  B.  DE  Rossi,  in  Bullettino  di  Archeo- 
logia  Oristiana,  1875,  p.  100 sqq;  RICCI,  Storia  deW ' Architettura  in  Italia,  1858 ;  MOTHES, 
Die  Baukunst  des  Mittelalters  in  Italien,  1884 ;  Resoconto  delle  Confer enze  dei  Cultori  di 
Archeologia  Cristiana  in  Roma  dal  1875  al  1887  ;  BOITO,  L' 'architettura  del  Medio  Evo  in 
Italia,  1880;  Mostra  della  Cittd  di  Roma  alia  Esposizione  di  Torino  neW  anno  1884;  D. 
SALAZARO,  L'Arte  Romana  al  Medio  Evo.  Appendice  agli  Studi  sui  monumenti  della  Italia 
Meridionale  dal  IV  °  al  XIII0  secolo,  1886 ;  A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  Jr.  in  American  Journal 
of  Archaeology,  vol.  i,  351,  n,  414 ;  FALOCI-PULIGNANI,  II  Chiostro  di  Sassovivo,  1879. 
182 


NOTES  ON  ROMAN  ARTISTS  OF  THE  MIDDLE  AGES.       183 

in.  School  of  Laurentius :  c.  1150-1332. 
c.  1150-80  Laurentius 
1180-1213  Jacobus  I 
1210-35  Cosma  I 


1231-5  Luca     1231-5  Jacobus  n    1276-7  Cosma  n 

! 

Jacobus  in     1296  Petrus       1296-1303  Johannes   1295-1332  Deodatu  8 

The  school  of  Laurentius  succeeded  that  of  Paulus  and  was  associ- 
ated with  the  last  members  of  that  of  Ranucius.2  Of  the  two  earliest 
schools,  that  of  Paulus  worked  mainly  in  the  city  itself,  that  of  Ranu- 
cius in  the  province.  It  may  be  that  a  further  school,  that  of  Vassal- 
lectus,  should  be  recognized,  but,  as  only  two  artists  of  this  family  are 
known,  there  is  not  as  yet  sufficient  ground  for  doing  so.  A  majority  of 
the  artists  of  this  period  are,  however,  still  unrelated  to  the  foregoing 
schools. 

This  explanation  was  necessary  to  introduce  the  following  notes, 
which  are  given  for  the  purpose  of  adding  more  names  to  the  schools, 
more  signed  works  to  names  already  known,  and  of  identifying  artists 
hitherto  considered  as  distinct  persons.  On  another  occasion  it  will 
be  in  place  to  show  at  length  that  these  Roman  artists  were  not  merely 
decorators,  according  to  the  prevailing  impression,  but  must  be  reck- 
oned among  the  best  architects  and  sculptors  of  the  period.  Their 
ability  was  so  generally  recognized  that  they  were  called  everywhere 
to  build  and  decorate  churches.  Naturally,  the  provinces  immediately 
surrounding  the  eternal  city  were  the  chief  centre  of  their  labors,  but 
the  entire  country  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Adriatic  between  the 
southern  borders  of  Tuscany  and  the  northern  limits  of  the  Neapolitan 
provinces  is  indebted  to  Roman  artists  for  many  of  its  mediaeval  monu- 
ments. They  were  even  called  as  far  as  Sicily  on  the  south  and  Eng- 
land on  the  north. 

I.  School  of  Paulus. — The  known  works  of  Paulus  (c.  1100)  are,  (1) 
the  altars,  pavement  and  other  mosaic  decoration  (if  not  the  architec- 
ture) of  the  Cathedral  of  Ferentino,  executed  between  1106  and  1110 ; 
(2)  a  pavement  in  the  Vatican  gardens,  conjectured  to  be  that  of  the 

8  Jacobus,  son  of  Laurentius,  was  associated  with  Nicolaus,  son  of  Angelus,  in  the 
church  of  San  Bartolommeo  in  about  1160. 

4 


184  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

old  basilica.  To  these  I  propose  to  add  a  third :  the  altar  and  pre- 
sumably the  architecture  of  the  church  of  San  Lorenzo  near  Terra  di 
Cave  in  the  Comarca  very  near  Rome.  The  inscription  on  the  altar3 
records  the  date  of  the  consecration  by  the  bishop  of  Palestrina,  1093, 
and  ends  with  the  name  of  the  artist:  PAVLVS  CV.  SVIS  ON3.  MEMO- 
RARE  DEVS.  The  first  words,  Paulus  cum  suis  omnibus,  show  that 
the  chief  artist  had  a  number  of  pupils  under  him.  The  dates  of  the 
known  works  of  the  sons  of  Paulus — loannes,  Petrus,  Angelus  and 
Sasso — are  so  much  later  that  it  does  not  seem  possible  that  they  are 
here  referred  to.  They  worked  between  1148  and  1154.  The  cum 
suis  omnibus  must  then  refer  to  earlier  pupils.  The  position  of  San 
Lorenzo,  so  near  Rome,  makes  us  certain  that  this  Paulus  could  be 
none  other  than  the  Roman  artist.  His  artistic  career  is  thus  carried 
back  more  than  ten  years,  and  we  have  stronger  grounds  for  considering 
him  to  be  not  only  a  mosaicist  but  an  architect. 

ii.  School  ofRainerius=Ranucius. — Comm.  Enrico  Stevenson  proved, 
some  years  ago,  that  the  artist  who  seems  to  be  the  founder  of  this  school 
was  called  indifferently  Rainerius  or  Ranucius.4  The  only  work  known 
to  be  by  him  is  the  central  window  and  probably  the  entire  facade  of 
San  Silvestro  in  Capite  at  Rome,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by  his  sons 
Nicolaus  and  Petrus,  whose  later  independent  works  are  dated  1143 
and  1150.  I  believe  that  a  still  earlier  work  of  Rainerius,  before  the 
cooperation  of  his  sons  began,  is  to  be  found  in  the  church  of  the  famous 
monastery  of  Farfa,  near  Fara  in  Sabina,  a  little  N.  of  Rome.  This 
monastery  was  doubtless,  in  the  early  Middle  Ages,  one  of  the  great 
artistic  centres  in  the  vicinity  of  Rome,  and  the  resort  of  its  artists. 
The  pavement  of  the  choir  of  the  old  church  is  of  the  usual  opus  alexan- 
drinum  or  mosaic- work  of  the  Roman  school.  Its  inscription  contains 
the  name  of  the  artist,  which  has  been  read  erroneously,  I  believe, 
Raino?  The  reading  given  by  Guardabassi6  seems  the  most  correct: 

3  The  Inscription  is  thus  given  in  KICCI,  Stor.  dell' Arch,  in  Italia,  I,  496 :  Hoc  altare 
Sanctorum  reliquiis  liquore  \  Laurentii  Nerei  et  Achillei  Martyrum  \  Quadraginta  Martyrum 
Herasmi  Martyris  \  anno  dominicae  incarnationis  MXCIII  \  indictione  IIII  N.  N.  apl.  ro- 
mano  pontiftce  \  III  Clemente  ab.  Ugone  Praenestino  \  Episcopo  dedicatum  \  Paulus  cu.  suis 
oib.  me\morare  Deus. 

MOTHES  (Die  Baukunst  d.  Mittel.  in  Italien,  p.  672)  reads  in  the  last  line,  by  an 
evident  error,  opb. 

*  ENRICO  STEVENSON  in  the  Arch.  soc.  st.  patria,  1880,  p.  375 ;  and  Mostra  della 
Citld  di  Roma,  p.  177. 

5  Resoconto  delle  conferenze  dei  Oultori  di  archeologia  Cristiana,  p.  107 :  communica- 
tion of  E.  STEVENSON,  who  reads :  Maino  magister  marmorarius. 

6  Indice-Guida  dei  monumenti pagani  e  Crlstiani  .  .  dell'  Umbria:  Perugia,  1872,  p.  68. 


NOTES  ON  ROMAN  ARTISTS  OF  THE  MIDDLE  AGES.       185 

Magister  Rain,  hoe  opus  fee.  Here,  Rain,  is  evidently  an  abbrevia- 
tion, probably  from  lack  of  space,  for  the  full  name  Rain(erius).  Such 
further  evidence  of  the  activity  of  this  head  of  one  of  the  schools  is  all 
the  more  interesting  that  only  a  few  years  ago  he  was  thought  not  to 
have  been  himself  an  artist,  though  his  sons  were  known  to  be. 

There  were  two  provinces  where  Roman  artists,  though  not  monopo- 
lizing the  artistic  activity,  as  they  did  nearer  home,  still  exercised  great 
influence  by  their  works,  and  even  formed  local  scholars  by  whom  the 
artistic  traditions  of  Rome  took  a  permanent  hold  even  after  the  departure 
of  the  transient  guests.  These  provinces  were  Umbria  and  the  Abbruzzi 
with  part  of  the  Marches.  In  Umbria,  we  find  two  other  influences — 
the  Lombard  and  the  Tuscan — which  may  be  said  to  preponderate  over 
the  Roman.  In  the  Abbruzzi,  the  Roman  artists  found  an  art  that 
more  easily  amalgamated  with  their  own,  and  was  dependent  on  the  main 
centres  of  Byzantine-Italian  influence  in  Southern  Italy.  The  main 
features  of  the  decorative  mosaic- work  of  the  Roman  school  were  evi- 
dently derived  directly  from  Southern  Italy,  indirectly  from  Byzantium, 
during  the  latter  half  of  the  xi  century.  Byzantine  artists  were  then 
imported  from  Constantinople  by  Desiderius  of  Monte  Cassino :  through 
the  conquest  by  the  Normans  of  South  Italy  and  Sicily,  their  cities, 
full  of  Byzantine  art,  were  brought  into  close  relations  with  the  Papal 
States. 

in.  Andreas  and  Petrus. — During  the  course  of  the  xni  century  we 
meet  with  a  number  of  artists  of  the  name  of  Andreas  whose  works 
are  found,  some  in  Rome  itself,  some  in  the  borders  of  the  Abbruzzi. 
Two  of  these  were  made  known  by  myself7  through  the  kindness  of 
M.  Eugene  Miintz,  by  reference  to  a  dated  work  of  theirs,  now  de- 
stroyed, but  a  record  of  which  was  preserved  in  the  xvi  century  by  the 
Pompeo  Ugonio  in  the  MS.  of  his  important  antiquarian  work  entitled 
Theatrum  Urbis  Romae.  According  to  Ugonio,  the  marble  choir-seats 
of  the  ancient  church  of  &  Maria  in  Monticelli  in  Rome,  inlaid  in  mar- 
ble like  those  of  Civita  Castellana,  bore  an  inscription  dated  1227,  show- 
ing that  they  were  executed  by  a  master  Andreas  and  his  son  of  the 
same  name  :  Magister  Andreas  cum  filio  suo  Andrea  hoe  opus  fecerunt 
A.  D.  MCCXXVII.  There  are  traces  of  the  activity  of  both  of  these  mas- 
ters and  their  co-workers.  We  find  at  the  church  of  San  Pietro  at  Alba 
Fucense,  on  the  edge  of  the  Abbruzzi,  a  pulpit  in  which  the  elder  Andreas 
worked  in  connection  with  a  Johannes  whom  I  am  disposed  to  identify 

7  Resoconto  delle  conferenze,  etc.,  pp.  275-6. 


186  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

with  the  Johannes  Guittonis  of  the  school  of  Rainerius  or  Ranucius  whose 
pulpit  in  Santa  Maria  di  Castello  at  Corneto  was  executed  in  1209.8 
Both  are  evidently  Roman  artists.  The  inscription  reads  : 

Civis  Romanus  doctissimus  arte  Johs 
Cui  cottega  Sonus  Andreas  detulit  onus. 
HOG  opus  excelsum  struxerunt  mente  periti 
Nobilis  et  prudens  Oderisius  adfuit  abbas. 

It  seems  probable,  then,  that  the  school  of  the  Andreas  is  a  continua- 
tion of  that  of  Rainerius.  At  about  the  same  time,  i.  e.,  c.  1225,  was 
executed  the  choir-parapet  in  the  same  church  at  Alba,  in  which  we 
find  three  artists  engaged — Gualterius,  Moronto,  and  Petrus — under  the 
general  direction  of  Andreas  Magister  Romanus.  Here,  Andreas  is 
expressly  called  a  Roman,  and  the  work  is  about  contemporary  with 
the  choir-'seats  of  S.  Maria  in  Monticelli. 

The  same  Petrus,  who  appears  c.  1225  as  a  subordinate  of  the  elder 
Andreas,  seems  to  be  the  colleague  of  the  younger  Andreas  in  the  tower 
of  the  cathedral  of  Rieti  (in  the  same  province  as  Alba)  in  the  year 
1252.  The  inscription  reads :  Incipit  istud  opus  in  Matris  nomine 
Christi  |  Petrus  et  Andreas  Henricus  suntq(ue)  mag(ist)ri.  It  is  rather 
difficult  to  believe  that  even  the  younger  Andreas  could  have  lived  until 
1283,  more  than  fifty  years  after  the  execution  of  his  juvenile  work  in 
1227 ;  otherwise  we  might  attribute  to  him  the  architecture  of  the 
episcopal  palace  at  Rieti,  in  which,  judging  from  the  following  inscrip- 
tion, Giovanni  Pisano  is  supposed  to  have  had  a  hand :  lussu  Pisani 
sic  opus  ineipitur  \  Andreas  operi  praefectus,  etc. 

Can  other  traces  be  found  of  the  Petrus  who  worked  with  the  two 
Andreas  during  the  second  quarter  and  middle  of  the  century  ?  Although 
there  are  many  artists  by  this  name  who  flourished  at  about  this  time,9 

8Cf.  PERKINS,  Italian  Sculptors,  p.  84;  Butt.  arch.  Oriatiana,  1875;  DASTI,  Notizie,  p.  400. 
9 1  give  here  a  tentative  list  of  the  artists  of  the  Eoman  province  by  the  name  of 
Petrus  who  worked  in  the  xui  century : 
1190.    Abbey  church  of  San  Eutizio,  near  Norcia : 

Magister  Petrus  fecit  hoc. 
1197.    Ambone  in  church  of  San  Vittorino  in  the  Abbruzzi : 

Petrus  Amabilis. 
1186— c.  1220.  Works  in  cath.  of  Segni ;  at  S.  Paolo  and  cloister  of  S.  Giov.  Lat.,  Koma : 

Petrus  Bassallectus. 
1212.    Great  fountain  called  del  Sepali,  at  Viterbo : 

Petrus  loannis. 


NOTES  ON  ROMAN  ARTISTS  OF  THE  MIDDLE  AGES.       187 

and  identification  is  thus  rendered  rather  puzzling,  I  believe  him  to  be 
the  same  artist  who  executed  at  Rome,  in  about  1240,  the  fourth  and 
later  side  of  the  cloister  of  San  Paolo-fuori-le-mura,  where  we  read : 
Magister .  Petrus  .fecit .  h(o)c .  opus.  I  should  also  consider  as  a  work 
of  his  riper  years  the  shrine  of  Edward  the  Confessor  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  the  date  of  which  is  1269.  The  inscription,  no  longer  existing, 
read  :  Hoc  opus  est  factum  quod  Petrus  duxit  in  actum  \  Romanus  civis, 
etc.10  Evidently,  none  but  a  mature  artist,  with  a  well-established  repu- 
tation, would  have  been  called  to  England  for  this  great  work. 

IV.  Vassattectus  and  Petrus  Oderisi. — In  this  connection,  I  will  men- 
tion incidentally  some  works  which  will  be  fully  illustrated  by  a  paper 
in  a  subsequent  number  of  this  Journal.  The  name  of  Vassallectus 
has  already  been  mentioned  as  that  of  one  of  the  foremost  artists  of  the 
xiu  century.  Several  of  his  signed  works  are  known,  and  they  show 
him  to  be  a  prominent  architect,  sculptor,  and  mosaicist.  To  these  I 
wish  to  add  two,  one  signed,  the  other  not.  The  first  is  a  small  taber- 
nacle in  the  church  of  San  Francesco  at  Viterbo,  inscribed  Ms.  Vassallec- 
tus .  me  .fecit . ;  the  second  is  the  superb  monument  of  Pope  Hadrian  V 
in  the  same  church,  which  to  me  seems  to  be  by  his  hand. 

The  last  artist  to  be  mentioned  is  one  apparently  not  previously  known 
— Petrus  Oderisi.  There  is  a  Petrus  Odericius  or  Oderisius,  author  of 
the  tomb  of  Count  Ruggiero  ("f"  1101)  now  in  the  museum  at  Na- 
ples, who  is  supposed — perhaps  wrongly — to  have  executed  this  work 
immediately  after  the  death  of  the  Norman  Count.  But  the  artist  I 
refer  to  flourished  in  the  second  half  of  the  xiu  century.  Various  con- 
jectures have  been  made  regarding  the  authorship  of  the  mausoleum  of 

1229.    Cloister  of  Sassovivo,  near  Foligno  : 

Petrus  de  Maria, 
c.  1230.  Early  part  of  cloister  of  San  Paolo  at  Kome : 

Petrus  de  Capua. 
c.  1240.   Later  part  of  cloister  of  San  Paolo : 

Magister .  Petrus  .fecit  h(o)c  .  opus. 
1252.    Tower  of  the  cathedral  of  Kieti : 

(inscription  in  text). 

1268.  Tomb  of  Clement  IV  in  San  Francesco  at  Viterbo: 

Petrus  Oderisi. 

1269.  Shrine  of  Edward  the  Confessor  in  Westminster  Abbey  : 

Petrus  .  .  Romanus  civis. 

10  Resoconto,  etc.,  pp.  173-5;   SCOTT,  Westminster  Abbey,  2nd  ed.;  PERKINS,  Ital. 
Sculpt.,  pp.  80-1. 


1 88  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCH^EOLOG  Y. 

Pope  Clement  IV  (+  1268),  executed  shortly  after  his  death  and  placed 
in  S.  Maria  ai  Gradi  in  Viterbo,  whence  it  has  been  transferred  to  the 
church  of  San  Francesco.  A  copy  of  the  original  inscription  (now 
destroyed)  made  by  Papebroch  contains  the  words :  Petrus  Oderisi 
sepulcri  fedt  hoc  opus. 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 


FE.  FEANZ.    Mythologische  Studien  II.     Der  Weihefriihling  und  das 

Konigsopfer.     8vo,  pp.  65.     Wien,  1888. 

The  chief  part  of  this  interesting  but  uncritical  essay  is  devoted  to  show- 
ing that  kings  were  formerly  made  a  sacrifice  of,  for  the  good  of  their  people. 
His  taste  leads  him  to  think  this  one  of  the  most  sublime  aspects  of  the  life 
of  ancient  races.  The  legends  of  Vikings,  Britons,  Langobards,  etc.,  are 
put  under  contribution,  but  more  especially  Greek  mythology  and  history. 
The  Trojan  war  is  only  the  Trojan  festival  of  sacrifice,  recurring  within 
spaces  of  ten  years ;  and  from  it  the  Greek  games  were  later  developed.  In 
this  and  similar  conclusions,  Dr.  Franz  seems  to  mount  to  such  airy  heights 
that  the  average  reason  would  hardly  follow  him.  In  the  punishment  of 
the  Scythian  prince,  Skyles,  and  the  assassination  of  Philip  of  Macedon, 
are  found  examples  of  this  self-sacrifice  of  kings !  The  satyrs  in  the  train 
of  Dryas  are  also  explained  as  youths  devoted  to  death-sacrifice.  The  dili- 
gence and  completeness  with  which  these  myths  are  collected  is,  however, 
very  praiseworthy,  and  the  material  gathered  into  the  book  is  both  attractive 
and  entertaining. — HAEBEKLIN,  in  Woch.f.  klass.  PhiloL,  1889,  No.  19. 

ORIENTAL  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

V.  A.  SMITH.     The  Coinage  of  the  Early  or  Imperial  Gupta  Dynasty 
of  Northern  India,  1889. 

This  work  by  the  compiler  of  the  valuable  index  to  the  twenty  volumes 
of 'Reports  of  the  Archaeological  Survey  of  India  is  reprinted  from  the  Journal 
of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society.  It  may  be  called  the  most  important  con- 
tribution to  Indian  numismatics  since  Professor  Percy  Gardner's  British 
Museum  Catalogue  of  the  Coins  of  the  Greek  and  Scythic  Kings  of  Bactria 
and  India  (1886).  In  form  it  is  an  expansion  of  a  paper  on  the  gold  coins 
of  the  Guptas  which  appeared  in  1884  in  the  Journal  of  the  Bengal  Society. 
But  Mr.  Smith  has  now  included  the  silver  and  copper  coinage;  and  he 
has  been  able  to  revise  his  former  opinions  by  an  examination  of  the  exam- 
ples in  the  British  Museum,  in  the  Bodleian,  and  in  Sir  Alexander  Cun- 
ningham's unrivalled  private  collection.  He  has  also  had  the  advantage 
of  consulting  the  proof  sheets  of  Mr.  Fleet's  forthcoming  great  work  on  the 
Gupta  inscriptions,  which  definitely  determines  the  dates  of  the  several 
reigns.  So  far  as  we  know,  this  is  the  first  serious  examination  that  has 
been  made  of  the  early  Indian  coins  in  the  Bodleian  collection,  for  Mr. 

189 


190  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Stanley  Lane-Poole's  recent  catalogue  was  confined  to  the  Muhammadan 
coins.  The  present  paper  extends  to  158  pages,  of  which  a  little  more  than 
one-half  contain  the  catalogue  proper,  while  the  rest  deal  with  such  matters 
as  types  and  devices,  legends,  find-spots,  mints,  etc.  In  opposition  to  the 
old  view,  that  Kanauj  was  the  Gupta  capital,  he  maintains  that  all  the  evi- 
dence points  to  Pataliputra,  the  modern  Patna,  while  Ajodhya,  or  Oudh, 
was  probably  also  a  great  city  with  a  copper  mint.  The  paper  is  illustrated 
with  four  autotype  plates,  and  one  photo-lithographed  plate  of  monogram- 
matic  emblems,  the  meaning  of  which  remains  unknown.  Mr.  Smith  con- 
tents himself  with  stating  that  these  monograms  certainly  do  not  indicate 
mint-cities  but  probably  had  some  religious  or  mythological  significance. 
— Academy,  April  6. 

CLASSICAL  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Seventh  Annual  Report  of  the  Managing  Committee  of  the  American 
School  of  Classical  Studies  at  Athens.  1887-88.  Cambridge,  1889. 
The  first  part  of  the  volume  is  occupied  with  Professor  Th.  D.  Seymour's 
report  for  the  past  year,  declaring  the  work  accomplished  in  Greece  and 
the  publications  issued,  as  well  as  the  decision  to  continue  the  system  of 
Annual  Directors.  Then  follows  Professor  Martin  L.  D'Ooge's  report  as 
Director  for  1886-87,  detailing  the  occupations,  labors,  and  excursions  of 
the  members  during  his  term  of  office.  The  greater  part,  however,  consists 
of  Professor  A.  C.  Merriam's  report  for  his  year,  1887-88.  The  seven 
members  of  the  School  devoted  themselves  to  different  specialties,  and  nearly 
all  prepared  papers  for  publication.  The  excavations  were  continued  at 
Sikyon  and  begun  at  Ikaria.  A  very  thorough  monograph  of  Ikaria  is 
given,  including  a  bibliography  of  the  subject  and  the  different  theories 
regarding  its  site,  a  list  of  Ikarians  from  literary  sources  and  from  inscrip- 
tions, and  an  enumeration  of  the  sources  for  the  story  of  Ikarios  and  Eri- 
gone.  The  work  is  done  in  a  scholarly  manner  and  is  at  the  same  time 
interesting  reading — a  combination  not  very  often  to  be  found. 

PAUL  ARNDT.     Studien  zur  Vasenkunde.     Leipzig,  1887. 

In  view  of  the  present  opinion  regarding  Greek  vases — that,  excepting 
very  early  and  very  late  classes,  they  were  nearly  all  manufactured  at 
Athens — the  writer  enlarges  upon  the  contrary  opinion  held  by  Professor 
Brunn,  his  master,  who  not  only  disputes  the  Attic  origin  of  vases  in  gen- 
eral but  assigns  the  great  bulk  of  the  black-figured  and  red-figured  vases 
of  Italy  to  the  age  after  Alexander.  Mr.  Arndt  exaggerates  his  teacher's 
views  in  so  extreme  a  manner  as  to  deny  the  early  date  of  nearly  all  painted 
vases;  he  calls  Euphronios,  for  instance,  an  Italian  potter  of  the  third  cen- 
tury B.  c.  As  an  exception,  he  allows  the  antiquity  of  the  Francois  vase. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  191 

Though  the  book  is  interesting  as  calling  in  question  current  views,  it  is 
devoid  of  judgment  and  perception. — P.  G.,  in  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies, 
Oct.  1888,  pp.  388-9. 

H.  AUER.     Der  Tempel  der  Vesta  und  das  Haus  der  Vestalinnen  am 
Forum  Romanum.     22  pp.  and  8  pi.     Wien,  1888. 

This  is  a  valuable  completion  of  the  previous  monographs  by  Lanciani 
and  Jordan,  and  partially  harmonizes  their  views.  The  author  treats  with 
especial  care  the  two  points  on  which  these  writers  disagree — the  recon- 
struction of  the  temple  of  Vesta,  and  the  date  of  the  house  of  the  Vestals. 
Jordan's  co-worker,  the  architect  T.  O.  Schulze,  had  already,  by  careful 
study  of  the  architectural  fragments,  demonstrated  the  untenability  of  Lan- 
ciani's  reconstruction  of  the  temple;  and  Auer  accepts  his  results,  amend- 
ing them  mainly  by  a  study  of  the  relief  in  the  Uffizi.  In  regard  to  the  age 
of  the  house  of  the  Vestals  (considered  by  Lanciani  to  be  of  the  time  of 
Septimius  Severus  and  reconstructed  after  the  fire  of  191  A.  D.,  and  by 
Jordan  to  belong  to  the  reign  of  Hadrian),  Auer  puts  forward  the  theory, 
that  its  construction  does  not  belong  to  one  but  several  successive  periods. 
According  to  him  there  are  four  parts:  (1)  the  earliest,  or  western,  com- 
prising the  atrium  itself  and  the  sleeping  rooms,  perhaps  of  the  period  after 
Nero's  fire;  (2)  the  wing  on  the  south  side  of  the  peristyle,  of  the  time  of 
Hadrian ;  (3)  the  north  wing  of  the  peristyle,  of  the  reign  of  Severus ;  (4) 
finally,  the  second  or  additional  floor  on  the  s.  and  w.  From  these  results 
it  is  seen,  that  the  oldest  part  of  the  atrium  was  farthest  removed  from  the 
temple  of  Vesta,  and  that  their  connection  belongs  to  later  times.  Now,  up 
to  the  time  of  Augustus,  we  hear  of  a  grove  near  the  temple,  but  in  the  later 
periods  of  the  Empire  it  evidently  did  not  exist,  as  we  can  see  from  the 
excavations.  Very  probably  it  lay  between  the  atrium  and  the  temple, 
and  its  place  was  taken  by  the  large  colonnade  by  which  the  atrium  was 
enlarged  under  Hadrian.  There  are  many  reasons  in  favor  of  this  theory, 
and  the  work  is  careful  and  scholarly. — O.  RICHTER,  in  Berl.  phil.  Woch., 
1889,  col.  570-1. 

O.  BENNDORF.  Wiener  Vorlegebldtter fur  archdologische  Ubungen,  1888. 
12  plates  in  folio.     Wien,  1889. 

With  this  issue,  the  Wiener  Vorlegebldtter,  hitherto  almost  restricted  to 
libraries,  becomes  of  use  to  the  general  public.  Each  Heft  can  now  be 
separately  obtained,  while  previously  the  whole  series  had  to  be  subscribed 
for  at  once.  The  present  Heft,  in  plates  i-vn,  gives  drawings  of  the  oldest 
painted  vases  that  have  the  signatures  of  artists.  They  are  those  which 
Klein  describes  in  his  Griechischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen,  pp.  27-41. 


192  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Among  these  nine  vases,  the  Franyois  vase,  the  most  important  of  those 
of  the  sixth  century,  now  finally  appears  in  a  thoroughly  trustworthy 
representation.  Plates  vin  and  ix  give  an  instructive  selection  of  repre- 
sentations of  wedding  ceremonies,  taken  from  Greek  painted  vases  and 
Roman  sarcophagi.  The  remainder  of  the  plates  contain  various  conjec- 
tural representations  of  the  Ilioupersis  of  Polygnotos,  which  Pausanias  de- 
scribes in  the  Lesche  at  Delphoi.  The  series  begins  with  a  representation 
made  under  the  supervision  of  Count  Caylus  and  ends  with  one  by  Benn- 
dorf  himself.  Though  great  advance  is  naturally  to  be  observed  in  the 
ideas  entertained  concerning  Polygnotos,  the  last  effort  can  hardly  be  said 
to  have  yet  reached  certainty.  Benndorf  '&  restoration  is  visibly  influenced 
by  the  reliefs  on  the  Heroon  of  Gjolbaschi  (Lykia),  and  would  seem  to  be 
too  far  removed  from  the  free  arrangement  of  figures  on  such  painted  vases 
as  appear  to  contain  echos  of  the  art  of  Polygnotos.  The  Ilioupersis  ought 
also  to  be  restored  with  more  regard  to  the  picture  of  Haides  in  the  same 
Lesche.  They  were  undoubtedly  contrasting  pieces,  containing  the  same 
number  of  figures  and  occupying  equal  space,  and  both  began  with  a  boat- 
scene  on  the  shore. — ADOLF  TRENDELENBURG,  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  PhiloL, 
1889,  No.  21. 

This  second  series  published  by  Professor  Benndorf  is  extremely  inter- 
esting for  the  good  selection  of  subjects  and  quality  of  the  illustrations.  It 
is  the  first  step  toward  the  publication  of  a  corpus  of  signed  vases.  This 
number  contains  the  oinochoe  of  Gamedes,  the  famous  amphora  of  Klitias 
and  Ergotimos,  the  amphora  and  cup  of  Exechias  in  the  Louvre,  and  seven 
other  works  of  this  artist.  Finally,  three  plates  are  devoted  to  restorations 
of  the  Ilioupersis  of  Polygnotos :  that  prepared  under  direction  of  Professor 
Benndorf  from  contemporary  vase-paintings,  when  compared  to  that  of 
Riepenhausen  in  1804,  is  a  good  example  of  the  progress  of  archaeological 
criticism. — SAL.  REINACH,  in  Revue  Critique,  1889,  pp.  322-3. 

F.  BAUMGARTEN.     Ein  Rundgang  durch  die  Ruien  Athem.     Mit  10 

Abbildungen.     8vo?  pp.  Vi-83.     Leipzig,  1888. 

The  intention  of  this  little  treatise  is  to  provide  the  pupils  of  gymnasia 
with  a  good  outline  of  Athenian  topography.  All  reference  to  modern 
literature  on  the  subject  is  therefore  very  justly  omitted,  and  only  the 
passages  from  ancient  authors  usually  read  in  the  higher  schools  are  cited. 
The  enthusiasm  and  accuracy  of  the  book  and  the  absence  of  polemic  spirit 
make  it  a  first-rate  work  for  students.  The  southern  declivity  of  the  Akro- 
polis  is  supplied  with  a  double  Asklepieion,  instead  of  a  double  sanctuary 
of  Asklepios  and  Themis.  The  remarks  about  the  agora  might  also  arouse 
objection,  but  in  other  respects  the  modest  intention  of  the  book  is  excel- 
lently carried  out. — P.  WEIZSACKER,  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  PhiloL,  1889,  No.  17. 


RE 'VIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 


193 


OSCAR  BIE.    Die  Musen  in  der  antiken  Kunst.    8vo,  pp.  105.    Berlin, 

1887. 

A  very  valuable  addition  to  the  material  here  treated  consists  in  the  reliefs 
of  Praxiteles  found  at  Mantineia  (Bull.  Corr.  Hellen.,  1888,  pp.  105-28). 
Also,  they  are  important  as  the  only  representation  of  the  Muses  from  the 
fourth  century.  In  general,  they  confirm  Bie's  previous  results,  according 
to  which  the  muses  during  this  period  are  nine  in  number,  and  carry  as 
new  attributes  the  scroll  and  the  masks  of  tragedy  and  comedy.  In  the 
earlier  period  they  are  three,  and  have  only  musical  attributes.  In  the 
Hellenistic  development,  besides  being  representatives  of  music  and  poetry, 
the  muses  take  science  also  into  their  realm,  and,  besides  the  simple  chiton 
and  himation,  they  now  sometimes  wear  a  stage-dress. — E.  KROKER,  in 
Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  No.  9. 

H.  BLUMNER.     Lebens-  und  Bildungsgang  eines  griechischen  Kunst- 

lers.     8vo,  pp.  34.     Basel,  1887. 

In  the  form  of  a  lecture,  Bliimner  seeks  to  give  an  outline  of  an  artist's 
training  and  surroundings.  His  school-days,  travels  in  Greek  cities,  public 
exhibitions,  and  at  times  his  pecuniary  rewards.  The  material  from  which 
this  is  drawn  consists  of  anecdotes  from  ancient  authors.  Widely  sepa- 
rated as  they  are  in  time,  and  often  preserved  because  they  were  unusual 
or  amusing,  in  the  present  essay  they  are  blended  into  a  picture  whose  out- 
lines, at  least,  we  may  be  sure  are  quite  correct. — E.  KROKER,  in  Berl. 
phil.  Woch.,  1889,  No.  11. 

H.  COLLITZ  und  F.  BECHTEL.  Sammlung  der  griechischen  Dialektin- 
schriften.  Band  in,  Heft  I.  Die  megarischen  Inschrifien  von  F. 
BECHTEL.  8vo,  pp.  59.  Gottingen,  1888. 

After  an  interval  of  three  years,  another  part  of  this  publication  has  been 
brought  out,  and  Collitz'  departure  to  America  has  caused  the  services  of 
F.  Bechtel  to  be  added  to  the  undertaking.  The  second  volume  not  being 
completed,  the  third  volume  begins  with  number  3001.  From  Megara  and 
its  colonies  are  collected  112  inscriptions  showing  evidence  of  local  dialect ; 
and  the  use  of  squeezes  and  careful  copies  has  given  rise  to  much  greater 
accuracy.  In  some  of  the  inscriptions  from  Megara,  Rhangabis  and  Pit- 
takis  noticably  agree  with  each  other  in  a  number  of  notorious  mistakes, 
but,  which  of  them  was  always  the  borrower  in  such  instances,  it  is  difficult 
to  decide.  Some  inscriptions  seem  to  be  arbitrarily  omitted,  but  they  will 
doubtless  appear  in  some  future  issue.  The  remarks  attached  to  the  inscrip- 
tions are  often  too  short,  and  the  references  to  other  publications  are  meagre 
(the  numbers  in  Cauer's  Delectus  being  nowhere  cited).  The  index  of  the 


194  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

first  Heft  of  volume  n  has  also  appeared,  and  like  the  other  parts  of  the 
entire  publication  is  characterized  by  unusual  care  and  accuracy. — W. 
LARFELD,  in  Berl.phil.  Woch.,  1889,  Nos.  4-5. 

FRIEDRICH  FEDDE.  Der  Filnfkampf  der  Hellenen.  4to,  pp.40.  Leip- 
zig, 1888. 

In  regard  to  the  much-debated  question  of  the  pentathlon,  the  author  of 
this  program  comes  to  several  valuable  conclusions.  It  seems,  now,  that  the 
leap  was  measured,  and  thus  absolute  superiority  was  required  in  it,  not 
merely  an  average  performance.  The  normal  order  of  the  five  events  was : 
foot-race,  diskos,  leap,  darting,  and  wrestling,  though  it  was  apparently  often 
deviated  from.  An  average  degree  of  training  and  activity  seems  to  have 
had  much  to  do  in  deciding  the  victory  in  the  entire  pentathlon,  and  only 
in  special  cases  did  a  victory  in  wrestling  decide  it.  From  a  remark  in 
Pausanias,  that  in  the  Olympic  pentathlon  never  more  than  three  disks 
were  used,  Fedde  argues  that  the  contestants  were  divided  into  companies 
of  three.  Whoever  won  the  most  victories  in  his  triad  took  the  prize,  in 
case  there  were  no  more  than  three  contestants.  When  there  were  many 
contestants,  the  victors  in  these  triads  strove  with  each  other  for  the  victory 
over  all.  The  investigation  is  characterized  by  a  thoroughly  scientific 
method,  and,  in  the  result  it  reaches,  merits  preference  over  all  other  discus- 
sions of  the  subject. — M.  LEHNERDT,  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  Philol,  1889,  No.  83. 

B.  HASSOULLIER.  Ath&nes  et  ses  Environs.  Collection  des  Guides- 
Joanne,  Gr£ce.  8vo,  pp.  179,  14  maps  and  plans.  Paris,  1888. 
This  book  contains  an  excellent  description  of  Athens  accompanied  with 
neat  and  clear  maps.  Though  for  the  use  of  the  travelling  public,  the 
modern  city  is  dismissed  in  a  few  pages,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  book 
(pp.  36-151)  is  consecrated  to  the  antiquities.  In  describing  the  Pandro- 
seion,  M.  Hassoullier  places  it  in  the  western  half  of  the  Erechtheion,  and 
so  is  compelled  to  make  the  sanctuary  a  double  one.  The  inscriptions  that 
relate  to  the  Erechtheion  would  seem,  however,  to  show  that  it  was  not 
within  but  adjoining  the  Erechtheion  on  the  west.  Dorpfeld's  notion,  that 
the  old  temple  of  Athena,  which  has  been  recently  uncovered,  stood  there 
in  the  time  of  Pausanias,  is  also  adopted.  This  would  seem  to  rest  on  rather 
too  slender  proof  to  warrant  its  insertion  in  a  guide-book.  The  description 
of  the  city  itself  is  supplemented  by  excursions  to  Marathon,  Sounion, 
Aigina,  and  Eleusis. — P.  WEIZSACKER,  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  Philol.,  1889,  No.  8. 

W.  HELBIG.     Sopra  le  relazione  commereiali  degli  Ateniesi  coll'  Italia 

(R.  Accad.  dei  Lincei).     Roma,  1889. 

It  has  been  generally  thought  that  the  painted  Attic  vases  discovered  in 
the  necropoli  of  Campania,  Latium,  and  Etruria  were  introduced  by  the 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS. 


195 


Athenians  along  the  coast  of  Western  Italy.  Professor  Helbig  has  proved 
this  to  be  impossible,  and  that  the  Athenian  vessels  in  the  vi  and  v  cen- 
turies were  not  in  relations  with  Etruria,  but  only  with  Southern  Italy  and 
the  east  coast  of  Sicily ;  the  Syracusan  vessels  being  those  which  trans- 
ported to  Etruria  the  vases  they  received  from  Athens.  This  monopoly 
was  broken  up  only  by  the  Athenian  invasion  of  413.  The  author  believes 
that  the  Syracusans  were  not  only  go-betweens,  but  carried  articles  of  their 
own  manufacture,  and  that  a  part  of  the  bronzes  and  other  objects  found  in 
Italic  necropoli  are  the  product  of  Syracusan  workshops — an  important 
fact,  if  it  be  true.  The  proofs  brought  forward  to  verify  the  theory,  that 
the  Athenians  knew  nothing  of  Etruria,  Campania,  and  part  of  Sicily  are 
of  varied  character,  and  are  presented  with  clearness  and  precision. — SAL. 
KEINACH,  in  Revue  Critique,  1889,  pp.  263-4. 

H.  HEYDEMANN.    Pariser  Antiken.    xn  Hallisches  Winckelmanns- 
programm.     4to,  pp.  90.     Halle,  1887. 

A  new  attempt  is  here  made  to  restore  the  Aphrodite  of  Melos,  and  before 
her  is  conjecturally  placed  a  tropaion,  to  which  she  is  about  to  add  a  final 
weapon  or  other  ornament :  this  with  the  right  hand,  while  the  left,  con- 
taining the  apple  which  has  given  rise  to  so  much  discussion,  is  to  be  con- 
ceived as  resting  against  the  tropaion.  Overbeck's  restoration  of  the  statue, 
by  giving  it  a  shield  as  a  mirror,  would  seem  to  be  but  little  improved  upon 
by  this  essay  of  Heydemann. — E.  KROKER,  in  Berl.phil  Woch.,  1889,  No.  10. 

RUDOLF  KAISER.    De  inscriptionum  graecarum  interpunctione.    8vo, 
pp.  38.     Berlin,  1887. 

The  subject  is  explained  intelligently  and  cautiously,  but,  from  the  nature 
of  the  case,  no  very  wide  generalizations  are  reached.  The  most  usual  mark 
of  punctuation  is  two  dots,  one  placed  over  the  other :  a  series  of  three  dots 
in  a  vertical  line  is  also  considerably  used,  but  the  two  dots  do  not  seem 
to  be  of  older  usage  than  the  three.  A  single  dot  as  a  sign  of  punctuation 
is  quite  rare,  and  is  confined  to  Italian  and  Sicilian  inscriptions ;  and  punc- 
tuation of  any  sort  always  has  an  antique  flavor,  though  it  can  be  followed 
through  a  period  of  some  200  years.  A  reference  to  the  punctuation  on  the 
Mesa-stone  leads  Kaiser  to  the  conclusion  that  Greek  punctuation  was 
derived  from  the  Phoenicians,  along  with  their  alphabet.  The  irregularity 
with  which  it  is  used  on  Greek  inscriptions  is  another  proof  that  the  custom 
rested  on  tradition  rather  than  on  usefulness. — PAUL  CAUER,  in  Berl.  phil. 
Woch.,  1889,  No.  7. 


1 96  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCH^OLOG  Y. 

H.  G.  LOLLING.     Topographic  von  Athen.     In  J.  Miiller's  Handbuch 

der  Mass.  Altertumswissenschaft,  m,  pp.  291-352. 

Owing  to  his  many  years  residence  in  Athens  and  his  investigations  there, 
Dr.  Lolling  is  better  suited  than  any  one  else  to  treat  of  this  subject.  The 
excellent  print  of  Miiller's  publications  and  the  lucid  division  into  para- 
graphs add  much  to  the  value  of  the  work.  Moderation  characterizes  its 
size  as  well  as  its  contents.  The  views  of  opponents  are  not  demolished, 
but  the  pros  and  cons  of  disputed  questions  are  carefully  weighed.  Pausa- 
nias  is  followed  as  closely  as  possible,  in  the  description,  and  the  map  that 
accompanies  the  book  is  plain,  though  on  a  scale  almost  too  much  reduced. 
—P.  WEIZSACKER,  in  Woch.f.  Mass.  PhiloL,  1889,  No.  17. 

BICHTER.      Topographic  der  Stadt  Rom.      Nordlingen,  1889.      In 
J.  Miiller's  Handbuch  der  Mass.  Attertumswissenschafl. 

This  essay  consists  mainly  of  a  sort  of  abstract  from  various  German 
writings  on  the  topography  of  Rome  in  which  a  great  deal  of  valuable  in- 
formation is  given  in  well-arranged  form.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the 
author  falls  into  errors  by  neglecting  to  make  use  of  the  works  of  English 
scholars  and  through  a  lack  of  technical  and  ocular  knowledge.  His  ac- 
quaintance with  the  existing  ruins  is  not  as  thorough  as  with  the  classical 
authors  who  deal  with  the  subject. —  Classical  Review,  1889,  pp.  135-6. 

H.WINNEFELD.   Hypnos.  Em  archdologiseher  Versuch.    MitSTafeln 
und  4  Abb.  im  Text.    8vo,  pp.  37.    Berlin  und  Stuttgart,  1886. 

The  two  types  of  Hypnos,  an  older  with  wings  placed  on  the  temples  and 
a  later  with  wings  placed  in  the  hair,  are  here  discussed.  The  later  type 
is  considered  to  be  probably  an  assimilation  with  Hermes'  heads,  carried  out 
for  purely  technical  reasons. — E.  KROKER,  in  Berl  Phil.  Woch.,  1889,  No.  10. 

CHRISTIAN  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

BODE  und  VON  TSCHUDI.     Koenigliche  Museen  zu  Berlin.    Beschrei- 
bung  der  Bildwerke  der  christlichen  Epoche.    Berlin,  1888,  Spemann. 

This  catalogue  of  the  sculptures  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renaissance 
in  the  museum  of  Berlin  is  a  work  of  serious  importance.  A  very  useful 
feature  is  the  reproduction  of  almost  all  the  objects  described,  even  though 
this  is  not  done  on  a  scale  large  enough  to  allow  of  very  detailed  study.  It 
is  a  new  proof  of  the  energy  and  zeal  shown  by  Dr.  Bode  in  enriching  and 
classifying  the  collections  placed  under  his  care.  It  may  be  remarked  that 
there  are  more  variations  than  are  advisable  in  the  attribution  of  different 
works.— E.  MOLINIER,  in  Gazette  Arch.,  1888,  11-12. 


REVIEWS  AND  NOTICES  OF  BOOKS.  197 

P.  GELIS-DIDOT  et  H.  LAFFILLEE.    La  peinture  decorative  en  France 

du  XIe  au  XVIs  siecle.     Paris,  1889. 

The  wall-paintings  of  the  Middle  Ages  have  been  much  less  studied  and 
used  by  modern  artists  than  the  contemporary  works  of  architecture  and 
sculpture.  No  comprehensive  work  on  the  subject  had  yet  appeared  in 
France,  and  many  works  have  perished  during  the  last  half-century.  It 
is  fortunate  that  the  present  work,  which  covers  the  entire  Middle  Ages, 
should  have  been  begun.  Two  numbers  have  been  issued.  The  plates  are 
exact  and  well  executed.  While  performing  a  strictly  archaeological  piece 
of  work,  the  writers  have  also  the  practical  view  of  offering  material  to 
architects  of  the  present  day  who  are  constructing  buildings  in  mediaeval 
style  and  according  to  mediaeval  principles. — J.  HELBIG,  in  Revue  de  I' Art 
Chretien,  1889,  2. 

G.  LANDRIANI.  La  Basilica  Ambrosiana  fino  alia  transformazione  in 
chiesa  lombarda  a  volte. — I  resti  della  Basilica  di  Fausta.  Milano, 
1889,  U.  Hoepli. 

While  the  basilica  of  Sant'  Ambrogio  at  Milano  is  constantly  being 
studied  in  its  later  developments  as  the  best  example  of  early  Lombard 
architecture,  its  early  history,  since  the  foundation  by  St.  Ambrose,  has 
been  comparatively  neglected.  This  part  of  its  history  is  carefully  studied 
by  the  present  writer,  whose  knowledge  of  the  subject  is  very  thorough  from 
his  having  been  present  at  all  the  recent  restorations,  in  1857  and  since  that 
date.  An  appendix  illustrates  the  remains  of  the  basilica  of  Fausta,  orig- 
inally contiguous  to  Sant'  Ambrogio.  The  volume  is  fully  illustrated. — 
Nuova  Antologia,  April  16,  1889. 

E.  MOLINIER.     Le  Tresor  de  la  Basilique  de  Saint-Marc  a  Venise. 

Gr.  8vo,  pp.  106 ;  7  planches,  13  vignettes.   Venezia,  1888,  Organia. 

The  treasury  of  San  Marco  has  been  lately  thoroughly  illustrated  in  the 
superb  folio  album  of  plates  accompanied  by  a  text  written  by  Canon  Pasini. 
The  present  small  volume  by  M.  Molinier  is  a  condensation  of  the  above. 
It  contains  a  catalogue  of  the  171  objects  reproduced  in  the  album,  of  which 
a  certain  number  are  here  also  illustrated.  It  is  known  that  this  unique 
collection  comes  mainly  from  the  barbarous  pillage  of  Constantinople  in 
1204  by  the  Crusaders.  There  are  successively  studied:  (1)  the  ancient 
vases;  (2)  Oriental  works,  such  as  Sassanid  or  Arabic  vases,  Chinese  porce- 
lains, Persian  carpets ;  (3)  Byzantine  works  of  gold  and  silver,  enamel  and 
embroidery,  including  thirty  chalices  and  eleven  patens. — X.  BARBIER  DE 
MONTAULT,  in  Revue  de  I' Art  Chretien,  1889,  2. 


AKCILEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 
SUMMARY  OF  RECENT  DISCOVERIES  AND  INVESTIGATIONS. 


Page. 

AFGHANISTAN 202 

ASIA  MINOR 208 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY,      .  227 

EGYPT 197 

ENGLAND 228 

FRANCE, 226 


Page. 

GERMANY, 227 

GREECE, 212 

ITALY 217 

KYPROS, 209 

MESOPOTAMIA,     .    .    .  202 
MEXICO 232 


Page. 

MOROCCO 202 

PALESTINE 207 

SICILY 223 

TUNISIA 200 

UNITED  STATES,  ...   231 


AFRICA. 
EGYPT. 

LETTER  OF  PROFESSOR  SAYCE  FROM  EGYPT. — "  On  the  western  bank, 
some  three  or  four  miles  north  of  Assuan,  and  near  the  village  of  El- 
Uriyeh,  is  a  lofty  crag  of  sandstone,  the  sides  of  which  have  been  quarried 
away.  Here  I  found  a  Greek  graffito  and  several  hieroglyphic  ones,  one 
of  which  records  the  name  of  '  the  interpreter  in  the  palace.'  What 
especially  interested  me  was  the  fact,  that  the  quarry-marks  consisted  of 
the  two  Phoenician  letters  kaph  and  beth ;  and,  as  I  came  across  similar 
quarry-marks  at  the  southern  end  of  the  eastern  quarries  of  Silsilis,  the 
letters  occurring  here  being  zayin,  nun,  and  resh,  we  may  conclude  that 
the  quarries  were  at  one  time  worked  with  the  aid  of  Phoenicians.  This 
will  explain  the  existence  of  the  Phoenician  inscription  discovered  by 
Mr.  Petrie  in  a  wddi  to  the  north  of  Silsilis.  One  of  the  hieroglyphic 
graffiti  is  accompanied  by  the  picture  of  a  sphinx  seated  on  a  pedestal  and 
wearing  the  double  crown,  by  the  side  of  which  is  the  drawing  of  a  cube ; 
from  another  of  the  graffiti  we  learn  that  the  old  Egyptian  name  of  the 
town  near  which  the  quarries  were  situated  was  the  town  of  Ankh,  or 
'  Life.'  North  of  Silsilis  we  visited  some  interesting  Greek  inscriptions 
first  discovered  by  Mr.  Petrie  and  Mr.  Griffith  two  years  ago.  A  little  to 
the  north  of  Silweh  lies  the  village  of  Kegok ;  and  opposite  Kegok,  on  the 
western  bank  of  the  Nile,  are  the  remains  of  two  quays  of  large  finely-cut 
stone,  which  evidently  belong  to  the  Roman  age.  They  are  separated 
from  one  another  by  a  distance  of  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile ;  the  southern 
one  being  built  along  the  line  of  the  bank,  while  the  other  projects  into  the 
river  like  a  pier.  Behind  each  are  large  quarries,  and  by  the  side  of  the 
198 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  199 

northern  quarry  is  a  small  natural  ravine  in  the  rocks.  In  the  latter  are 
a  number  of  Greek  inscriptions,  partly  incised,  partly  painted  red.  Three 
of  these  inform  us,  in  slightly  varying  language,  that  the  Nile  had  been 
admitted  into  the  shelter  of  the  quay  on  the  26th  day  of  the  month  Mesore1 
in  the  llth  year  of  Antoninus  (Lia  Avrawvos  Meo-opry  o  NtXos  eurqXOev  «s 
TOV  opfjiov  Mevoprj  /cs),  one  of  them,  further,  explaining  that  the  *  anchor- 
age '  meant  was  that  '  of  the  quarry,'  '  at  the  .  .  . '  775  TOV  op//,ov  TT/S  Aaro)- 
[/ua]s,  Kara  TO[I;S]  .  .  .  ^atovs.  Only  one  letter  seems  to  be  wanting  at 
the  beginning  of  the  last  word.  From  other  inscriptions  we  learn  that 
the  <xpx'7^XavtKOS  or  '  chief-engineer '  was  Apollonios,  the  son  of  Petestheus, 
under  whose  direction  the  quarry  immediately  behind  the  northern  quay 
was  excavated ;  the  quarry  to  the  south  being  cut  under  the  supervision 
of  his  brother  Arsynis,  with  the  help,  it  would  appear,  of  a  certain  Pak- 
humis.  The  object  for  which  the  quarries  were  opened  and  the  quay  built 
is  stated  in  another  inscription :  ETT  ayaOu  -  Lta  AVTOWVOS  eKo^a^ev  TOVS 
jaeyaXoDS  XtOovs  -TT^ODV  id  as  rrjv  irvXrjv  TOV  Kvpiov  A-TroAAto  /cai  TT)<S  Kvpias.  '  In 
the  llth  year  of  Antoninus  we  cut  the  great  stones  11  cubits  in  length  for 
the  pylon  of  the  lord  Apollo  and  the  lady  Isis.'  We  now  know,  therefore, 
the  date  at  which  the  pylon  of  the  great  temple  of  Edfu  was  either  restored 
or  enlarged,  as  well  as  the  name  of  the  engineer  under  whose  orders  the 
work  was  carried  on.  His  father  bears  an  Egyptian  name.  It  will  be 
noticed  that  the  number  of  cubits  in  the  length  of  each  stone  was  the  same 
as  the  number  of  years  the  emperor  had  reigned  up  to  the  time  when  they 
were  cut.  I  may  add  that  between  the  two  quarries  are  some  hieroglyphic 
graffiti,  one  of  them  being  the  record  of  *  the  scribe  Ai,'  another  of  '  the 
scribe  Hora.'  Were  these  the  native  scribes  who  assisted  Apollonios  in  his 
duties  ?  " — Academy,  May  4. 

EGYPT  AND  MYKENAI. — The  knowledge  of  the  early  relations  of  Egypt 
and  Greece  is  continually  becoming  more  important.  At  the  April  meet- 
ing of  the  Archaeological  Society  in  Berlin,  Furtwangler  presented  the 
work  of  the  Swedish  archaeologist,  Montelius,  on  the  bronze  age  in  Egypt 
(Bronsaldern  i  Egypten,  1888),  in  which  is  published  from  a  photograph, 
for  the  first  time,  the  sword  or  dagger  of  King  A'ahotep  or  Amenhotep 
(xvm  dyn.  c.  1600  B.  c.).  This  dagger  is  of  the  same  technique,  with  in- 
laid work,  as  the  daggers  from  Mykenai,  and  has  similar  leaping  lions.  It 
is  the  best  proof  for  the  date  of  the  contents  of  the  Mykenaian  tombs  (c/. 
Furtwangler  and  Loeschcke,  My  ken.  Vasen,  p.  xn ;  Baumeister,  Denk- 
maler,  p.  987).  In  Roscher's  Lexikon  d.  MythoL,  p.  1745,  Furtwangler  calls 
attention  to  running  griffins  in  Egyptian  monuments  similar  to  those  on 
the  Mykenaian  blades.  In  the  'E^/xepis  'Apx-  (1887,  pi.  13)  is  published 
an  Egyptian  scarab,  found  at  Mykenai,  bearing  the  name  of  the  Egyptian 
queen  Ti,  though  it  cannot  be  dated. — Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  col.  491, 550. 
5 


200  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.          [EGYPT.] 

TEL-EL-AMARNA. — Further  information  from  the  tablets. — Dr.  Hugo  Winck- 
ler,  whose  knowledge  of  the  tablets  of  Tel-el- Amarna  is  more  intimate  than 
that  of  any  other  student,  gives  in  the  Berl.phil.  Wochenschrift  (1889,  Nos. 
18, 19)  a  brief  account  of  the  find  and  of  the  amount  and  character  of  the 
material,  with  a  view  to  correcting  certain  erroneous  views  expressed  by 
different  writers  on  the  subject.  The  greater  part  of  the  tablets  were 
brought  to  Berlin,  through  the  kindness  of  Theodor  Graf  of  Vienna  ;  and 
a  large  portion  of  these  were  donated  to  the  Imperial  Museum  by  J.  Simon. 
Two  other  collections  were  made,  one  in  the  Museum  of  Bulaq-Cairo,  the 
other  in  the  British  Museum.  There  is  an  interesting  discussion  of  the 
peculiarities  in  the  use  of  the  Assyrian  language  by  scribes  whose  native 
tongue  it  evidently  was  not,  and  who  were  influenced  by  their  own  dialects. 
A  foremost  interest  in  the  collection  must  be  given  to  the  letters  from  the 
Babylonian  Kings.  A  new  name  is  brought  forward,  Rish-takullima-Sin, 
and  we  have  the  following  genealogy  for  Babylonian  Kings  of  the  xv 
century :  Rish-takullima-Sin,  Kurigalzu  I,  Burnaburiash,  Kurigalzu  II. 
There  are  interesting  details  regarding  intrigues  at  the  two  Courts  and 
exchanges  of  presents  and  warnings. 

Beside  the  writings  of  the  Babylonian  Kings  is  a  letter  of  great  interest 
from  the  Assyrian  King  Assur-uballit,  who  is  known  to  be  a  contemporary 
of  Burnaburiash.  It  names  his  father  Assur-nadin-ahi,  mentioned  else- 
where only  once,  as  having  made  a  treaty  with  Amenophis  III.  Of  un- 
usual interest  is  a  large  tablet  containing  originally  about  600  lines,  of 
which  about  400  are  preserved.  Its  writing  is  in  an  unknown  language. 
It  contains  the  name  of  the  envoy  who  was  the  usual  bearer  of  messages 
between  the  courts  of  Egypt  and  Mitani,  according  to  the  tablets  written 
in  Assyrian.  The  language  appears  to  be  of  Shemitic  construction  based 
on  different  languages.  The  characters  used  are  also  different,  and  seem 
to  be  a  transition  from  the  syllabic  to  the  alphabetic  (lauisehriff).  The 
syllabic  signs  are  given,  yet  the  corresponding  vowel  is  added ;  thus,  bu-u= 
bu,  bi-i=  bi,  etc.  Ideograms  are  hardly  ever  used.  This  argues  a  long  use 
and  development  in  the  country  of  the  cuneiform  characters,  and  this  view 
is  strengthened  by  the  presence  of  some  signs  foreign  to  Babylonians  and 
Assyrians. 

One  and  perhaps  two  other  languages  are  for  the  first  time  found  in 
these  tablets.  One  is  given  on  a  Bulaq  tablet  containing  a  letter  of  King 
Tarchundaradu  of  Arsapi  to  Amenophis  IV.  Arsapi  is  the  biblical  Reseph. 
The  first  part  of  the  name,  Tarchu,  is  evidently  that  of  a  divinity  often  used 
in  the  composition  of  names  of  the  "  Hittite  "  Kings  (land  of  Kummuh). 
Of  this  language,  which  differs  in  structure  from  that  of  Mitani,  it  can  only 
yet  with  certainty  be  said  that  as  a  suffix  mi="my"  and  &="thy,"  and 
that  bibbit  means  "  war-chariot."  The  method  of  writing  and  the  struc- 


[EGYPT.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  201 

ture  remind  of  Sumerian  (proto-Babylonian).  Another  language,  differ- 
ing from  both  of  the  former,  is  used  on  a  Berlin  tablet  which  is  unfortu- 
nately of  small  size  and  very  badly  preserved. 

Among  the  many  letters  of  Palestinian  governors  or  vassals,  there  are 
30  from  Rib-Addu  of  Dula ;  but  the  most  interesting  are  from  the  general 
Aziru  to  the  King,  to  his  father  Dudu,  a  high  official  at  the  Egyptian 
court,  and  to  his  brother  Chai.  The  principal  topic  is  his  expedition 
against  the  King  of  the  Hittites  (  Chatti)  which  were  not  always  successful. 

The  following  names  of  divinities  appear:  Ja,  Cham,  Addu,  Ashera. 
The  last  name  is  interesting.  The  Zeitschrift  fur  aegyptische  Sprache  and 
the  Mittheilungen  aus  den  altorientalischen  Sammlungen  der  Kon.  Museen 
will  publish  many  of  the  tablets. 

TUNISIA. 

CARTHAGE. — Early  Phoenician  Necropolis. — Since  publishing,  in  the  last 
number  of  the  Journal,  the  preliminary  account  of  the  discovery  of  the 
early  necropolis  of  Carthage,  M.  de  Vogue  has  given  in  the  Revue  Arche- 
ologique  (1889,  pp.  163-86)  the  complete  report  which  he  had  read  at  the 
Academie  des  Inscriptions.  The  excavations  were  commenced  on  Mt.  Byrsa 
at  a  place  where  a  very  early  tomb  had  been  found  in  1880.  At  a  depth 
of  about  2.50  met.  Father  Delattre  found  a  layer  of  burials  of  a  peculiar 
nature.  Large  vases,  full  of  human  bones,  were  laid  horizontally  in  par- 
allel lines.  By  the  side  of  the  funerary  vases  were  smaller  vases  of  dif- 
ferent shapes  (which  doubtless  contained  funeral  offerings),  then  amulets, 
terracotta  figurines,  necklaces,  the  entire  customary  paraphernalia  of  Phoe- 
nician tombs,  and,  finally,  fragments  of  Greek  pottery,  broken  before  being 
buried  and  often  bearing  graffiti  in  Phoenician  letters.  A  unique  charac- 
teristic of  this  necropolis  is,  that  it  contains  a  great  quantity  of  burned 
remains.  Up  to  the  present  it  had  been  supposed  that  the  practice  of 
cremation  was  unknown  to  the  Phoenician  race.  Only  one  tomb  of  the 
necropolis  of  Sidon,  excavated  by  M.  Gaillardot  in  1861,  had  contained 
cremated  remains.  The  vase  from  Mt.  Byrsa  given  on  pi.  v-1  of  the  Rev. 
Arch.,  and  containing  cremated  bones,  is  very  similar  to  archaic  vases  from 
the  necropoli  of  Kypros  or  Rhodes.  The  larger  vases  or  amphorae  (some 
nearly  a  meter  high)  containing  non-cremated  remains  are  far  more  num- 
erous. For  adults  several  amphorae  had  to  be  used,  usually  broken  in 
several  pieces  in  order  completely  to  encase  the  body.  A  small  female 
head  is  of  special  interest  (pi.  vn-6) :  it  is  of  glass-paste  and  polychrome, 
of  Egyptian  type  and  technique,  and  judged  by  M.  Maspero  to  be  of 
Egyptian  workmanship,  as  well  as  most  of  the  necklaces.  A  terracotta 
figurine,  reproduced  on  pi.  vii-5,  is  similar  to  the  Egyptian,  and  the  first 
of  its  kind  found  at  Carthage.  It  is  a  peculiar  fact,  that,  while  the  objects 


202 


AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCH^OLOG  Y.        [TUNISIA.] 


essentially  Punic  are  placed  entire  by  the  bodies,  the  many  Greek  pot- 
teries— patera,  lamps,  vases,  etc. — were  all  broken  and  incomplete.  The 
graffiti  on  them  are  in  Phoenician  letters  of  a  good  period,  but  certainly 
not  earlier  than  the  fifth  century,  while  some  of  the  Greek  vases  seem  not 
older  than  the  fourth  century. 

One  tomb  was  found  which  seems  to  go  back  to  the  foundation  of  the 
city,  in  the  vin  century.  It  was  at  a  distance  of  4.20  met.  from  the  tomb 
found  in  1880,  and  has  the  advantage  of  being  intact.  A  sketch  of  it  is 
here  given  (Fig. 3%}.  It  is  built  of  large  blocks  of  tufa,  and  is  surmounted  by 
slabs  leaning  against  one  another  so  as  to  form  a  sharp-peak  roof.  The  five 
blocks  of  the  ceiling  are  about  2.50  met.  long,  those  of  the  roof  2  m.  There 
are  no  foundations,  so  that  the  construction  must  always  have  been  sur- 
rounded by  earth,  and  be,  in  fact,  an  artifi- 
cial hypogeum.  Two  bodies  were  laid,  each 
upon  a  slab,  and  each  was  covered  in  on  all 
sides  by  slabs,  while  a  second  layer  of  bodies, 
in  coffins  of  cedar-wood,  was  placed  above. 
The  mortuary  chamber  could  be  entered  by 
a  door  on  the  first  story,  reached  probably  by 
a  vertical  passage.  This  tomb  and  that  found 
in  1880  are,  doubtless,  tombs  of  early  chiefs 
of  the  city,  while  the  smaller  tombs  are  those 
of  the  commoner  sort.  On  this  site  was  un- 
doubtedly placed  the  primitive  Punic  necro- 
polis, instead  of  at  Gamart,  as  has  been  be- 
lieved since  Beule. 

The  Jewish  Cemetery  of  Gamart. — Beule 
first  explored  the  large  cemetery  dug  in  the 
side  of  the  hill  called  Djebel-Khawi,  to  the 

N.  of  Carthage,  by  the  sea.  He  considered  it  to  be  the  necropolis  of  Phoeni- 
cian Carthage.  Father  Delattre,  whose  first  excavations  on  this  site  were 
made  in  1887,  undertook,  last  summer,  a  thorough  excavation  and  examined 
a  hundred  and  three  tombs.  These  are  of  remarkable  uniformity,  and  con- 
sist of  a  stairway  of  about  ten  steps  cut  in  the  rock,  leading  to  a  rectangular 
chamber,  which  is  surrounded  by  very  long  loculi,  called  qoqim  by  the  Jews, 
to  the  number  of  15  to  17.  The  chambers  are  6  cubits  wide,  10  or  12 
cubits  long,  according  to  the  number  of  loculi,  the  loculi  are  one  by  four 
cubits.  These  are  exactly  the  Talmudic  dimensions.  The  cemetery  is, 
in  fact,  that  of  the  Jewish  colony  of  Carthage  under  the  Roman  domi- 
nion. The  walls  of  many  of  the  chambers  were  stuccoed,  and  had  orna- 
ments in  the  Roman  Imperial  style.  Inscriptions  in  Latin  and  Hebrew 
are  scratched  or  painted,  as  is  also  the  seven-branched^candlestick.  There 


FIG.  32. —  Vlll-century  Phoeni- 
cian Tomb  in  the  necropolis  of 
Carthage. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  203 

are  sometimes  considerable  remains  of  decorative  frescos. — M.  de  VOGUE 
in  Revue  Arch.,  1889,  pp.  163-86. 

MOROCCO. 

EXPLORATIONS  BY  M.  DE  LA  MARTINIERE. — At  a  recent  meeting  of 
the  Academic  des  Inscriptions,  M.  de  Villefosse  gave  an  account  of  the  pro- 
gress made  by  M.  de  la  Martinidre  in  his  exploration  of  Morocco.  An 
inscription  at  Volubilis  relating  to  a  flamen  of  Tingitana  proves  that  this 
province  had  its  assembly,  like  proconsular  Africa,  Numidia  and  Maure- 
tania  Caesarensis :  at  the  same  place,  a  dedication  to  the  Emperor  Volusi- 
anus :  at  Ad  Mercurium,  a  dedication  to  Gordianus :  at  Banasa,  the  upper 
part  of  an  inscription  of  Marcus  Aurelius. — Revue  Critique,  1889,  p.  260. 


ASIA. 
AFGHANISTAN. 

KABUL. — Inscriptions. — Capt.  Deane  has  communicated  to  M.  Senart 
copies  of  inscriptions  on  stones  found  in  the  valley  of  Kabul.  On  one  he 
reads,  in  Indo-Arian  characters,  the  Greek  name  Theodamas,  preceded  by 
the  syllable  su :  a  parallel  case  is  on  the  Greek  coins  of  Baktria,  where 
the  name  of  the  Greek  King  EPMAIO^  is  preceded  by  the  still  unex- 
plained letters  ^Y.  All  the  inscriptions  seem  to  date  from  the  beginnings 
of  the  Christian  era. — Revue  Critique,  1889,  p.  280;  Academy,  April  27. 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

BABYLONIAN  EXPEDITION  FROM  PHILADELPHIA. — We  extract  the  fol- 
lowing from  letters  written  to  the  N.  Y.  Nation  (Nos.  1247-8)  by  Professor 
JOHN  P.  PETERS,  who  leads  the  Expedition :  they  are  dated  Niffer  Mounds, 
March  15  and  16,  and  describe  some  of  the  ancient  sites  of  Mesopotamia 
which  he  has  visited :  "  One  of  the  few  points  on  the  Euphrates  which  can 
be  found  on  the  maps,  and  which  I  shall  therefore  choose  as  the  point 
of  departure  for  the  identification  of  my  first  site,  is  MESKENE,  a  Turkish 
military  post,  situated  at  the  point  where  the  present  caravan-route  from 
Aleppo  to  Bagdad  enters  the  Euphrates  valley,  a  little  south  of  east  from 
the  former  city,  and  just  below  the  thirty-sixth  parallel  of  north  latitude. 
Three-quarters  of  an  hour  below  this  are  the  interesting  Arabic  ruins  given 
by  Kiepert  as  Kala'at  Balis  (I  could  only  hear  the  name  Old  Meskene) 
and  identified  with  Barbalissus.  About  nine  miles  below  Meskene,  stand 
the  ruins  called  KALA'AT  DIBSE.  The  ruins  now  visible,  like  almost  all  the 
ruins  of  this  part  of  the  country,  are  of  mediseval  Arabic  date,  of  brick, 
and  rather  insignificant ;  but  the  name  and  site  are  suggestive  of  some- 
thing more  important.  Sachau,  in  his  Reise  durch  Mesopotamien  und 


204  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.    [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

Syrien,  seeks  to  identify  El  Hammara,  a  day  and  a  half  further  eastward, 
with  Tiphsah  of  the  Bible,  the  Thapsacus  of  Greek  and  Roman  writers,  the 
most  important  city  of  this  section  of  the  Euphrates  valley.  The  ruins  of 
El  Hammam  are  insignificant,  situated  on  a  low  plateau,  a  couple  of  miles 
from  the  river.  The  name,  'the  hot  baths,'  suggests  a  watering  place  or 
health  resort.  The  site  of  Dibse,  the  name  of  which  seems  to  perpetuate 
that  of  Tiphsah,  is  favorable  for  the  erection  of  an  important  city.  The 
fact  that  the  visible  ruins  are  of  late  date  does  not  militate  against  this 
argument  from  the  name  and  situation,  for  many  of  these  ancient  sites 
were  occupied  by  successful  possessors  of  the  country,  for  the  reasons  which 
gave  them  their  original  importance,  until  a  comparatively  recent  period. 
HALEBIYEH  lies  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Euphrates,  some  thirty  miles  north- 
west of  Deir,  at  about  35°  30'  north  latitude,  and  40°  east  longitude.  It 
is  situated  in  a  side  valley  of  El  Hamme,  a  trachite  ridge,  through  which 
the  Euphrates  forces  its  way  by  a  narrow  gorge.  As  the  present  caravan 
route  does  not  follow  the  river  at  this  point,  we  were  compelled  to  make  a 
considerable  detour  in  order  to  visit  it.  This  deflection  of  the  caravan 
route  is  probably  the  reason  why  it  has  not  been  more  fully  described 
hitherto.  The  walls  still  stand,  in  the  form  of  a  triangle,  the  shortest  side 
parallel  with  the  river,  which  here  runs  due  north  and  south.  The  apex 
of  the  triangle  is  a  very  steep,  isolated  hill,  separated  from  the  ridge  be- 
yond by  a  deep  valley.  The  total  circumference  of  the  walls  cannot  be 
more  than  a  mile  and  a  quarter,  and  is  probably  somewhat  less.  They 
are  still  well  preserved  all  around,  although  built  of  gypsum,  which  decom- 
poses very  rapidly.  The  stone  was  laid  in  massive,  rectangular,  oblong 
blocks.  The  walls  themselves  average  thirty  to  forty  feet  in  height,  and 
are  strengthened  by  massive  towers  every  150  to  200  feet.  Towards  the 
top  of  the  hill  on  the  north,  half  within  and  half  without  the  wall,  on  a 
bluff,  was  a  large,  fine  building,  perhaps  once  the  official  residence  of  the 
governor  or  commander.  Two  of  the  original  three  stories  are  still  pre- 
served, domed  within  with  brick,  as  were  also  the  rooms  in  the  gate  and 
wall  towers,  in  what  may  be  called  an  early  Byzantine  style.  Opposite 
one  another  in  the  lower  part  of  the  city,  on  the  northern  and  southern 
sides,  were  the  two  main  gates.  There  was  a  smaller  gate  in  the  southern 
wall  at  the  foot  of  the  acropolis,  and  two  more  on  the  river  front.  Be- 
tween the  main  gates  ran  a  straight  street  paved  with  gypsum.  To 
the  west  of  this  were  troughs  and  columns,  marking  the  remains  of  what 
seemed  to  have  been  a  market  place,  and,  hard  by,  two  buildings  with 
apses,  exactly  oriented,  which,  so  far  as  the  visible  remains  were  concerned, 
might  have  been  churches.  In  one  of  these  Mr.  Field  found  a  small  piece 
of  moulding  in  what,  for  forgetfulness  of  the  proper  technical  term,  I  shall 
venture  to  describe  as  a  square  dog-tooth  pattern.  This  was  the  only 
ornamentation  found  anywhere.  On  the  eastern  side  of  the  street,  towards 


[MESOPOTAMIA.]  AECH^OLOGICAL  NEWS.  205 

the  river  wall,  were  found  a  couple  of  capitals,  one  of  them  Corinthian,  of 
a  late,  transitional  style.  Otherwise,  the  space  within  the  walls  below  the 
acropolis  was  bare  of  ruins  or  remains  above  the  surface.  At  the  acropolis 
the  southern  wall  seemed  to  have  been  destroyed,  and  then  rebuilt  with 
fragments  of  trachite,  such  as  are  scattered  everywhere  about  the  city. 
Here  there  were  also  remains  of  a  building  with  underground  vaults  in 
brick  of  a  later  date  than  the  buildings  described  above.  The  valleys 
about  the  town  were  almost  ravines,  utterly  sterile,  and  thickly  covered 
with  fragments  of  trachite.  On  all  sides  were  tombs,  some  cut  in  the  rock 
and  some  built  upon  it,  the  latter  not  unlike  the  Palmyrene  tombs  in  style, 
but  ruder.  To  the  south  were  traces  of  two  rough  walls  of  trachite  across 
the  valley ;  and  a  mile  below,  where  the  river  rounds  the  last  point  of  the 
Hamme  ridge,  a  gypsum  wall  or  fort,  commanding  both  road  and  river, 
as  though  danger  were  especially  apprehended  from  the  south.  I  should 
suppose  it  to  have  been  a  frontier  post  of  the  Roman  Empire  in  the  fourth 
or  fifth  century  A.  D.,  and  afterwards  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  Arabs, 
the  present  acropolis  dating  from  the  latter  period.  It  never  could  have 
accommodated  a  large  population,  but  must  have  been  a  strong  fortress, 
and  well  calculated  to  hold  the  line  of  the  Euphrates  against  an  invader, 
especially  when  supported  by  the  smaller  fortress  of  Zelebiyeh  on  the 
heights  opposite. 

"  Three  and  a  half  days  beyond  Halebiyeh,  and  two  days  beyond  the 
present  town  of  Deir,  the  most  important  place  between  Aleppo  and  Bag- 
dad, in  north  latitude  34°  45'  and  longitude  41°  east,  lies  another  ruin  of 
somewhat  similar  character,  now  called  KAN  KALESSI,  or  '  Bloody  Casile.' 
It  is  situated  on  the  bluffs  of  the  gypsum  plateau,  close  to  the  west  bank 
of  the  Euphrates,  and  not  far  from  the  modern  Turkish  barracks,  or  post- 
khan,  of  Es-Salihiyeh.  It  was  built  in  a  rectangular  shape,  so  far  as  the 
curving  bluffs  allowed,  the  citadel  standing  on  a  point  of  rock  jutting  out 
into  the  valley  on  the  northeast.  The  southwestern  wall,  on  the  side 
towards  the  plateau,  was  about  half  a  mile  long,  running  from  ravine  to 
ravine,  and  supported  by  eleven  towers.  This  wall  was  ten  feet  in  breadth, 
and  still  stands  to  the  height  of  fifteen  feet.  The  central  gate-towers,  very 
massive  structures,  rise  thirty  or  forty  feet,  the  more  northerly  having  the 
second  story  almost  intact.  Everything,  including  the  foundations  at  least 
of  the  houses,  was  built  of  the  same  crumbling  gypsum  as  at  Halebiyeh. 
The  streets  which  are  regularly  laid  out  at  right  angles  with  one  another, 
and  are  easily  traceable  between  the  foundations  of  the  houses,  were  some 
fifty  feet  broad.  Outside  of  the  walls  are  a  few  ruins,  some  of  them  quite 
massive,  which  may  have  been  tombs.  The  whole  gives  the  impression 
of  a  Roman  town,  designed  to  hold  the  Arabs  in  check,  like  the  Turkish 
town  of  Deir  at  the  present  day.  JABRIYEH,  a  day's  journey  beyond  Kan 
Kalessi,  is  a  city  of  mud-brick,  in  the  plain,  on  the  very  bank  of  the 


206  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.    [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

Euphrates.  It  is  incorrectly  given  by  Kiepert,  in  his  large  map  of  the 
Ottoman  Empire,  as  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Euphrates.  It  is  on  the 
south  bank,  about  34°  20'  north  latitude,  and  41°  12'  east  longitude,  at 
the  mouth  of  Wadi  Jaber,  at  about  the  position  assigned  to  El  Karabile. 
I  may  add  that  I  was  unable  to  find  El  Karabile  at  all ;  and  El  Kadim, 
the  next  station  given  by  Kiepert,  should  be  El  Kaim,  and  its  position 
almost  that  he  assigns  to  El  Karabile.  This  is  not  an  unfair  specimen 
of  the  inaccuracy  of  the  best  maps  of  Turkey.  At  the  eastern  end  of  the 
southern  wall  of  Jabriyeh  the  unburnt  bricks  are  visible  in  situ,  but  the 
rest  of  the  wall  is  merely  a  long  narrow  line  of  de"bris  some  1,200  paces 
in  length.  The  western  wall,  at  right  angles  with  this,  and  about  900 
paces  long,  ends  in  a  large  mound  or  series  of  mounds,  on  the  edge  of 
what  was  once  the  river-bed.  The  eastern  wall  also  started  in  the  same 
rectangular  manner,  but,  after  a  couple  of  hundred  paces,  meeting  the 
river  bed,  turned  gradually  about  until  it  finally  ended  in  the  same  large 
mounds  in  the  northwest.  Within  this  southern  wall  are  two  other  lines 
of  mounds,  also  bearing  a  perplexing  resemblance  to  walls.  The  interior 
space  and  the  surfaces  of  the  mounds  are  thickly  strewn  with  fragments 
of  glazed  and  unglazed  pottery  of  a  greenish  color,  and  pieces  of  burnt 
brick,  many  of  which  were  also  green,  blocks  of  gypsum  and  basalt,  and 
what  I  may  call  intentional  pebbles  (or  those  which  were  used  for  some 
purpose)  of  all  sorts,  including  jasper  and  agate,  both  of  which  abound  in 
this  region.  On  the  surface  of  the  large  mounds  were  graves,  and  some 
late  constructions  of  brick  and  stone.  It  is  said  in  the  neighborhood  that 
coins,  presumably  Sassanian  or  Kufic,  are  often  found  here.  Jabriyeh 
was  visited  by  Dr.  Ward  on  his  return  journey  in  the  spring  of  1885,  and 
pronounced  by  him  an  ancient  Babylonian  ruin,  on  the  ground  of  its  mud- 
brick  walls.  I  think  that,  although  Babylonian  in  the  sense  of  reflecting 
the  building  customs  of  that  region,  it  belongs  in  time  to  a  much  later 
period  than  that  implied  by  the  word — namely,  to  the  Sassanian,  or  even 
to  the  Arabic  period.  Another  place  visited  by  the  Wolfe  Expedition  was 
Anbar,  which  Dr.  Ward  identified  with  '  the  Agade,  or  Sippara  of  Anunit, 
the  Accad  of  Genesis  x,  10,  the  Persabora  of  classical  geographers,  and 
the  Anbar  of  Arabic  historians.'  This  place  is  given  by  Kiepert,  in  his 
Ruinenf elder,  under  the  name  Tel  Aker,  a  name  which  applies  in  reality 
only  to  the  highest  southeastern  point  of  the  mounds.  These  mounds  are 
of  great  extent,  covering  more  ground  than  those  of  Babylon  itself,  and 
equalling  if  not  exceeding  in  surface  the  immense  mounds  of  Niifer.  Anbar 
lies  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Euphrates,  just  south  of  the  point  of  junction 
of  the  Saklawiyeh  Canal,  about  latitude  33°  20'  north,  and  east  longitude 
44°  3'.  We  were  able  to  devote  a  day  to  the  examination,  but  even  that 
proved  totally  inadequate  for  the  purpose,  so  large  were  the  ruins.  We 


[MESOPOTAMIA.]  AECH^OLOGICAL  NEWS.  207 

had  a  peculiar  interest  in  this  examination  because,  in  consequence  of  the 
report  of  the  Wolfe  Expedition,  we  had  applied  for  permission  to  excavate 
at  Anbar — an  application  which  was  refused  for  reasons  unknown.  We 
all  failed  to  notice  the  depression  dividing  the  city  '  into  two  parts/  of 
which  Dr.  Ward  writes,  and  which  figured  also  in  his  proposed  identifica- 
tion. Dr.  Ward  thought  that  he  could  '  trace  the  lines  of  the  old  palaces 
or  temples '  in  the  depressions  and  hollows  of  the  mound,  which  are  indeed 
remarkable ;  but  our  experience  at  Niffer  has  shown  us  that  surface  indi- 
cations of  this  sort  are  of  small  value,  especially  where  a  site  was  inhabited 
to  a  comparatively  late  period.  The  remains  on  the  surface  are  all  late, 
and  belong  to  the  time  of  Arabic  occupation.  There  are  everywhere  visi- 
ble singular  evidences  of  what  seems  to  have  been  a  great  conflagration, 
in  the  shape  of  vitrified  masses  of  brick  and  glass,  and  stones  destroyed 
by  heat.  Fragments  of  glass  were  especially  numerous,  and  one  mound 
was  veritably  an  iridescent  green  from  the  quantity  upon  it.  The  pottery 
was  the  same  as  that  found  upon  the  surface  everywhere  along  the  Eu- 
phrates and  in  Babylonia,  the  glazed  fragments  having  a  bluish  or  green- 
ish color.  The  size  of  the  mounds  points  to  a  long  period  of  accumula- 
tion, and  consequently  to  a  considerable  antiquity. 

"  The  sites  which  I  have  mentioned  are  but  a  very  few  of  the  immense 
number  which  we  have  observed,  beginning  almost  with  the  day  on  which 
we  set  foot  in  Asia.  So,  for  example,  from  Hammam,  ancient  hot  springs 
on  the  eastern  edge  of  the  great  Antioch  plain,  near  the  point  where  Ze- 
nobia  met  with  her  first  defeat  at  the  hands  of  the  Romans,  I  counted  eigh- 
teen ruin-mounds,  not  identified,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  or  noted 
on  any  map.  The  plain  to  the  east  of  Aleppo  is  fairly  dotted  with  similar 
tels  yet  awaiting  investigation.  Here,  also,  at  two  small  villages,  we  found 
remains  of  stone  structures,  colonnades  of  marble  and  basalt,  great  basalt 
troughs,  and  in  one  place  an  ornamental  door  of  basalt,  with  keyhole  and 
bolt-holder  complete.  The  ruins  along  the  Euphrates,  especially  below 
Anah,  are  not  so  numerous.  They  are  chiefly  Arabic  fortresses,  some  of 
them,  like  Rehaba,  a  day  below  Deir,  comparatively  well  preserved  and 
very  picturesque.  These  probably  stood  on  older  foundations,  for  the  most 
part  unidentified.  Opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Khabour  is  a  large  plain  on 
which  are  a  number  of  mounds,  and  the  whole  plain  is  literally  covered 
with  pottery.  Of  the  vast  number  of  canal-beds  of  all  ages,  between  the 
Euphrates  and  the  Tigris,  a  large  number  radiate  from  AKERKUF.  The 
latter  ruin  consists  of  a  few  low  mounds,  on  one  of  which  is  a  solid  mass  of 
sun-dried  bricks,  rising  like  a  tower  to  the  height  of  about  100  feet.  Aker- 
kuf  has  never  been  touched  by  the  spade,  and  no  one  has  any  idea  what 
ancient  city  lies  buried  here.  An  inscribed  brick,  found  a  number  a  years 
since,  bears  the  name  of  Kurigalzu,  showing  that  the  place,  whatever  it 


208  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.    [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

was,  existed  at  least  1,600  years  B.  c.  This,  and  the  fact  that  it  was  the 
centre  of  a  great  canal  system,  constitute  the  sum  of  our  knowledge  of 
Akerkuf.  Singularly  enough,  our  first  guide  to  Akerkuf  misled  us  to  an 
almost  unknown  and  quite  interesting  Arabic  ruin,  called  SENADIYEH. 
Here,  amid  pottery,  bricks,  and  fragments  of  walls,  we  found,  standing, 
part  of  a  highly  decorated  building,  which  appeared  to  belong  to  the 
period  when  Bagdad  flourished  under  the  caliphs ;  but  all  about  it  were 
mounds  and  canals,  many  of  them  going  back  probably  to  the  Babylonian 
period.  The  way  in  which  one  age  here  borrows  from  its  predecessors 
was  illustrated  by  the  finding  of  beautiful  blue  tiles  from  Senadiyeh  built 
into  ziarets,  and  also  into  a  Government  building  several  miles  away. 
Similarly,  at  Hillah  we  found  the  Government  building  made,  at  least  in 
part,  of  stamped  bricks  of  Nebuchadnezzar  from  Babylon. 

"  NIFFER,  where  we  are  at  present  excavating,  lies  in  about  32°  8'  north 
latitude,  and  44°  10'  east  longitude,  in  the  country  of  the  Affek,  or  AfFej, 
Arabs,  a  powerful  confederation,  almost  independent  of  Turkish  rule. 
Kiepert  locates  it  on  a  great  marsh,  but  this  has  been  somewhat  reduced 
in  size  within  the  last  five  years  by  the  partial  change  of  course  of  the 
Euphrates.  The  water  which  once  flowed  in  the  river-bed  now  pours  into 
the  Hindiyeh  canal,  leaving  the  river  more  than  half  empty.  The  mounds 
of  Nifler  are  of  immense  extent,  covering  more  ground  than  the  ruins  of 
Babylon.  They  are  divided  into  two,  or  rather  three,  parts,  by  what  Arab 
tradition  declares  to  be  the  Shatt-en-Nil,  the  same  great  canal  which  one 
finds  leaving  the  Euphrates  at  Babylon.  How  late  the  city  was  inhabited 
we  cannot  yet  say,  but  probably  until  considerably  after  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Christian  era.  It  was  certainly  still  flourishing  in  the  times 
of  the  Persian  kings,  and  under  the  name  of  Nipur  it  is  known  to  Assyri- 
ologists  as  one  of  the  oldest,  most  important,  and  most  sacred  cities  of 
southern  Babylonia.  In  the  Talmud  it  is  identified  with  the  Calneh  of 
Gen.  x.  Our  excavations  were  commenced  early  in  February,  and  we  hope 
to  extend  the  season  until  the  first  of  May.  The  weather  is  already  intensely 
hot,  reaching  at  times  102°,  or  even  105°,  in  our  tents,  in  spite  of  high  winds ; 
and  the  flies  and  dust  are  almost  intolerable.  Nevertheless,  we  were  de- 
layed so  long  in  Constantinople,  and  commenced  work  so  late,  that  neces- 
sity compels  us  to  hold  on  to  the  latest  possible  date,  if  we  would  have 
anything  to  show  for  this  year's  work,  or  even  prepare  the  way  properly 
for  next  season." 

PALESTINE. 

JERUSALEM. — Recent  Discoveries. — Herr  Schick  reports  the  discovery  of 
traces  of  an  ancient  wall  and  towers,  made  during  the  reconstruction  of  the 
carriage-road  along  the  outside  of  the  northern  wall  of  the  city. 

He  also  describes  the  discovery,  in  the  Latin  Patriarch's  garden  near 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 


209 


the  northeast  corner  of  the  city,  of  a  portion  of  the  ancient  city-wall,  the 
stones  having  the  Jewish  draft,  and  being  similar  to  those  in  the  "  Haram  " 
wall.  The  remains  of  the  wall  were  laid  bare  for  a  length  of  26  feet.  Its 
thickness  varies,  the  average  being  14  feet.  The  stones  on  both  sides  of 
the  wall  are  drafted  :  they  average  4  ft.  in  height,  and  vary  in  length  from 
3  ft.  2  in.  to  11  ft.  Between  these  outer  rows  of  stones  are  larger  filling- 
stones,  roughly  dressed  to  a  square  form,  of  the  same  height  as  the  others  ; 
they  average  5  ft.  broad  and  5J  ft.  long.  Attached  to  the  inside  of  this 
ancient  wall  is  a  wall  of  very  smooth  hewn  stone,  of  which  five  courses  are 
to  be  seen :  between  this  later  wall  and  the  ancient  large  stones  is  a  filling 
of  rubble  and  black  mortar. 

NAZARETH. — Discovery  of  a  large  Cave. — While  digging  for  a  cistern  in 
the  convent  yard  of  the  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  was  discovered  a  large  (ancient) 
cave  with  chambers,  cisterns,  tombs,  etc.  (described  pp.  68-73).  At  a  late 
period  there  stood  on  the  site  a  mosque  which,  according  to  local  tradition, 
was  built  out  of  the  stones  of  an  ancient  church  that  had  stood  on  the  same 
site.— Pal  Explor.  Fund,  April,  1889. 

ASIA  MINOR. 

The  ancient  history  ofLykia. — M.  Imbert,  Receveur  de  1'Enregistrement 
at  Tence,  writes  the  following  letter  to  Professor  Sayce :  "  The  history  of 
Lykia  would  profit  greatly  by  the  solution  of  the  chronology  of  the  Xan- 
thian  tombs  which  form  the  glory  of  the  British  Museum.  I  think  that 
these  problems  can  be  solved  by  epigraphy.  Among  the  texts  on  the 
Horse  Tomb,  or  monument  of  the  Lykian  Payafa,  there  is  one  which  gives 
us  the  name  of  a  Persian  satrap ;  it  is  that  reproduced  in  the  3rd  plate  of 
the  2nd  volume  of  Savelsberg,  Xanthos,  No.  5c : 

"  '  Eat\_ap]ata :  Khssadrapa:  Paryza.' 

"  If  w.e  consider  that  n  is  frequently  not  expressed  in  writing  before  a 
dental,  at  all  events  in  Persian,  we  shall  find  no  difficulty  in  restoring  the 
name  as  Ra(n)tapata,  i.  e.,  the  'Opovro/Sar^s  of  Greek  authors.  This  Persian 
satrap,  according  to  Strabo,  succeeded  his  father-in-law  Pixodaros,  dynast 
of  Karia  and  Lykia.  The  tomb  accordingly  must  have  been  constructed 
in  330  B.  c.  at  the  latest. 

"  The  eighth  tomb  of  Xanthos,  the  remains  of  which  are  in  London,  by 
the  side  of  the  sarcophagus  just  mentioned,  belongs  to  a  certain  Merehi, 
an  important  personage  at  the  court  of  Kherykhe.  Here  we  read :  Merehi: 
Kudalah  Khntlah :  tideimi:  that  is  to  say, '  Merehi,  the  son  of  Kodalos  Kon- 
dalos.'  Now,  Kondalos  was  the  agent  of  Mausolos,  and  is  mentioned  in 
the  Oeconomics  of  Aristotle.  On  the  other  hand,  a  Merehi  is  referred  to 
on  the  Obelisk  of  Xanthos,  which  belongs  to  an  earlier  date  than  Mausolos ; 


210  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.    [ASIA MINOR.] 

he  is  the  grandfather  of  our  hero,  and  we  are,  therefore,  able  to  draw  up 
the  following  genealogical  tree : 

Merehi,  the  older  (of  the  Obelisk) 


Kodj 


lalos,  Kondalos 

Merehi,  the  younger. 

"  The  latter  was  a  contemporary  of  the  Payafa  of  the  fifth  tomb." — 
Academy,  May  11. 

NOTION  (near  Kolophon). — An  archaic  Vase. — Demosth.  Baltazzi  Effendi 
sent  to  M.  Sal.  Reinach  a  squeeze  of  an  inscription  on  a  bronze  base  found 
at  Notion  near  Kolophon,  and  at  present  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Van 
Lennep  at  Smyrna.  It  is  engraved  from  right  to  left,  and  reads :  'OXvp,- 
TTLXOV  dpi  rov  <f>i\6<f>povo<s ;  the  vase  itself  speaking  for  its  owner.  Several 
letters  have  an  unusual  form,  notably  the  x  and  s.  M.  Reinach  conjectures 
it  to  belong  to  the  vi  cent.  B.  c. — Revue  Critique,  1889,  p.  280. 

THEANGELA. — Identification  of  the  site  at  Kenier. — The  site  of  the  ancient 
Karian  town  of  Souagela,  which  in  its  Greek  form  was  called  Theangela, 
has  been  variously  placed  ;  e.  g.,  by  Sir  Ch.  Newton  at  Assarlik.  A  site 
seen  by  Judeich  at  Kenier  was  judged  by  him  to  be  the  ancient  Pedasa, 
but  Mr.  Paton  has  shown  from  the  inscriptions  found  there  that  it  is  The- 
angela. The  most  important  of  these  is  a  decree  in  honor  of  a  citizen  of 
Theangela  which  was  to  be  engraved  on  two  steles,  one  to  be  set  up  in  the 
temple  of  Apollon  Thearios  at  Troezen,  the  other  in  the  temple  of  Athena 
at  Theangela.  This  fact  is  confirmed  by  Mr.  Th.  Bent,  who  got  copies  of  the 
inscriptions,  and  by  Mr.  Hicks.  Theangela  appears  to  have  been  a  town 
of  some  standing,  probably  of  some  strategic  importance,  in  the  third  cen- 
tury B.  c.  All  that  is  known  of  the  town  and  its  history  has  been  admirably 
summed  up  by  Waddington-Le  Bas  (Voyage  Archeologique,  No.  599  a,  b). 
— C.  SMITH,  and  E.  L.  HICKS  in  Classical  Review,  1889,  pp.  139-40. 

KYPROS. 

POLIS-TIS-CHRYSOCHOU=ARSINOE. — Mr.  Arthur  R.  Munro,  who  is  carry- 
ing on  the  excavations  here  (cf.  p.  91),  writes  to  the  Athenceum  (of  March 
30,  April  6,  May  4)  :  Mr.  Williamson's  vineyard,  on  which  excavations 
were  begun,  proved  to  have  been  practically  exhausted  by  the  diggings  of 
three  years  ago,  and  after  three  days  spent  in  sinking  trial-shafts,  during 
which  we  opened  only  one  inferior  tomb,  we  moved  to  a  site  southeast  of 
the  village,  where  previous  experience  on  neighboring  plots  of  ground 
promised  interesting  discoveries.  We  opened  about  twenty  tombs  there, 
all  of  much  the  same  general  type — a  shaft  varying  between  6  ft.  to  8  ft. 
and  9  ft.  to  11  ft.  in  depth,  with  one  or  more  roughly-circular  chambers 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  211 

opening  off  it.  All,  with  the  exception  of  one,  which  had  unfortunately 
been  rifled,  were  heavily  choked  with  earth,  and  in  some  cases  the  roof  had 
entirely  collapsed.  It  is  curious  to  note  that  in  one  apparently  virgin 
tomb  no  fewer  than  four  layers  of  bones  lay  one  above  another,  separated 
by  only  a  few  inches  of  mould.  Several  tombs  seemed  certainly  to  have 
been  disturbed,  but  we  found  nothing  either  in  their  scheme  or  contents  to 
raise  any  serious  doubt  of  their  being  all  about  contemporary  in  date ;  on 
the  contrary,  such  varieties  as  they  presented  were  easily  to  be  explained 
by  differences  of  wealth,  position,  and  taste,  between  the  tenants  or  their 
relatives.  The  chief  classes  of  contents  were  the  following : — Rough  un- 
painted  pottery  in  great  quantities,  red,  light-yellowish,  or  brown  in  color : 
Kypriote  pottery,  purple  and  dark-red  patterns,  concentric  circles,  etc.,  on 
light  or  red  ground :  black  glazed  ware,  plain  or  with  stamped  patterns, 
and  in  one  or  two  cases  fluted,  the  quality  very  mixed  often  in  the  same 
tomb :  terracotta  figures,  mostly  of  the  very  worst  sort  and  in  fragments, 
the  commonest  types  being  figures  reclining  on  a  couch  or  sitting  on  a 
chair :  bronze  and  iron  objects,  strigils,  knives,  mirrors :  alabastra :  vases 
with  figurines  holding  pitchers,  or  with  bulls'  heads,  or  both  combined. 

There  was  also  found  a  little  jewelry,  chiefly  silver,  a  few  small  vases 
of  red-figured  technique  of  poor  quality,  and  one  or  two  instances  of  other 
styles,  such  as  dark  vases  with  red  and  white  lines  round  them,  and  light 
red  vases  with  patterns  in  purple-brown.  Two  tombs  also  yielded  glass. 
Perhaps  deserving  of  more  special  mention  are  a  small  terracotta  head 
of  better  type  and  workmanship ;  fragments  of  a  good  Kypriote  capital, 
apparently  thrown  in  to  fill  up  the  shaft  of  one  of  the  tombs ;  and  two 
inscriptions  in  Kypriote  characters  found  in  graves  of  which  they  probably 
formed  part  of  the  door.  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  this  necropolis  is 
of  Ptolemaic  date.  On  February  26th  we  moved  to  a  rise  a  few  hundred 
yards  to  the  east,  called  Hagios  Demetrios,  and  although  we  opened  but 
few  tombs  (the  site  being  a  small  one),  and  their  general  character  remained 
the  same,  the  average  quality  was  rather  better.  New  features  were  some 
little  light-blue  porcelain  objects,  an  enamelled  glass  bottle  of  alabastron 
shape,  and  a  kylix  with  gorgoneion  much  resembling  those  of  the  fifth 
century ;  also  a  very  rudely  drawn  black-figured  lekythos  lacking  neck 
and  foot.  Work  was  then  begun  on  the  hill  further  to  the  south,  which 
promises  well,  both  in  quantity  and  quality.  The  tombs  are  still  of  the 
Ptolemaic  period,  but  apparently  of  richer  persons.  The  most  interesting 
finds  so  far  have  been  a  red-figured  askos  with  four  female  heads,  a  black 
glazed  askos  with  moulded  negro's  head,  several  black  glazed  saucers  with 
letters  scratched  upon  them  (one  bears  the  word  TETTA),  sixteen  thin  gold 
beads  and  a  little  gold  roll,  a  large  bronze  spearhead,  etc.  These  tombs 
were  of  a  better  class  on  the  average  than  those  of  the  previous  sites,  being 


212  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.         [KYPROS.] 

larger  and  better  hewn,  and  the  black  glazed  vases  almost  predominant. 
One  tomb  yielded  some  fairly  good  jewelry :  three  gold  pendants  from  a 
necklace,  a  pair  of  bronze  silver-plated  bracelets  with  gilt  rams-heads,  a 
pair  of  bronze  silver-plated  anklets  terminating  in  snake-heads,  five  gilt 
bronze  spirals,  and  a  gilt  bronze  ring  with  hematite  scarab.  Two  tombs  pro- 
duced well-preserved  bronze  objects.  Of  the  pottery  deserving  of  mention 
are  a  red-figured  lekythos,  of  moderately  good  style,  but  in  bad  preserva- 
tion, representing  a  Bacchante;  the  fragments  of  a  fine  red-figured  vase 
with  white  and  gold,  which  we  are  gradually  recovering  by  sifting  the 
soil;  and  a  considerable  number  of  vessels  and  fragments,  mostly  black 
glazed,  plain  or  stamped,  with  letters  scratched  on  them  underneath,  in 
many  cases  Kypriote  characters.  If  any  further  doubt  remained  whether 
the  Kypriote  syllabary  continued  in  use  well  down  into  the  third,  if  not  the 
second  century  B.  c.,  these  graffiti  ought  to  remove  it.  Vases  with  figurines 
and  bull-heads  were  plentiful ;  curious  is  one  fragment  on  which  a  winged 
youthful  figure  is  placed  beside  the  customary  woman  with  the  pitcher. 
We  had  already  begun  to  suspect,  from  the  condition  in  which  the  finest 
vases -were  found,  and  from  other  indications,  that  we  had  to  do  with 
tombs  which  had  not  only  been  largely  plundered,  but  had  been  used  at 
two  different  periods.  The  excavation,  begun  on  the  9th,  of  the  site  ad- 
joining that  first  dug  upon  after  the  vineyard,  has  tended  to  confirm  the 
suspicion.  The  contents  of  the  tombs  seemed  to  belong  to  the  Ptolemaic, 
or  in  several  instances  even  to  the  Roman  period,  a  red-figured  kotyle  of 
late  style,  broken  but  complete,  being  the  only  noteworthy  find  naturally 
to  have  been  expected.  Yet  in  one  tomb  were  found  the  fragments  of  a 
red-figured  lekythos  of  early  style,  and  in  another  a  black-figured  kylix 
with  small  figures  on  the  rim,  man  and  lion  each  side,  after  the  manner 
generally  dated  about  500  B.  c.  The  only  other  objects  of  importance 
found  on  this  site  so  far  are  two  inscriptions,  the  one  in  late  Greek  letters, 
Tpv<£cov  XP7?0"1"*  XaW€>  *ne  other  in  Kypriote  charaters,  incomplete,  which 
we  read  TO  o-a/xa  e/w.  They  were  found  in  the  shaft  of  a  tomb,  together 
with  a  late  capital  of  an  Ionic  pilaster,  a  drum  resembling  an  altar,  and 
several  architectural  fragments. 

We  are  now  at  work  in  the  village  of  Poli,  but  have  found  nothing  of 
note  except  the  upper  part  of  a  marble  grave-relief,  representing  a  bearded 
man,  nearly  life-size,  of  late,  but  not  altogether  bad  style.  Numerous  in- 
scriptions are  scratched  in  small  and  scarcely  legible  characters  in  the  stone. 

During  the  past  fortnight  (April  11)  several  sites  have  been  worked  with 
very  various  success.  To  the  southeast  of  Poli  we  have  finished  all  the 
sites  on  which  we  have  been  able  to  acquire  the  right  to  dig ;  in  the  village 
we  have  continued  our  excavations  on  the  small  area  which  alone  seems 
to  contain  tombs  that  can  be  found ;  and  to  the  north  two  trials  have  been 


[KYPROS.] 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 


213 


made  which  revealed  nothing  but  late  walls  and  a  fragment  of  the  foun- 
dations of  a  more  important  building.  Returning  once  more  to  the  east, 
we  have  opened  a  few  tombs  north  and  south  of  the  vineyard.  Those  to 
the  north  proved  of  little  value,  being  either  of  Roman  date  or  earlier  tombs 
used  again  in  later  times  and  subsequently  robbed.  It  was  with  difficulty 
that  we  extracted  permission  to  dig  half  a  dozen  trials  to  the  south  of  the 
vineyard.  The  site  seems  a  promising  one,  but  the  owner  is  hard  to  deal 
with,  and  has  sown  a  valuable  crop.  This  piece  of  land  and  another  to 
the  southeast  of  the  village  are,  apart  from  the  Chiftlik  lands,  so  far  as  we 
have  been  able  to  discover,  the  only  remaining  tomb-sites  here  worth 
excavating,  and  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  the  right  to  dig  on  either 
of  them  can  be  acquired  until  the  crops  are  cut.  We  are  accordingly 
anxiously  awaiting  the  answer  to  our  application  for  leave  to  excavate  at 
Limniti,  and  hope  to  be  able  to  start  work  there  before  Easter. 

To  note  the  more  important  finds  of  the  fortnight :  with  the  exception 
of  four  Kypriote  inscriptions  from  the  tombs,  and  one  more  which  has 
come  to  light  in  the  village,  they  have  been  almost  entirely  confined  to 
pottery.  One  tomb  produced  seven  black-glazed  kylikes  with  a  band  of 
palmette  and  lotus-bud  pattern  outside,  but  only  two  are  unbroken.  From 
the  same  tomb  came  a  black-figured  kylix  with  a  horseman  and  another 
figure  in  the  centre,  and  a  black-figured  lekythoid  vase  with  four  figures  on 
the  body  and  two  smaller  ones  on  the  shoulder.  Two  more  black-figured 
kylikes  have  also  been  found,  the  one  with  little  figures  on  the  rim,  the 
other  with  a  band  of  figures  outside.  Important  is  a  red-figured  kotyle, 
in  fragments,  but  complete :  on  the  one  side  a  figure  holding  a  thrysos, 
with  an  altar  behind ;  on  the  other  a  figure  holding  torch  and  patera,  of 
the  later  fifth-century  style,  and  inscribed  /coAos  and  /caXe.  Unique  in  our 
experience  are  the  fragments  of  a  large  Kypriote  diota  with  artist's  signa- 
ture in  Kypriote  characters.  Two  white  and  black  lekythoi,  the  one  with 
palmettes,  the  other  with  ivy  pattern,  may  also  be  mentioned.  Minor 
variations  from  the  ordinary  types  are  two  broken  circular  lamps  with 
red  animal-figures  round  them ;  a  late,  but  not  inelegant  red-glazed  three- 
handled  pot  with  lid ;  a  lamp  of  red  and  black  glazed  ware  in  the  form 
of  a  duck ;  and  a  glass  cup  bearing  the  word  Eu^pocrvvr?  in  relief. 


EUROPE. 
GREECE. 

ATHENS. —  Theatre  of  Dionysos. — At  the  second  February  meeting  of  the 
German  Institute  in  Athens,  Professor  Dorpfeld  gave  an  account  of  the 
latest  excavations  in  the  theatre  of  Dionysos.  They  were  made  in  the 


214  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.         [GREECE.] 

upper  part  of  the  theatre  and  are  still  going  on.  There  are  traces  of  a  road 
and  buildings  on  the  site  before  the  time  of  Lykourgos.  Herr  Schneider 
spoke  of  the  single  objects  discovered,  notably,  part  of  an  oinochoe  with 
a  bacchic  scene  and  a  double  inscription  :  Xo-evoKA.es  eTrotecrev,  and  KAeoo-oc/>o9 
eypa</>crev  in  pre-Eukleidean  letters.  —  Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  Col.  454. 

The  earliest  Attic  public  decree.  —  In  the  Arch.-Epig.  Mitth.  aus  oester.-un- 
garn  (1888,  1,  61-5),  Gomperz  restores  this  important  inscription  as  follows  : 


o-ev  TOI  Se'/Aot  •  T[OS  ^a]Aa/x,[iva  /cAepot 
ot/ccv  e<^a^>(s)  2aAa/uvi[at,  />te]A(A)ev[Se  \<rvv  TOIS  'A0evatot- 
o-t  Te[A]ev  /cat  o-TpaT[eu(e)o-0]ai  •  T[OV  Se  Aa^ovra  /cAepov  p> 
e  ju,i£o"0]oV.  e<x(yn)  jw,e  ot/c£et  Ho  ye]]o[jaopos  avTO$t,  TOV  /cAepo- 
v  8e  fALcrOoL,  a/TTOTt^vev  /cat  TOV  /juo~$o/>tevov  /cat  TOV  p> 
to~06vTa,  He/caTe[j)o  HoAo/cAepa  ra  StHo/xoAoye/xeVa 
es  o^eJ/jKxrtojV,  f.cnrpo.T(r^€v  8e  TOV  atet  a- 
PX°Lvlra  ^av  E^€  /*^  yeopyet,  TO,  Trp6(3a.T- 
a  8'  e^/cT^OTTta  7r[otet,  aTTOTtvev  O.VTOV  :  T- 


v  8e  TOV  ap^ov^Ta  atet  Kat  /caTa^8aA(A)- 


ev 


"  The  people  has  decreed  as  follows  :  Those  to  whose  share  land  at  Sa- 
lamis  has  fallen  by  lot  shall  become  residents  in  the  territory  of  Salamis, 
though  they  must  give  taxes  and  war-service  with  the  Athenians,  and 
must  not  lease  the  field.  If  the  lot-owner  be  not  himself  a  resident  but 
rent  his  lot,  then  the  lessee  as  well  as  the  lessor  shall  each  pay  the  total 
amount  of  the  lease  as  a  fine  into  the  public  treasury,  and  the  archon  for 
the  time  being  shall  collect  the  fine.  If  any  one  do  not  cultivate  his  lot 
of  land  but  removes  from  it  its  cattle,  he  shall  pay  30  Attic  drachmas  as 
a  fine  ;  each  time  the  archon  for  the  time  being  shall  collect  and  deposit 
the  fine."  This  important  archaic  inscription  had  already  been  treated 
by  Kohler,  Kirchhoff,  and  Foucart.—  Berl  phil.  Woch.,  1889,  Col.  362-3. 

EXCAVATIONS  ON  THE  AKROPOLIS.  —  The  excavations  have  now  been 
advanced  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  Propylaia.  The  soil  examined 
in  the  temenos  of  Artemis  Brauronia  was  rather  thin,  and  since  the  Persian 
wars  it  had  not  lain  undisturbed.  A  curious  bronze  ring,  0.77  m.  in  its  outer 
diameter  and  with  an  interior  diameter  of  0.66,  was  brought  to  light  :  at- 
tached to  the  inner  edge  by  its  feet  and  standing  upright  in  the  middle  of 
the  ring  was  an  image  of  the  Gorgon  cut  out  of  a  thin  metal-plate.  The 
Athena  represented  in  the  'Ap^.  'Ec/>r;/>i.  (1887,  No.  4)  is  a  somewhat  similar 
figure.  The  whole  seems  to  have  formed  the  metal  part  of  a  leather  shield, 
but  it  has  not  yet  been  cleaned  suificiently  to  make  this  certain.  A  marble 


[GREECE.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  .         215 

torso  of  a  seated  youth  wearing  a  chlamys  was  the  chief  piece  of  statuary 
discovered.  It  is  about  half  life-size  and  of  third-century  workmanship. 
Besides  this,  there  was  found  an  archaic  marble  head  of  Medousa.  It  is  of 
more  than  life-size,  and  the  back  part  is  broken  off,  so  that  it  may  possibly 
have  come  from  a  relief  or  metope.  In  these  excavations  were  also  found 
several  important  inscriptions.  A  piece  of  one  of  the  annual  inventories 
of  the  treasure  of  Athena  Parthenos  belongs  just  before  the  year  398/7,  as 
it  mentions  a  gold  crown  dedicated  by  the  Spartan  Lysandros  as  being  un- 
weighed,  while  the  inventory  of  398/7  gives  its  exact  weight.  Another 
crown  dedicated  by  a  certain  Lamptreus  is  mentioned  in  this  new  inven- 
tory along  with  other  offerings  of  his,  but  in  the  inventory  of  398/7  this 
is  missing  from  the  list  of  his  gifts,  thus  leaving  the  presumption  that  it  had 
in  the  meantime  become  so  damaged  that  it  was  melted  down.  Two  de- 
crees of  the  second  half  of  the  fourth  century  and  one  of  the  early  part  of 
the  third  century  were  also  found.  This  last  gives  us  the  name  of  a  hitherto 
unknown  archon,  Ourios ;  and  belongs  to  the  time  when  a  committee  on 
finance  termed  ol  CTTI  TY,  Sioi/c^oei  is  just  coming  into  notice  in  the  Athenian 
decrees.  Two  archaic  inscriptions  on  bases  that  supported  votive  offerings 
to  Athena  conclude  the  list  of  epigraphic  finds.  One  of  them  belongs  to  a 
certain  Euangelos,  who  seems  to  have  been  a  member  of  a  rich  Athenian 
family,  and  whose  son  erected  on  the  Akropolis  the  wooden  horse  of  which 
Pausanias  speaks.  Part  of  a  fluted  column  bearing  the  name  of  the  artist 
Endoios  concludes  the  list  of  recently-found  inscriptions.  Another  piece 
of  the  same  column  has  been  already  published  (  C.  I.  A.,  iv.  2,  No.  373)  and 
contains  the  name  of  Philermos.  The  letters  still  retain  traces  of  red  color. 
The  name  of  Endoios  thus  occurs  for  the  second  time  in  an  inscription. 
The  conjecture  of  Loeschcke,  that  Endoios  comes  from  Ionia,  seems  also  to 
receive  confirmation,  because  the  inscription  is  written  in  Ionic  characters 
and  is  joined  with  a  name  ending  in  -ep/xos,  such  as  seems  to  have  been  quite 
common  in  Ionia. 

The  destruction  of  the  mediaeval  walls  at  the  entrance  of  the  Akropolis 
is  still  going  on,  and  the  pieces  of  ancient  architecture  and  cut-stone  strewn 
over  the  Akropolis  itself  are  being  put  into  better  order. — 'Apx«  AeXrtov, 
December,  1888. 

CENTRAL  MUSEUM. — Additions  during  December,  1888. — The  National 
Museum  has  been  increased  by  the  addition  of  some  100  very  interesting 
terracottas  from  TAN  AGRA.  Notable  among  these  terracottas  are,  (1)  a 
woman  seated  on  a  rock  and  wearing  a  veil  and  chiton  reaching  nearly  to 
her  feet ;  the  chiton  still  retains  traces  of  blue  coloring  :  (2)  a  group  of  two 
girls  playing  the  game  e^eSpioyAos,  in  which  one  carries  the  other  on  her 
back  ;  the  one  who  carries  the  other  still  retains  vivid  traces  of  blue  upon 
her  chiton :  (3)  an  infant  rolled  up  in  a  himation  :  (4)  a  youth  with  a  cock 


216  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.        [GREECE.] 

under  his  arm.  (5)  One  very  peculiar  statuette  is  formed  after  the  xoanon 
type  :  the  body  is  a  simple  four-sided  block,  and  is  adorned  with  maeander 
and  anthemion  ornaments  in  black  color ;  the  face  and  the  high  polos  are 
both  touched  up  with  black,  and,  on  both  sides  of  the  head,  locks  hang  down 
on  the  chest :  the  whole  is  in  fine  state  of  preservation  and  one  of  the  best 
examples  of  its  kind.  (6)  Another  statuette  of  similar  form  but  not  so  well 
preserved  has  the  shagginess  of  the  hair  on  the  chest  represented  in  a  plastic 
form,  and  the  polos  has  a  circlet  and  a  star  also  represented  in  clay.  (7)  A 
statuette  of  a  woman  shows  her  drawing  a  fillet  from  a  box  :  her  hair  still 
shows  traces  of  reddish  paint,  and  her  raiment  various  other  colors.  (8)  Sta- 
tuette of  a  partly  draped  youth,  holding  a  $iaXf]  and  a  lyre.  (9)  Another 
statuette  shows  a  girl  resting  chiefly  on  the  left  foot,  and  with  the  right  hand 
holding  her  long  chiton  gracefully  up  to  her  throat.  (10)  Several  statu- 
ettes of  satyrs  reclining,  and  others  dancing,  form  the  more  grotesque  side 
of  this  collection.  (11)  A  statuette  of  an  old  woman  and  a  child  is  one 
of  the  most  attractive  and  best  executed  pieces.  Two  of  the  statuettes 
have  movable  arms.  There  are  several  figures  of  horsemen  with  and 
without  shields,  and  the  usual  Greek  animals  are  also  represented,  e.  g., 
horses,  goats,  bulls,  lions,  cocks,  ducks,  and  various  birds  whose  species 
it  is  impossible  to  identify:  one  of  the  birds  carries  two  of  its  young 
under  its  wings.  Tragic  masks  and  mythological  subjects  are  also  spar- 
ingly represented.  In  this  group  of  figurines  from  Tanagra  there  are  an 
unusual  number  of  men,  perhaps  about  one-fifth  of  all  the  statuettes ;  and 
so,  too,  the  number  of  animals  is  strikingly  large. 

A  beardless  marble  head  of  a  Roman  emperor  found  near  the  OLYMPIEION 
and  ten  sepulchral  reliefs  from  the  PEIRAIEUS,  also,  were  brought  in ;  also, 
gifts  of  some  coins  of  ASIA  MINOR  and  of  terracotta  statuettes  were  received. 
The  objects  found  in  the  excavation  of  the  ASKLEPIEION  which  have  been 
hitherto  stored  on  the  south  side  of  the  Akropolis  were  transferred  to  the 
Central  Museum.  The  remains  of  Byzantine  sculpture  from  the  AKROPOLIS 
have  been  also  carried  thither,  and  will  form  the  nucleus  of  a  collection  of 
Byzantine  antiquities.  Duplicates  of  architectural  remains  found  in  OLYM- 
PIA  have  been  recently  turned  over  to  the  German  School  for  shipment  to 
Berlin. — 'Apx-  AeAribv,  December,  1888. 

PRESERVATION  OF  THE  COLORS  OF  PAINTED  STATUARY. — At  the  re- 
quest of  the  General  Ephor,  P.  Kabbadias,  a  committee  consisting  of 
Professor  G.  Krinos  of  the  University  and  Privatdocent  O.  Rousopoulos 
have  made  investigations  in  regard  to  preserving  the  colors  of  painted 
statuary,  and  to  cleaning  statuary  and  bronzes.  A  solution  of  one  part 
of  caustic  soda  in  two  parts  of  water  was  found  to  fasten  the  color  more 
firmly  to  the  stone,  and,  in  the  case  of  poros  stone,  to  make  the  stone  itself 
harder.  This  solution  made  the  red  color  rather  deeper  but  not  so  much 


[GREECE.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  217 

as  to  militate  against  its  use.  The  red  color  was  found  to  be  usually  oxide 
of  iron,  but  sometimes  cinnabar  was  used  instead,  and  this,  if  not  treated, 
became  dim  under  the  influence  of  light.  The  blue  color  of  statuary 
usually  consists  of  carbonate  of  copper,  and  green  bihydrated  oxide  of 
copper,  along  with  a  trace  of  oxide  of  iron.  For  removing  hard  accre- 
tions from  such  statuary,  careful  rubbing  with  a  stick  of  wood  was  recom- 
mended. Bronze  objects,  if  only  slightly  corroded,  could  be  cleaned  by  a 
solution  of  soap  or  of  weak  potash,  and  then,  after  brushing  and  drying, 
they  should  be  varnished  with  some  resinous  solution.  If  they  are  deeply 
covered  with  red  oxide  of  copper,  they  must  be  treated  with  a  weak  solu- 
tion of  hydrochloric  acid.  By  applying  these  processes  to  some  of  the 
bronzes  from  the  Akropolis,  they  uncovered  several  inscriptions  on  votive 
offerings  to  Athena  and  Hekate. — 'Apx-  AeArtw,  December,  1888. 

REMAINS  OF  A  CHRISTIAN  CHURCH. — The  excavations  under  the  Par- 
thenon have  led  to  the  discovery  of  a  subterranean  vault  forming  part  of 
an  early  Christian  church :  some  tombs  have  been  found. —  Chron.  des  Arts, 
1889,  p.  132. 

DAPHNION  (road  to  Eleusis). — The  walls  of  the  Byzantine  church  have 
been  recently  buttressed,  and  the  tiling  of  the  roof  mended.  An  artist  has 
been  sent  for  from  Italy  to  repair  the  mosaic-work  of  the  church,  which 
chiefly  consists  of  the  famous  Christos  Pantokrator.  An  earthquake  oc- 
curred shortly  after  the  walls  had  been  strengthened,  but  did  no  damage  ; 
though,  had  it  happened  while  they  were  in  their  previous  condition,  it 
would  have  wrought  serious  harm. — 'Apx-  AeAn'ov,  Dec.  1888. 

MANTINEIA. — Just  before  the  conclusion  of  the  excavations  here  by  the 
French  school,  a  marble  statuette  was  found  which  is  reported  to  be  an 
image  of  Telesphoros. 

TEGEA. — Excavations  tried  on  this  site  by  the  French  School  brought 
to  light  two  headless  draped  statues  and  other  antiquities. — 'Ap^.  AcA/nov, 
December,  1888. 

DELOS. — In  excavating  at  Delos,  MM.  Doublet  and  Legrand,  of  the 
French  School,  have  discovered  two  statues  of  women  and  the  bronze  foot 
of  a  Roman  statue,  with  several  inscriptions,  amongst  them  being  one  of 
more  than  a  hundred  lines,  containing  the  account  of  expenses  relating  to 
the  temple. — Athenceum,  May  18. 

OLYMPIA. — The  Norddeutsche  Zeitung  of  March  10  announces  that  the 
Federal  Council  has  had  brought  before  it  a  project  of  law- approving  an 
arrangement  regarding  the  excavations  of  Olympia  which  has  been  con- 
cluded between  Germany  and  Greece.  It  has  been  referred  to  a  commit- 
tee.— Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  83. 


218  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

ITALY. 

AN  ARCH^OLOGICAL  SOCIETY. — The  project  for  the  constitution  of  an 
Italian  Archaeological  Society  has  been  published.  Its  seat  is  to  be  at 
Rome :  it  will  publish  a  monthly  bulletin  and  an  annual  volume  of  me- 
moirs with  plates.  The  Society  will  be  composed  of  patrons  and  ordinary 
members,  the  latter  paying  an  annual  fee  of  40  francs. —  Cour.  de  I' Art, 
1889,  p.  109. 

ALATRI. — A  Latin  Temple. — In  order  to  second  the  desire  of  the  German 
Institute,  that  topographic  and  architectural  studies  should  be  finished 
among  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  temple  regarding  which  the  Berlin  archi- 
tect Bassel  wrote  in  the  Centralblatt  der  Bauverwaltung  (1886,  p.  197,  207), 
the  Government  has  given  orders  to  undertake  new  researches.  The  site 
explored  is  N.  of  the  city,  in  the  property  of  Count  Stampa  called  La 
Stanza  or  Torretta.  The  result  has  been  the  uncovering  of  the  entire  area 
of  the  temple  and  the  collecting  of  elements  belonging  to  the  terracotta 
cornice.  It  has  been  ascertained  that  this  temple  in  its  ornamental  mem- 
bers is  entirely  similar  to  the  temple  of  Lo  Scasato  (temple  of  Juno),  dis- 
covered on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Falerii  (see  JOURNAL,  vols.  in,  pp.  460-7, 
iv,  p.  503).— Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,. p.  22. 

BRACCIANO. — Discoveries  on  the  site  of  Forum  Clodii. — On  the  small  table- 
land rising  about  three  kilom.  from  Bracciano,  called  S.  Liberate,  many 
remains  of  ancient  buildings  have  come  to  light.  Bracciano  and  S.  Lib- 
erato  are  on  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Via  Clodia.  At  S.  Liberate  it  is 
crossed  by  another  important  ancient  road.  On  the  site  are  large  blocks 
of  peperino  and  marble,  revetments,  bases,  columns,  and  fragments  of  mar- 
ble friezes  and  architraves.  To  be  noticed  are  a  headless  female  statue, 
like  the  so-called  Pudicitia  of  the  Vatican ;  a  bearded  head,  over  life-size. 
Some  inscriptions  certify  the  conjecture,  that  this  is  the  site  of  Forum 
Clodii.— Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,  pp.  5-9. 

BOLOGNA. —  Count  Gozzadini's  gift. — This  eminent  archaeologist,  who  re- 
cently died,  left  to  the  city  of  Bologna  his  fine  library,  his  family  archives 
and  his  collection  of  arms. —  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  109. 

CAPUA. — New  Oscan  Inscriptions. — On  the  site  of  the  famous  sanctuary 
of  Capua  Vetus,  there  have  been  found  a  number  of  new  Oscan  inscrip- 
tions.   Two  of  these  are  given  a  preliminary  publication  by  Franz  Biicheler 
in  the  Berl.  phil.  Woch.,  1889, col.  458-9,  with  a  Latin  equivalent. 
i 


ek.  iuhil.  Sp.  Kaluvieis 
inim  fratrum  muinik.  est 
fiisiais  pumperiais  prai 
mamerttiais  pas  set  kerssi- 
asias  L.  Pettieis  meddikiai  fufens. 


Hoc  donarium  Sp.  Calvii 
et  fratrum  commune  est 
Fisiis  decuriis,  ante 
Martias  quae  sunt,  epulares 
L.  Pettii  magistratu  fuerunt. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  219 


ii 


Diuvilam  Tirentium  Magiium 
sulum  muinikam  fisiais 
eiduis  luisarifs  sakrvist 
iiuk  destrst. 


Donarium  Terentiorum 
Magiorum  omnium  commune 
Fisiis  idis  loesaribus  sacra- 
bit  (hostia)  :  id  dextrum  est. 


NEMI. — Temple  of  Diana. — In  December,  two  new  constructions  were 
discovered  east  of  the  sacred  area.  The  first  is  rectangular,  5  met.  long 
and  4.10  wide.  The  walls  are  of  opus  reticulatum  with  pilaster  strips  of 
opus  quadratum.  It  is  contiguous  to  the  long  east  side  of  the  area,  and 
seems  to  have  been  originally  a  portico  with  peperino  pilasters  or  even  a 
piscina.  Subsequently  it  was  divided  up  by  building  walls  between  the 
pilasters.  In  the  debris  which  filled  the  hall  to  the  height  of  six  meters 
were  found  slabs  of  marble  and  pieces  of  painting  fallen  from  walls  and 
ceiling.  The  second  construction  has  the  characteristics  of  a  calidarium 
or  sudatorium ;  the  pavement  being  suspended  over  the  hypocaust  by  small 
pilasters  a  half-foot  high,  and  having  arrangements  for  the  circulation  of 
warm  air.  The  bricks  found  here  have  names  that  seem  to  be  of  the  time 
of  M.  Aurelius  and  Commodus.-— Not.  d.  Scam,  1889,  pp.  20-22. 

OSTIA. — The  work  of  joining  the  excavations  of  1881-86  with  those  of 
1888  by  the  uncovering  of  the  intervening  space  was  carried  on.  The  wall 
that  enclosed  in  the  east  the  large  square  of  the  theatre  was  adorned  with 
a  portico  of  brick  columns  under  which  were  the  offices  of  the  principal 
corporations  of  arts  and  trades.  Following  this  along  a  further  length  of 
51.32  met.  has  led  to  the  discovery  of  a  spacious  straight  street  which  evi- 
dently joined  the  quarter  of  the  theatre  with  that  of  the  Porta  Romana. 
To  the  west  of  this  are  edifices  that  have  the  character  of  public  buildings. 
One  of  these  is  the  Stazio  Vigilum  or  police  station.  The  statio  vigilum 
measures  41.55  by  69.48  met.  There  are  two  entrances  on  each  side,  cor- 
responding to  the  height  of  the  peristyle.  They  are  elegantly  decorated, 
in  the  Severian  style,  with  cornice,  tympanum,  pilasters,  capitals  and  bases 
cut  in  red  and  yellow  brick,  and  well  preserved  up  to  the  imposts  of  the 
arches.  The  members  of  the  tympanum  had  fallen,  but  have  been  recovered. 
The  exploration  of  the  interior  has  just  commenced,  and  has  already  led  to 
the  discovery  of  a  lower  cell,  like  a  prison.  The  site  has  evidently  never 
been  excavated  and  is  full  of  important  historical  documents.  The  plan 
and  general  arrangement  recall  those  of  the  atrium  of  Vesta,  especially  on 
account  of  the  great  space  given  to  the  central  peristyle,  which  occupies 
27.40  met.  out  of  a  total  width  of  41.46.  The  s.  door  leads,  through  a  ves- 
tibule, 5.65  by  3.40  met.,  into  the  peristyle  composed  of  piers  1.20  by  0.72  m., 
with  a  spacing  of  3.10  m.,  and  a  covered  space  4.30  m.  wide.  Against  each 
pier  is  a  marble  pedestal.  The  two  already  discovered  bear  fine  inscrip- 
tions :  one,  dated  Apr.  4,  211  A.  D.  under  the  consuls  Gentianus  and  Bassus, 


220  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.  [ITALY.] 

is  dedicated  to  Antoninus  Pius ;  the  other,  dated  Feb.  4,  239  A.  D.,  is  dedi- 
cated to  Gordianus.  The  points  ascertained  from  these  inscriptions  are  as 
follows  :  (1)  the  company  of  the  Vigili  sent  from  Rome  to  do  police  service 
in  Ostia  formed  a  special  vexillatio ;  (2)  the  title  assumed  by  the  local  com- 
mander was  praepositus  vexillationis ;  (3)  this  local  command  was  usually 
given  to  the  tribune  of  the  cohort  that  furnished  the  detachment ;  (4)  the 
Ostia  detachment  formed  the  majority  (7)  of  the  entire  cohort ;  (5)  in  the 
third  century,  the  detachment  was  taken  from  the  vi  cohort ;  (6)  the  casern 
at  Ostia  could  lodge  four  companies,  or  six  hundred  men.  The  smaller 
w.  side  of  the  atrium  has  a  portico  partly  of  brick  pilasters,  partly  of  col- 
umns of  portasanta ;  before  the  central  columns  are  two  marble  pedestals, 
one  of  which  bore  a  statue  of  Septimius  Severus,  the  other  that  of  Caracalla. 
At  the  corner  opposite  to  that  of  Gordian  already  described,  was  another 
base  with  an  inscription  to  his  wife,  the  Empress  Furia  Sabinia  Tranquil- 
lmsi.—Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,  pp.  18-19,  37-43. 

PIACENZA. — A  municipal  Museum  attached  to  the  Passerini-Landi  library 
is  being  organized  in  the  ex-convent  of  the  Jesuits  of  San  Pietro.  It  con- 
tains, among  other  things,  a  collection  of  about  six  thousand  coins  and  medals, 
including  the  complete  series  of  the  coins  of  Placentia.  The  library  pos- 
sesses a  fine  series  of  illuminated  choral  books  and  antiphonaria  and  the 
psaltery  of  Queen  Angilberga. — Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  109. 

POMPEII. — Excavations  have  been  carried  on  with  activity  to  the  s.  of 
the  public  forum  behind  the  Curiae.  The  most  important  discovery  is  that 
of  an  elegant  small  bathing-establishment,  remarkable  for  its  beautiful  de- 
coration of  marble  slabs.  The  palaestra  is  of  graceful  architecture,  and  is 
decorated  with  fine  figures  of  athletes.  On  the  main  wall  is  represented  a 
contest,  and  on  each  of  the  side  pavillions  a  single  athlete,  the  one  on  the 
left  scraping  his  forehead  with  a  strigil.  In  the  centre  of  the  fa9ade  is  an 
athlete  crowned  by  Victory,  with  another  on  each  of  the  sides ;  that  on  the 
right,  which  alone  is  preserved,  is  scraping  his  side.  The  socle  of  this 
beautiful  work  has  a  marble  base  with  white  ground  like  the  walls,  to  which 
are  addorsed  figurines  imitating  bronze  statues.  Some  of  these  are  especi- 
ally interesting,  e.g.,  a  graceful  Mercury,  a  discobolus  and  a  seated  figure 
(judge  of  the  palaestra?).  Near  the  furnaces  were  found  some  beautiful 
silver  cups,  and  tablets  containing  a  contract  by  which  Poppaea  Notae  sold 
two  young  slaves  to  Dicidia  Morgaridis. —  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  pp.  110-11. 

POZZUOLI. — On  the  road  from  Pozzuoli  to  Baiae,  came  to  light  part  of  a 
large  room  constructed  of  alternate  layers  of  tufa  and  bricks.  It  is  rect- 
angular in  shape,  and  has,  on  one  of  the  wider  sides,  an  apse  which  still 
preserves  part  of  its  semi-spherical  vault.  The  walls  are  covered  with  white 
stucco  decorated  in  Pompeian  style  with  colonnettes,  festoons,  lines,  etc. 
On  the  r.  of  the  apse  is  a  standing  female  figure  with  a  basket  of  fruit  and 


[ITALY.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  221 

flowers,  and  further  on  a  beardless  man  seated  and  holding  a  lance  in  his 
right  hand,  and  a  cap  in  his  left.  Under  the  cornice  is  a  frieze  in  which 
griffins,  sea-horses,  fishes  and  human  figures  are  given  in  relief.  Under 
this  is  another  zone  containing  only  a  landscape. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,  p.  43. 

ROMA. — Forum  of  Augustus. — The  continuation  of  the  excavations  on  the 
right  of  the  Arco  del  Pantani  led  to  finding  remains  of  decorative  sculpture 
which  include  all  the  decorative  members  of  the  building  and  are  carved 
with  perfect  artistic  skill  and  taste.  There  are  columns  of  giallo  antico ; 
sections  of  columns  of  Greek  marble  from  the  peristyle  of  the  temple  of  Mars 
Ultor ;  two  Corinthian  capitals ;  friezes,  cornices,  corbels,  lacunaria,  etc. 
Several  fragments  of  the  inscriptions  placed  on  the  bases  of  the  statues 
erected  by  Augustus  have  come  to  light.  On  account  of  their  fragmentary 
condition,  only  one  of  these  could  be  reconstituted.  It  was  recognized  by 
Lanciani  to  be  the  Elogium  of  Appius  Claudius  Caecus,  a  copy  of  which 
had  been  found  at  Arezzo.  A  beginning  has  been  made  in  uncovering  the 
portico  which  shut  in  the  left  hemicycle  across  its  diameter,  and  whose 
bases  are  still  in  place.  The  pavement  of  imported  marble  continues  to 
be  found  in  the  whole  area. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,  pp.  33-4. 

Arenaria  and  tombs  at  the  Tre  Fontane. — In  the  pozzolana  excavations 
at  Ponte  Buttero,  near  the  Tre  Fontane,  an  ancient  sand-pit  or  arenarium 
was  found,  with  the  lamps  still  in  place.  Various  tombs  were  found,  some 
built  a  cassettone,  some  cut  in  the  rock ;  in  the  former  were  found  ten  im- 
perial coins.  More  important  was  the  finding  of  a  well-tomb  for  inhuma- 
tion, like  those  on  the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele.  Among  its  archaic  con- 
tents, three  pieces  were  of  especial  interest.  One  is  a  kind  of  flask  in  the 
form  of  a  truncated  cone  with  a  mouth  like  that  of  an  oinochoe.  The 
second  is  almost  a  semi-spherical  two-handled  cup  on  a  broad  cylindrical 
base,  perhaps  imitation  archaic.  The  third  is  decidedly  archaic — a  cup 
ornamented  with  rude  channels  made  with  the  finger  in  the  soft  clay. — 
Not.  d.  Scam,  1889,  p.  36. 

Statue  of  a  Muse. — In  the  new  Via  Arenula,  at  a  depth  of  3.50  met., 
there  was  found  a  beautiful  colossal  female  statue,  placed  on  an  ancient 
pavement  of  large  marble  slabs.  The  figure  is  seated  on  a  rock :  her 
right  arm,  left  hand  and  head  (which  was  of  a  separate  piece)  are  gone. 
The  close-fitting  tunic  with  half-sleeves  is  covered  with  a  himation  whose 
folds  are  treated  with  breadth  and  at  the  same  time  with  grace.  The 
limbs  are  crossed,  and  there  are  sandals  on  the  feet.  It  evidently  repre- 
sents one  of  the  Muses. 

A  Frieze. — In  the  Vigna  Palomba,  in  Reglo  xivy  two  pieces  of  an  an- 
cient marble  frieze,  0.20  met.  high,  were  recovered  from  a  wall.  On  one 
piece  are  two  centaurs,  one  playing  on  the  double  tibia  and  one  on  the 
lyre.  On  the  back  of  the  latter  stands  an  Eros  with  an  arrow  in  his  hand. 


222  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY.  [ITALY.] 

In  front  of  the  centaurs  is  a  lion  ridden  by  an  Eros.  On  the  second  frag- 
ment are  two  genii  between  whom  is  a  large  vase  full  of  flowers  and  fruit. 
They  are  semi-reclining,  and  each  bears  a  basket  of  fruit  resting  on  his 
knee.— Not.  d.  Scam,  1889,  pp.  34-6. 

Industrial  Exhibition  of  Keramics  and  glass. — The  series  of  exhibitions 
organized  yearly  in  Rome  under  the  auspices  of  the  Artistico-Industrial 
Museum,  since  1885,  have  been  very  useful  and  successful.  The  first  ex- 
hibition, in  1885,  was  of  works  of  carved  and  inlaid  woods,  retrospective 
and  contemporary :  the  second,  in  1886,  was  of  works  in  metal :  the  third, 
in  1887,  of  textiles — each  more  successful  than  the  previous.  The  present 
and  fourth  exhibition  is  of  keramics  and  glass.  The  object  is  to  give  as 
complete  as  possible  a  survey  of  the  products  of  these  branches  of  art  from 
the  very  beginnings,  developing  especially  the  most  flourishing  periods  of 
Etruria,  Greece,  Rome  and  the  Renaissance.  The  director  of  the  Asso- 
ciation, Professor  Erculei,  has  published  a  paper  in  the  Nuova  Antologia 
of  April  16,  entitled  L'Arte  Antica  della  Ceramica  e  I'Attuale  Esposizione 
di  Roma,  in  which  he  calls  attention  to  the  most  important  features  of  the 
exhibition.  Cf.  letter  of  G.  Raimondi  in  Courrier  de  VArt  of  April  26. 

SUSA  (near). —  Coins  found  at  Mompantero. — A  lot  of  Roman  coins  of 
the  second  century  of  the  Empire,  about  450  in  number,  were  found  near 
Susa.  They  are  not  gold,  silver  or  bronze,  but  of  that  tinned  brass  or 
pseudo-bronze  composition  which  had  forced  currency  for  some  time,  and 
led  to  the  reform  of  Diocletian.  They  include  the  years  247-268,  and 
belong  in  great  part  to  the  Emperors  M.  Julius  Philippus  jr,  Treboni- 
anus  Gallus,  and  Gallienus.  It  is  peculiar,  that,  while  the  obverses  usually 
present  the  ordinary  type,  the  reverses  have  every  variety  of  emblems  and 
legends  heretofore  known.  There  is  nothing  later  than  Gallienus. — Riv. 
Numis.  Ital,  1889,  p.  130. 

TORINO. — The  Art  of  Piedmont. — The  Piedmontese  Society  of  Archaeology 
and  Fine  Arts  in  Turin  has  decided  to  establish  an  affiliated  society  for  the 
purpose  of  making  and  publishing  drawings  of  the  early  fresco-paintings 
preserved  in  many  .parts  of  the  province.  This  is  expected  to  show  that 
Piedmont  had  an  original  and  meritorious  art.  This  is  also  the  case  for 
architecture  and  sculpture,  as  has  been  shown  by  some  recent  publications. 
—  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  pp.  109-10. 

VEIL — Excavations  in  the  city  and  necropolis. — The  Empress  of  Brazil  has 
been  undertaking  excavations  in  search  of  monuments,  both  Etruscan  and 
Roman.  The  men  were  thus  divided  into  two  squads,  one  exploring  the 
area  of  the  city,  the  other  the  hills  of  Picazzano,  containing  the  Etruscan 
necropolis.  Within  the  city  no  important  result  was  reached.  The  fact 
that  large  tracts  are  without  signs  of  building  would  show,  (1)  that  a  large 
part  of  the  Etruscan  inhabitants  lived  in  cabins,  as  at  Antemnae,  Fidenae, 


[ITALY.]  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  223 

etc. ;  (2)  that  the  Roman  Veil  occupied  about  one-tenth  the  area  of  the 
Etruscan  city,  being  situated  at  the  easternmost  point.  An  Etruscan 
building  of  irregular  blocks  of  tufa  was  found — perhaps  a  private  house. 

The  excavations  in  the  necropolis  were  more  successful,  though  all  but 
one  of  the  tombs  examined  had  been  violated  in  recent  times.  The  one 
found  intact  was  closed  by  the  usual  macigno,  and  entered  through  a  vesti- 
bule. The  chamber  measures  3.05  by  3.45  met.,  and  is  covered  by  a  low- 
arched  vault  and  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  a  wide  bench  for  the  two 
bodies  found,  while  others  were  not  buried  but  burned,  and  the  ashes  placed 
in  urns.  19  vases  were  in  position. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889,  pp.  10-12. 

The  continuation  of  the  excavations  is  described  in  the  Feb.  number  of 
the  Scavi.  Seven  tombs  were  uncovered,  none  of  them  intact.  No.  in  is 
a  superb  unfinished  tomb,  preceded  by  a  vestibule,  covered  by  a  low  cylin- 
drical vault  supported  by  two  Doric  piers.  JSTos.  iv  and  v  had  fallen  in, 
and  contained  only  common  objects.  In  the  interior  of  the  city,  a  notable 
discovery  has  been  made  on  the  isthmus  that  led  from  the  city  proper  to 
the  acropolis.  Here  was  found  a  vein  of  votive  terracottas,  carelessly 
strewn  over  the  slope  of  the  isthmus  that  descends  towards  the  Cremera. 
They  were  placed  on  the  bare  rock,  but  afterwards  covered  up  with  a  layer 
of  earth  about  1.25  met.  high.  As  the  discovery  was  hardly  begun  when 
the  report  was  written,  only  a  summary  notice  could  be  given.  During 
the  first  three  days,  however,  not  counting  numerous  fragments,  there  were 
found  :  40  veiled  female  heads  of  life-size ;  10  similar  heads  in  profile;  4 
unveiled  male  heads;  11  hands;  4  double  feet  (fragments  of  statues)  ;  18 
feet ;  1  female  statue  of  life-size,  the  left  hand  and  arm  being  veiled  in  the 
peplum,  and  the  right  hand  extended ;  8  parts  of  statues  similar  to  the 
above,  modelled  expressly  so  as  to  be  joined  together,  each  statue  being 
formed  of  three  pieces ;  the  upper  half  of  a  fine  male  statue ;  three  torsi 
modelled  expressly  without  head  or  arms;  12  figurines  of  oxen;  1  of  a 
sheep ;  1  of  a  pig ;  3  human  legs ;  etc.,  etc.  Among  the  terracottas  were 
found  also :  a  quadrans  with  the  type  of  the  hand  and  the  two  semi,  an 
uncia  with  the  type  of  the  he!  meted  Minerva  and  the  beak  and  the  legend 
Roma,  an  uncial  coin  of  Southern  Italy,  and  a  piece  of  aes  rude.  Exca- 
vations made  on  another  site  inside  the  city  resulted  in  the  discovery  of 
remains  of  a  Roman  building  in  which  several  pieces  of  sculpture,  archi- 
tectural decoration,  and  other  objects,  came  to  light. — Not.  d.  Scavi,  1889, 
pp.  29-31. 

VETULONIA. — From  the  province  of  Grosseto  comes  news  of  a  rich  dis- 
covery of  gold  ornaments  at  Vetulonia,  in  one  of  the  circle-tombs  peculiar 
to  the  necropolis  of  that  place  (so  called  because  surrounded  by  a  circle 
of  stones),  and  dating  from  the  vn  cent.  Between  two  layers  of  cork- 
wood, were  found  four  bracelets  of  gold-band  exquisitely  worked  in  fili- 


224  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 

gree,  three  gold  brooches,  an  amber  necklace  consisting  of  figures  of  nude 
women  and  of  crouching  Egyptian  dog-headed  animals,  two  bronze  chain- 
necklaces,  several  amber  brooches,  others  of  bronze  and  iron,  a  very  ori- 
ginal earring  in  bronze  and  many  fragments  of  bronze  vessels,  27  double- 
faced  earthenware  cylinders,  with  vases  of  fine  red  clay.  Amongst  the 
stones  with  which  the  trench  was  filled  were  found  two  bronze  bits  for 
horses,  ornamented  with  the  human  figure  of  very  primitive  design  ;  four 
bronze  rings  for  traces,  and  two  bells  belonging  to  the  trappings — all 
things  appertaining  to  the  biga,  and  not  commonly  found  in  a  tomb  where 
female  ornaments  abound.  Within  one  of  the  bracelets  some  human  teeth 
were  found,  though  there  were  no  remains  in  the  tomb  of  the  burnt  bones 
of  a  corpse. — Athenceum,  May  4. 

SICILY. 

SICILY  UNDER  THE  ROMANS. — In  the  Archivio  Storico  Siciliano  (xm, 
2-3),  Professor  E.  Pais  gives  a  voluminous  treatise  on  the  history  and  ad- 
ministration of  Sicily  under  the  Roman  dominion.  In  it  the  greater  part  of 
the  cities  and  towns  of  the  island  are  studied  in  regular  order,  with  a  view 
to  determine  whether  their  existence  continued  at  this  time.  The  evidence 
adduced  is  mostly  of  an  archaeological  character,  and  in  many  cases  quite 
new.  It  is  a  very  important  work,  though  but  preliminary  to  a  large  work 
on  the  history  of  Sicily  promised  by  the  writer. 

AUGUSTA. — The  necropolis  of  Megara  Hyblaia. — Certain  clandestine  ex- 
cavations in  the  commune  of  Augusta  have  led  to  the  discovery  of  some 
ancient  tombs  of  the  vast  necropolis  of  Megara  Hyblaia.  They  are  almost 
all  monolith  sarcophagi,  lying  near  the  surface,  thus  explaining  the  ease 
with  which  they  were  devastated.  Exceptions  were  two  tombs  of  unusual 
size,  built  of  square  masses  of  calcareous  tufa,  of  great  size  and  well  joined 
together.  A  portion  of  the  contents  was  stolen.  Professor  Orsi  saw,  at  a 
jeweller's  in  Syracuse,  the  following  objects  from  these  excavations :  two 
silver  fibulae ;  two  simple  silver  earrings  ;  a  silver  ring  with  an  imitation 
scarab  ;  fragments  of  silver  hair-pins,  of  a  silver  necklace  ;  and  two  figur- 
ines of  nude  Seilenoi,  one  stooping  and  the  other  reclining.  The  museum 
of  Syracuse  has  recovered,  mainly,  unvarnished  vases  of  local  workman- 
ship ;  small  aryballoi  and  bombilioi  of  Corinthian  style ;  a  Phoenician 
aryballos ;  a  large  vase  like  an  Attic  amphora  of  the  advanced  black-figured 
style.  This  vase  is  37  cent,  high,  and  has  a  rich  decoration  on  the  neck 
and  two  subjects  on  the  body — one,  of  two  armed  figures  accompanied  by  two 
attendants ;  the  other,  a  scene  of  combat.  Period  c.  500  B.  c.  Megara  was 
destroyed  in  482.  Three  small  lekythoi  have  black  figures  on  a  red  ground : 
(1)  an  agonistic  scene  with  two  armed  combatants  and  two  agonothetai ;  (2) 
a  bacchic  scene  of  a  female  dancing  with  the  thyrsos  between  two  Satyrs. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  225 

Finally,  there  was  a  cylindrical  ossuary  of  bronze  plate  with  hemispherical 
cover,  like  others  found  at  Megara  and  at  Fusco  near  Syracuse. 

On  the  site  of  the  discovery  there  were  found,  besides  the  tomb,  some 
octagonal  piers,  three  of  which  still  remain  in  position  on  three  bases. 
They  are  of  uncertain  character  and  use  and  should  be  carefully  studied. — 
Not.  d.  Scam,  1889,  pp.  45-6. 

CHRISTIAN  ANTIQUITIES  OF  ITALY. 

FRENCH  ARTISTS  IN  ITALY. — In  the  Amides  Monuments  (1888,  2),  M. 
Eug.  Miintz  publishes  a  memoir  on  the  French  artists  of  the  xiv  cent,  and 
the  propaganda  of  Gothic  style  in  Italy.  Among  the  French  architects  who 
worked  in  Italy  are :  Jean  Deynardeau,  Jean  de  Reims,  Hugolin  de  Flandre, 
Veranus  de  Brioude,  Guillaume  Colombier,  Nicolas  de  Bonaventure,  Pierre 
Loisart,  Jean  Compomosy,  Jean  Mignot.  Among  the  sculptors  are :  Jean 
de  France,  Roland  Raniglia,  Guillaume  de  Ve"ry,  Anex  Marchestem.  The 
painters  are :  Jeaninus  de  Franzina,  Frederic  Tedesco.  The  metal-workers, 
several  of  whom  worked  at  the  court  of  the  King  of  Naples,  are :  Etienne 
Doscerre,  Guillaume  de  Verdelet,  Richelet  de  Ausuris,  Jean  de  Saint-Omer. 

PAVIA. —  Certosa:  Discovery  of  the  body  of  Jan  Galeazzo  Visconti. — The 
tomb  of  Jan  Galeazzo  Visconti  and  Isabelle  de  Valois  has  been  found  in 
the  Certosa  of  Pavia,  and  opened.  The  skulls,  covered  with  crimson  velvet, 
are  well  preserved,  and  the  garments  are  of  gold  tissue.  There  were  found 
with  the  bodies :  a  sword,  a  poniard,  gilt-bronze  spurs,  and  a  majolica  vase 
with  the  arms  of  the  Visconti. —  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  p.  120;  Academy, 
May  4. 

ROMA. — Drawings  of  early  Mosaics. — Herr  Ficker  presented  at  recent 
meetings  of  the  German  Institute  (Dec.  21  and  Jan.  4)  photographs  of 
drawings  in  Codex  Escorialensis  ~  -n-7,  which  reproduce,  by  the  hand  of 
a  draughtsman  of  the  last  years  of  the  xv  century,  many  of  the  monuments 
of  Rome.  Interesting  for  Christian  archseology  are  two  drawings  of  early 
mosaics  on  the  recto  and  verso  of  fol.  iv.  The  first,  called  merely  musaicho, 
represents  a  shepherd  in  chlamys  and  paenula,  with  crossed  legs,  among 
oxen ;  in  the  second  zone,  an  aviarium  or  opviQarpo^tiov  ;  and  finally  a 
shepherd  caressing  two  sheep  :  these  are  the  principal  motives  of  the  decora- 
tion of  the  left  apse  of  SS.  Rufina  and  Secunda,  repeated  in  that  of  San 
Clemente  (De  Rossi,  Mus.  Cr.,  v-vi,  f.  1-2).  The  drawing  confirms  De 
Rossi's  conjecture  regarding  the  drawings  of  Cod.  Vat.  5407,  and,  with 
Panvinio's  notice  (De  praec.  Urbis  basil.,  p.  158),  gives  material  for  a  re- 
construction of  the  mosaic.  The  other  drawing  is  marked  tutto  musaicho 
in  santa  ghostanca,  and  throws  full  light  on  the  famous  cycle  of  mosaics  at 
S.  Costanza :  there  were  three  zones,  two  of  them  with  historical  scenes, 
the  lower  of  the  Old  and  the  upper  of  the  New  Testament.  By  this  means, 


226  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  ARCH^OLOG  Y. 

comparing  the  drawings  of  Francesco  d'Olanda,  Sangallo,  and  others,  the 
mosaics  may  be  restored  (De  Rossi,  Mus.  Cr.,  xvii-xxm,  f.  5  sqq.}.  The 
attempt  at  reconstituting  the  entire  cycle  has  been  made  by  De  Rossi,  who 
presented  his  drawings  at  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the  Institute  (Feb.  1). — 
Bull.  1st.  Germ.,  1888,  iv ;  1889,  i. 

Palace  of  the  Senators,  Capitol. — A  part  of  the  ancient  decorations  of  the 
xv  cent,  have  come  to  light  on  the  fa9ade  of  the  palace  of  the  Senators  on 
the  Capitol.  These  decorations  were  simply  covered  up,  in  the  xvi  cent., 
with  a  coating  of  mortar  and  one  of  painting.  Even  the  shields  of  the 
senators  have  been  found,  a  Roman  coat  of  arms  with  the  crown  of  Anjou, 
which  is  thus  dated  as  a  work  of  the  xiu  cent. :  some  reliefs  preserve  their 
original  painting. —  Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  116. 

Discovery  of  a  xm-centwry  Fresco.— In  removing  part  of  Michael  An- 
gelo's  fa9ade  on  the  Roman  Campidoglio,  a  fresco  of  the  thirteenth  century 
has  been  found,  representing  the  Madonna  and  Child  admirably  executed,  it 
is  said.  It  will  be  placed  in  the  Capitoline  Museum. — Athenaeum,  May  18. 

TARANTO. — The  gold  cross  of  St.  Cataldus. — Professor  Mahaffy  writes: 
"  Here  is  a  rediscovery  of  a  precious  Irish  relic  in  Southern  Italy.  Search- 
ing Taranto  lately  for  traces  of  the  books  and  other  remains  of  St.  Cataldus, 
who  founded  the  church  there,  I  was  shown  an  ancient  simple  gold  cross 
(set  in  a  large  gaudy  one),  which  was  taken  from  the  breast  of  the  saint 
when  his  body  was  raised  and  turned  into  relics  in  the  eleventh  century. 
Johannes  Juvenis  tells  of  this  discovery,  and  says  the  saint's  name  was  on 
the  cross  in  the  letters  c.  T.  This  I  found  inaccurate.  The  characters 
were  quite  plain,  CAALDUS  RA  :  and,  on  the  downward  limb  of  the  cross,  a 
combination  of  letters  with  a  line  drawn  over  them  reading  apparently 
CHAV,  but  all  so  brought  together  that  I  was  at  first  taken  in  by  the  read- 
ing CHRISTI  adopted  by  the  clergy  in  the  church.  Having  drawn  the  thing 
carefully,  I  found,  by  consulting  the  '  Lives  of  the  Saints,'  that  Cataldus 
before  he  went  abroad  had  been  made  Archbishop  of  Rachau  in  Ireland, 
and  was  known  as  Rachaensis.  Here,  then,  was  the  solution  !  But  the 
odd  thing  is  that  Colgan  and  other  authorities,  being  unable  to  find  any 
such  diocese  in  Ireland,  have  been  enfending  the  text  of  Johannes,  and 
reading  Rohan  or  some  such  word.  The  letters  on  the  cross  confirm  the 
old  author,  and  leave  us  a  record  of  an  ecclesiastical  foundation  apparently 
not  otherwise  known.  The  saint  cannot  date  later  than  the  seventh  cen- 
tury ;  tradition  at  Taranto  says  the  fourth  :  further  research  disclosed 
to  me  that  Ussher  ('  Works,'  vol.  vi.  p.  306)  had  learnt  the  truth  about 
the  cross  from  the  epic  poem  of  Bonaventura  Moronus  called  Cataldias, 
or  rather  from  the  notes  on  this  poem  in  the  edition  of  Bartholomseus 
Moronus  (Rome,  1614).  The  poet  says  the  cross  was  jewelled,  which  is 
false.  The  commentator  describes  the  cross  as  plain  gold ;  he  does  not 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  227 

notice  the  line  of  abbreviation  over  the  last  syllable,  but  adds  that  the 
present  larger  cross,  in  which  it  is  now  set,  was  made  for  it  in  the  year 
1600  by  Joannes  de  Castro,  a  famous  Spanish  archbishop  of  Taranto." — 
Athenceum,  May  25. 

FRANCE. 

GRANTS  FOR  ARCHAEOLOGY. — The  Minister  of  Fine  Arts  has  asked  the 
Chamber  for  a  supplementary  credit  of  three  millions  and  a  half  for  different 
expenses  in  the  museums.  15,000  fr.  are  for  the  creation  of  a  third  Dieu- 
lafoy  Hall  in  the  Louvre  for  the  smaller  antiquities  from  Susa — basreliefs, 
architectural  fragments,  keramics,  bronzes,  arms,  and  statuettes.  15,000 
fr.  are  for  the  cleaning  of  the  works  of  art  decorating  the  public  gardens 
and  parks.  10.000  fr.  are  for  a  new  Egyptian  gallery  in  the  Louvre. — 
Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  84. 

MONTEVILLIERS  (Seine-inf.). — Injury  to  the  church. — This  church  is  men- 
tioned in  a  chart  of  1241.  In  the  xv  cent.,  the  nave  was  enlarged,  the  six 
N.  chapels  and  the  new  portal  constructed.  The  roof  of  both  Romanesque 
and  Gothic  naves  has  been  destroyed,  and  also  part  of  the  fine  Romanesque 
tower  on  the  fayade. — Rev.  Art.  Chretien,  1889,  p.  274. 

PARIS.- — LOUVRE. — M.  Courajod  calls  attention,  in  the  Chronique  des 
Arts  (1889,  p.  93)  to  a  very  important  work  of  Spanish  art  of  the  Renais- 
sance recently  acquired  by  the  Louvre.  It  is  a  crucifixion  in  which  the 
figure  is  33  cent,  long  and  modelled  in  terracotta  with  extraordinary  deli- 
cacy and  perfect  anatomical  knowledge,  while  the  head  is  extremely  noble. 
The  cross  is  of  wood.  The  well-studied  drapery  is  in  the  Flemish  style. 
The  entire  figure  is  painted.  This  work  belongs  to  the  School  of  Seville, 
and  probably  is  by  the  hand  of  its  famous  artist,  Martinez  Montanez. 

MUSEUM  OF  SEVRES. — The  President  of  the  Republic  has  received  from 
the  King  of  Corea  a  box  containing  two  porcelain  bowls  of  Corean  manu- 
facture dating  from  the  xni  century.  These  invaluable  works  have  been 
placed  in  the  Sevres  museum. 

MEDIAEVAL  ART  AT  THE  EXPOSITION. — An  exhibition  of  church-treas- 
ures will  take  place  at  the  Trocadero  during  the  entire  period  of  the  Ex- 
position. The  greater  part  of  th%  prelates  have  adhered  to  the  project. 
Among  the  principal  treasures  promised  are  those  of  Reims,  Sens,  Limoges, 
Obazine  and  Cinques,  which  contain  pieces  of  extraordinary  historic  and 
artistic  value.  The  walls  of  the  exhibition  galleries  will  be  covered  with 
ancient  tapestries. —  Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  pp.  83,  98. 

SALIGNY  (Allier). — Numismatic  discoveries. — An  important  discovery  has 
been  made  here  of  a  lot  of  more  than  300  Roman  Imperial  denarii  in  fine 
preservation.  There  are  some  rare  reverses,  some  pieces  of  Balbinus, 
Pupienus,  Geta,  some  types  of  empresses,  especially  of  Salonina,  and  a 
certain  quantity  of  coins  of  Saloninus  with  the  goat  Amaltheia  and  the 


228  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

legend  IOVICRESCENTI.  In  the  same  department  were  found  two 
military  strong-boxes,  hidden  under  ground  in  the  time  of  Diocletian.  One 
contained  more  than  80  kilogr.  of  small  bronzes,  in  superb  preservation,  of 
Aurelian,  Claudius  Gothicus,  Quintillus,  Constantius,  etc.  The  finest  were 
added  to  the  collection  of  M.  Perot  of  Moulins.  Among  the  rarities  were 
coins  of  Allectus,  Quietus,  Carausius,  Magnia  Urbica,  Carus  and  Carinus, 
some  rare  reverses,  and  many  coins  struck  in  Gaul. — Riv.  Numis.  Ital., 
1889,  p.  131. 

GERMANY. 

BERLIN. — New  Museums. — Two  new  museums  are  to  be  erected  at  Berlin, 
says  the  Chronique  des  Arts,  near  the  existing  museums,  and  to  be  sever- 
ally appropriated  (1)  to  pictures  and  sculptures  of  the  Renaissance,  and  (2) 
to  the  sculptures  brought  from  Pergamon  and  to  other  antique  sculptures. 
— Athenaeum,  May  18. 

BONN. — In  the  church  of  the  Franciscans,  the  removal  of  whitewash  has 
disclosed  the  existence  of  a  number  of  scenes  painted  in  fresco  and  dating 
from  the  middle  of  the  xiv  cent. —  Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  93. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

SZILAGY-SOMIYO  (Hungary). —  Treasure. —  There  have  recently  been 
placed  on  exhibition  in  the  National  Museum  of  Buda-Pesth,  the  precious 
objects  found  by  a  peasant  and  designated  under  the  name  of  the  treasure 
of  Szilagy-Somiyo.  There  are  29  pieces.  Among  them  is  a  princely  set 
of  jewelry,  of  the  end  of  the  iv  cent. ;  three  massive  gold  goblets,  decorated 
with  enamels ;  a  man's  gold  bracelet ;  clasps  with  precious  stones,  and  two 
gold  shoulder-ornaments. —  Cour.  de  I' Art,  1889,  pp.  145-6. 

VIENNA=VINDOBONA. —  The  Roman  city. — Various  interesting  discoveries 
have  been  made  among  the  remains  of  the  Roman  city.  In  the  centre  of 
the  city,  near  the  cathedral,  remnants  of  a  wall  probably  built  by  Claudius 
to  defend  the  colony  on  the  west :  another  similar  wall  was  found  to  the  east. 
The  existence  of  a  forum  was  ascertained  s.  of  the  Hohenmarkt  square, 
also  of  a  via  principalis  and  a  via  quintana.  The  praetorium  existed  where 
the  Berghof  now  is,  and  the  via  praetoma  divided  the  Roman  camp  into 
two  nearly  equal  parts.  The  quaestorium  rose  near  the  present  Wildpret- 
markt,  when  in  70  A.  D.  an  entire  legion  was  transferred  to  Vindobona, 
the  encampment  was  extended  southward  and  westward  as  the  Danube  and 
topographic  reasons  prevented  extension  in  other  directions.  Proofs  of 
this  are  found  in  an  acqueduct,  in  the  continuation  of  the  via  praetoria,  of 
a  bath  surrounded  by  four  columns,  etc.  To  the  w.  of  the  camp  was  the 
city,  which  has  been  proved  by  an  inscription  (  Cello.  lanuari.  Collegia.  DU) 
to  be  a  municipium.  Many  signs  have  been  found  of  the  fact  that  Vindo- 
bona was  a  flourishing  colony.  The  coins  date  between  Claudius  (41-56 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS.  229 

A.  D.)  and  Theodosios  (379-95  A.  n^.—Nuova  Antologia,  1889,  Apr.  16, 
from  Deutsche  Zeitung. 

ENGLAND. 

HAMMER  (Flintshire). — Destruction  of  the  church. — The  fine  Gothic  church 
of  Hammer,  famous  for  the  beauty  of  its  chaire  de  verite  (1465)  and  its 
painted  glass,  has  been  entirely  destroyed  by  fire. — Revue  de  CArt  Chretien, 
1889,  p.  274. 

LONDON. — The  South-Kensington  Museum  has  just  purchased  a  great  tap- 
estry representing  the  Adoration  of  the  Infant  Jesus.  This  tapestry,  destined 
originally  for  a  private  oratory,  contains  figures  of  natural  size  executed 
with  the  needle  on  a  woollen  background  with  silk  thread,  including  a 
great  deal  of  gold  and  silver  thread.  The  figures,  composition,  color  and 
technique  remind  of  Gerard  David.  It  is  considered  that  the  tapestry  was 
executed  at  Bruges  between  1510  and  1528.  It  comes  from  the  Castellani 
collection.—  Chron.  des  Arts,  1889,  p.  131. 

The  Yates  chair  of  Archaeology  at  University  College. — Mr.  R.  Stuart 
Poole,  the  occupant  of  this  chair,  gave  his  inaugural  lecture  in  the  Botan- 
ical Theatre  on  May  8.  He  has  engaged  the  services  of  Prof.  Boyd  Daw- 
kins  for  prehistoric  archeology  and  those  of  Mr.  Henry  Balfour,  of  the 
Pitt  Rivers  Museum,  Oxford,  for  savage  art,  reserving  for  himself  only 
Egyptian  and  Assyrian  archaeology.  Thus,  instead  of  confining  the  study 
of  archaeology  to  those  branches  which  he  himself  is  competent  to  teach, 
he  sets  a  striking  example  to  his  brother  professors  at  other  universities 
by  calling  in  the  aid  of  distinguished  specialists,  and  inviting  such  as  are 
interested  in  the  arts,  crafts,  and  customs  of  ancient  races  to  study  the 
subject  as  a  whole.  Up  to  the  present  time,  nearly  every  chair  of  archae- 
ology in  the  United  Kingdom  has  been  treated  as  a  chair  of  classical 
archaeology  pure  and  simple,  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  branches — a  course 
eminently  unsatisfactory,  inasmuch  as  it  omits  the  parentage  of  classical 
archaeology  in  the  ancient  East,  and  its  mediaeval  development  in  the 
Gothic  and  Byzantine  schools. 

Prof.  Boyd  Dawkins  was  to  lecture  (May  15)  on  The  Arrival  of  Man  in 
Europe,  and  his  Advance  in  Culture :  Mr.  H.  Balfour  (May  22)  on  The 
Origin  of  Decorative  Art  as  illustrated  by  the  Art  of  Modern  Savages :  on 
May  29,  Prof.  Stuart  Poole  gave  his  introductory  lecture  on  Egyptian 
Archceology ;  on  June  5,  his  introductory  lecture  on  Assyrian  Archceology  ; 
and,  on  June  12,  his  introductory  lecture  on  The  place  of  Archceology  in 
School  and  University  Education.  Each  lecture  will  be  followed  by  demon- 
stations  at  the  British  Museum.  We  understand  that  Prof.  Stuart  Poole 
also  proposes  to  hold  classes  of  an  educational  character  during  the  vacation, 
these  classes  to  be  especially  designed  for  the  benefit  of  students  in  archae- 
ology in  the  final  schools  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge. — Academy,  May  4. 


230  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.     [ENGLAND.] 

ANNUAL  MEETING  OF  THE  EGYPT  EXPLORATION  FUND. — The  second 
ordinary  general  meeting  of  the  Fund  since  its  incorporation  as  a  society 
(the  sixth  since  its  foundation  in  1883)  was  held  in  London  on  April  12. 
The  total  expenditure  for  the  year  1887-88  had  been  £2341,  19s.  lid., 
which  included  the  following  items :  (1)  excavations  on  the  sites  of  Bou- 
bastis  and  the  city  of  Onias,  and  part  of  the  expenses  of  transport  of  anti- 
quities to  Alexandria,  £1564,  13s.  Id. ;  (2)  publications  including  illus- 
trating and  packing  Tanis  I,  and  Naukratis  I,  printing  Goshen  and  the 
third  edition  of  Pithom,  £295,  18s.  2d.  The  total  receipts  for  the  corres- 
ponding period  were  £2563,  4s.  lid.,  the  chief  items  being:  (1)  Subscrip- 
tions, £2500,  Is.  2d.,  which  might  be  subdivided  into  European  subscrip- 
tions, £1300,  Is.  2d.  (which  sum  includes  the  Special  Transport  Fund, 
amounting  to  £390,  2s.  6d.) ;  and  American  subscriptions  amounting  to 
£1200.  In  1886-7  the  gross  expenditure  was  £1516,  6s.  10d.,  as  against 
£2341,  19s.  lid.  for  1887-88 ;  and  the  gross  receipts  for  1886-87  were 
£1718,  13s.  lid.,  as  against  £2563,  4s.  lid.  in  1887-88. 

Miss  Amelia  B.  Edwards,  hon.  sec.,  reported  on  the  work  of  the  past 
year.  Miss  Edwards  said  that  she  had  been  requested  by  the  committee 
to  inspect  and  report  upon  the  monuments  from  Boubastis  which  had  been 
ceded  to  the  society  by  the  Egyptian  Government,  and  that  she  accord- 
ingly went  to  Liverpool  on  March  13, /where  the  monuments  had  just  been 
disembarked  from  the  hold  of  the  steamship  Mareotis,  from  Alexandria. 
On  arriving  at  the  docks,  Miss  Edwards  found  twenty-seven  large  packing- 
cases,  and  ten  colossal  objects,  without  cases — namely,  part  of  the  shaft  of 
a  red-granite  column,  polished,  and  inscribed  with  large  and  deeply  cut 
hieroglyphs ;  a  magnificent  "  lotus-bud  "  capital  in  two  pieces,  each  from 
12  ft.  to  14  ft.  in  length,  and  about  5  ft.  in  diameter ;  a  colossal  torso  of  a 
king  in  red  granite,  of  archaic  style ;  three  large  fragments  of  a  red-granite 
shrine,  exquisitely  sculptured  in  very  low  relief,  and  bearing  the  cartouches 
of  Nectanebo  I ;  while,  towering  above  all  the  rest,  rose  the  enormous 
black-granite  trunk,  legs,  and  throne  of  the  colossal  statue  of  Apepi,  last 
and  greatest  of  the  Hyksos  kings.  In  an  enormous  case,  also  on  the  open 
quay,  was  a  great  Hathor-head  capital  in  red  granite  from  the  hypostyle 
hall  of  the  temple.  This  beautiful  face  measured  some  six  feet  from  chin 
to  brow,  and  was,  literally,  without  flaw  or  scratch.  Very  fine,  also,  was 
a  large  red-granite  slab,  carved  in  low  relief  with  full-length  portraits  of 
Osorkon  II  and  his  wife  Karoama.  The  contents  of  the  cases  represented, 
not  a  selection,  but  a  museum  of  ancient  Egyptian  sculpture.  Here  were 
four  more  pieces  of  the  hieroglyphed  column  on  the  quay,  which  when 
erected  will  have  palm-capital,  shaft,  and  base  complete ;  another  fine  slab 
from  the  festival  hall  of  Osorkon  II ;  another  archaic  torso  in  red  granite, 
the  counterpart  of  the  one  on  the  quay — these  were  evidently  the  upper 


[ENGLAND.]  A&CBJEOLOQ1CAL  NEWS.  231 

halves  of  two  statues  which  originally  had  been  placed  on  either  side  of  a 
doorway ;  a  fine  black-granite  statue  of  heroic  size,  in  two  pieces,  repre- 
senting Rameses  II,  enthroned  ;  another  block  of  the  shrine  of  Nectanebo 
I ;   a  black-granite  statue  of  Bast,  the  tutelary  goddess  of  the  temple ; 
seven  cases  of  limestone  blocks  carved  in  basrelief,  from  a  temple  dedicated 
to  Hathor  by  Ptolemy  Soter,  at  Terraneh,  in  the  Western  Delta ;  and, 
most  valuable  and  important  of  all,  a  case  containing  the  black-granite 
head  of  the  colossal  statue  of  Apepi.     Miss  Edwards  described  this  head 
as  a  masterpiece  of  ancient  art,  instinct  with  individuality,  and  displaying 
in  a  marked  degree  the  ethnical  characteristics  of  the  Mongolian  race. 
The  date  of  Apepi  might  be  approximately  stated  at  1700  B.  c.     The  two 
archaic  torsos  were,  apparently,  the  most  ancient  pieces  of  sculpture  dis- 
covered in  the  ruins  ;  and  Miss  Edwards  mentioned  that  it  was  Prof.  Stuart 
Poole's  opinion  that  they  represented  Khufu,  the  builder  of  the  Great 
Pyramid  (iv  dynasty),  whose  "banner-name  "  occurs  in  the  oldest  historical 
inscription  discovered  in  the  course  of  the  excavations.     Miss  Edwards 
then  went  on  to  say  that,  in  consequence  of  the  enormous  expenses  already 
incurred,  it  had  been  deemed  advisable  to  despatch  direct  from  Liverpool 
such  objects  as  were  destined  for  re-shipment,  in  order  to  avoid  the  cost  of 
sending  them  to  London.     It  had  therefore  devolved  upon  her  to  make  the 
selections  for  America,  Australia,  Liverpool,  and  Manchester.     This  was 
a  very  anxious  task,  which  she  had  discharged  to  the  best  of  her  judgment 
by  sending  to  the  United  States  monuments  especially  representative  of  the 
fine-arts  of  ancient  Egypt,  and  by  reserving  for  the  British  Museum  those 
of  a  more  strictly  historical  character.     Knowing  that  many  of  the  sub- 
scribers had  wished  to  see  the  great  "  lotus-bud  "  capital  in  the  British 
Museum,  Miss  Edwards  felt  somewhat  alarmed  at  having  to  tell  them  that 
she  had  ventured  to  send  that  piece  to  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston, 
and  had  reserved  instead  for  the  British  Museum  the  inscribed  column 
with  the  palm  capital.     The  British  Museum,  moreover,  had  long  possessed 
a  small,  but  very  perfect  "  lotus-bud  "  column  complete  in  black  granite, 
whereas  the  national  collection  possessed  no  specimen  of  the  "  palm  "  order. 
The  great  Hathor-capital  had  long  since  been  promised  to  the  American 
subscribers  ;  and,  as  these  Hathor-capitals  had  been  added  by  Osorkon  II 
to  the  "  lotus-bud  "  columns  of  the  hypostyle  hall,  the  one  was  historically 
the  complement  of  the  other.     It  was  therefore  necessary  to  send  both  to- 
gether.    The  Society  voted  to  present  to  the  city  of  Geneva  a  statue  of 
Rameses  II,  enthroned,  of  heroic  size,  in  polished  black  granite ;  to  the 
University  of  Sidney,  N.  South  Wales,  the  capital  of  a  red-granite  column, 
sculptured  on  two  sides  with  a  colossal  head  of  the  goddess  Hathor  ;  and 
also  voted  donations  to  Manchester,  Liverpool,  Bristol,  and  other  provin- 
cial museums. 
7 


232  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY.     [ENGLAND.] 

Miss  Edwards,  in  proposing  the  donation  to  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts, 
Boston,  U.  S.  A.,  observed  that  this  was  one  of  the  pleasantest  duties  she 
had  annually  to  perform  in  connection  with  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund. 
The  gratitude  of  the  society  to  their  American  supporters  found  its  ex- 
pression in  these  donations ;  and  she  might  say  with  truth  that  they  had 
never  before  given  utterance  to  their  goodwill  in  terms  so  weighty  and  so 
colossal.  The  objects  to  be  presented  from  Boubastis  were  (1)  the  colossal 
Hathor-head  capital  in  red  granite ;  (2)  the  upper  half  of  a  colossal  statue 
of  a  king  in  red  granite,  the  companion  to  which  had  just  been  voted  to 
the  British  Museum ;  (3)  a  colossal  lotus-bud  capital  in  two  pieces,  from 
the  hypostyle  hall  of  the  temple ;  (4)  a  red  granite  slab  in  basrelief  from 
the  festival  hall  of  Osorkon  II.  Also,  from  the  site  of  a  temple  to  Hathor 
founded  by  Ptolemy  Soter  at  Terraneh  (the  ancient  Termuthis),  two  very 
interesting  basrelief  slabs  in  limestone.  The  remains  of  this  temple  were  dis- 
covered and  excavated  by  Mr.  F.  Llewellyn  Griffith  in  1888.  The  Fund 
was  thus  offering  to  America  specimens  of  the  art  of  the  Great  Temple 
of  Boubastis,  dating  from  the  time  of  the  iv  dynasty,  4000  B.  c.,  down  to 
the  time  of  the  xxn  dynasty,  circa  B.  c.  960,  including  a  noble  example 
of  xn  dynasty  work  in  the  monster  lotus-bud  capital.  The  sculptures 
from  Terraneh,  on  the  other  hand,  represented  the  art  of  the  Ptolemaic 
period  under  its  most  engaging  aspect,  and  were  especially  interesting  from 
the  fact  that  very  few  works  of  the  reign  of  Ptolemy  Soter  were  known. 
The  finest  historical  object  (i.  e.,  the  statue  of  Apepi)  had  been  voted  to 
the  British  Museum,  and  the  finest  artistic  object  (i.  e.,  the  great  Hathor- 
head)  to  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  at  Boston. — Academy,  April  27. 


AMERICA. 
UNITED  STATES. 

Remains  of  the  Mound-builders. — Important  discoveries  have  been  made 
near  Floyd,  Iowa,  of  remains  of  the  ancient  mound-builders.  A  circular 
mound  thirty  feet  in  diameter  and  about  two  feet  high  has  been  opened 
and  five  skeletons  were  found.  They  were  exceedingly  well  preserved,  the 
earth  having  been  very  closely  packed  around  them.  Three  of  them  were 
males,  one  a  female,  and  a  fifth  a  babe.  The  skull  of  the  female  is  in  a 
good  state  of  preservation,  and  those  who  have  made  careful  measurements 
of  it  say  that  it  shows  that  the  person  belonged  to  the  very  lowest  type  of 
humanity.  Archaeologists  claim  that  the  measurements  show  inferiority 
even  to  the  celebrated  Neanderthal  skull.  These  bones  are  claimed  to  be 
the  most  perfect  of  any  remains  of  the  mound-builders  yet  discovered. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL  NEWS. 


233 


There  are  several  other  mounds  near  this  one,  and  they  will  be  examined 
in  a  few  days. — N.  Y.  Evening  Post,  May  2. 

MEXICO. 

Preservation  of  Monuments. — The  Mexican  Government  has  passed  a 
law  for  the  preservation  of  national  monuments  and  antiquities.  This  law 
embraces  Yucatan. — Athenceum,  May  4. 

A.  L.  FROTHINGHAM,  JR. 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. ' 


BULLETIN  DE  CORRESPONDANCE  HELLENIQUE.  1888.  March- 
December. — P.  FOUCART,  Athenian  decrees  of  the  iv  century  (pp.  153-79). 
The  first  of  the  decrees  studied  was  found  at  Karpathos.  It  is  placed  a 
little  after  395  B.  c.  The  Athenians  decree  the  title  of  benefactors  to  an 
inhabitant  of  Karpathos  and  his  children  and  to  the  community  of  the 
Heteokarpathians  in  consequence,  apparently,  of  the  gift  of  a  cypress-tree 
for  the  temple  of  Athena :  it  places  them  under  the  protection  of  the  allies 
and  assures  their  autonomy.  The  second  decree  is  of  399/8  B.  c.  under 
the  archonship  of  Aristokrates :  it  confers  the  title  of  proxenos  and  bene- 
factor on  an  Achaian  of  Aigion  and  his  son.  The  third  belongs  to  the 
first  half  of  the  fourth  century.  Demosthenes  contra  LepL,  arguing  against 
the  suppression  of  immunities  accorded  to  strangers  for  services  rendered 
to  the  republic,  cites  earlier  decrees  in  favor  of  the  Thasiotes  and  Byzantines. 
The  revolt  of  Thasos  against  Lakedaimon  was  in  409  B.  c.,  and  a  part  of 
this  decree  is  restored  by  Kohler.  In  390  Archebios  and  Herakleides  de- 
livered Byzantion  to  the  Athenians.  A  fragment  recently  found  on  the 
Akropolis  seems  to  belong  to  the  decree  in  honor  of  Herakleides :  the  date 
is  about  that  of  the  archonship  of  Theodotos  (387/6).  Herakleides  receives 
not  only  the  titles  of  proxenos  and  benefactor  but  other  privileges  and  im- 
munities. The  fourth  decree  is  in  favor  of  another  declared  partisan  of 
Athens,  Archonides,  and  dates  from  the  first  third  of  the  fourth  century. 
The  following  two  fragments,  compared  with  others,  show  that  the  addi- 
tion in  the  decrees,  to  the  name  of  the  orator,  of  the  paternal  name  and  the 
demotikon  took  place  in  353  A.  D.  No.  7  is  of  343/2.  No.  8  is  of  373/2 
under  the  archon  Asteios,  and  contains  merely  the  title  of  the  decree  con- 
ferring a  crown  on  the  Syracusan  Alketas  son  of  Septines.  It  is  suggested 
that  he  is  the  son  of  the  Septines,  brother  of  Dionysios  the  elder,  who  was 
honored  by  a  decree  in  393. — G.  FOUGERES,  Thessalian  basreliefs  (pp. 
179-87  ;  pis.  v,  vi).  A  summary  of  this  paper  was  given  in  News  under 
titles  Larissa  and  Pharsala  in  the  JOURNAL,  vol.  iv,  pp.  205-6. — H.  LECHAT 
and  G.  RADET,  Inscriptions  of  Asia  Minor  (pp.  187-204).  These  inscrip- 
tions were  found  on  a  trip  made  in  May  and  June  1887.  A  summary  has 
been  already  given  in  News  on  p.  196  of  vol.  iv,  under  Asia  Minor. — G. 
COUSIN  and  G.  DESCHAMPS,  Inscription  of  Magnesia  on  the  Maiandros  (pp. 
204-23).  This  inscription  is  engraved  on  two  long  superposed  drums 
of  columns.  The  upper  one  had  disappeared,  and  its  part  of  the  inscrip- 
234 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  235 

tion  is  published  from  two  copies  previously  made  by  natives.  The  text 
consists  of  two  parts :  (1)  the  decree  proper ;  (2)  additional  information. 
The  phraseology  is  somewhat  comical :  "Considering  the  fact  that,  under 
the  happy  reign  of  the  Emperor  Trajan  Hadrian  Caesar  Augustus,  it  is 
suitable  to  ameliorate  and  add  to  those  things  that  are  useful  to  men ;  (con- 
sidering) that  the  use  of  oil  is  most  appropriate  and  necessary  to  the  body  of 
man,  especially  of  old  men ;  that  the  amount  of  six  xoes  of  oil  furnished  daily 
by  the  city,  though  certainly  amounting  to  something,  is  still  insufficient: 
it  would  be  well  to  add  to  it  from  the  revenues  of  the  gerousia  as  much  as 
possible,  and  to  embellish  the  gift  of  the  city  and  make  it  so  large  that 
every  one  can,  if  possible,  have  a  share  in  it.  To  good  Fortune :  It  has 
been  decided,  etc.  .  ."  The  amount  of  oil  added  is  a  daily  gift  of  three 
Xoes.  The  three  functionaries  mentioned  are  the  Aeiroupyos  or  religious 
director;  the  dvrtypa^evs  or  comptroller  of  finance,  and  the  7rpay//,aTi/cos  or 
intendant.  The  sums  necessary  for  the  purchase  of  the  oil  are  to  be  taken 
from  certain  revenues  appropriated  to  these  officers,  enumerated  below  in 
the  inscription. — G.  RADET,  Inscriptions  of  Amorgos.  The  discoveries  of 
the  French  School  in  Amorgos  are  described  in  the  JOURNAL,  vol.  iv,  pp. 
201-2,  350-1.  No.  1,  found  at  Kastri,  is  a  decree  of  Arkesine  in  honor 
of  Androtion  son  of  Andron,  the  Athenian,  evidently  the  statesman  known 
by  his  book  on  Athenian  Annals  and  by  Demosthenes'  address  against  him. 
As  little  was  known  of  his  life,  this  inscription  is  interesting.  He  was  gov- 
ernor of  Arkesine*,  and  lent  it  money  without  interest :  this  was  probably 
at  the  time  of  the  Social  War  (357-5).  No.  3  is  a  decree  of  the  early  iv 
cent,  whose  object  is  to  diminish  the  number  of  lawsuits  by  assuring  arbi- 
tration and  imposing  heavy  fines. — H.  LECHAT,  Excavations  of  the  Akro- 
polis. — 'V.  BERARD,  Inscription  of  Laurion.  See  JOURNAL,  vol.  iv,  p.  205. 
G.  DESCHAMPS  and  G.  COUSIN,  Inscriptions  of  the  Temple  of  ZeusPana- 
maros  (pp.  249-73).  [See,  for  a  notice  of  these  excavations  at  Stratonikeia 
in  Lykia,  vol.  iv,  p.  222.]  The  sacred  precincts  of  the  Panamara  contained 
several  temples.  The  most  important  was  that  of  Zeus :  the  second  that  of 
Hera:  the  third,  more  difficult  to  assign,  called  the  Ko/^uptov,  probably  the 
special  temple  of  Zeus  K(o//,vpos  anciently  worshipped  at  Halikarnassos. 
Therefore,  most  of  the  inscriptions  found  atBaiaca  bear  mainly  the  names 
of  Zeus  and  Hera.  On  the  fetes  ofihQKomyria,Heraia  smdPanamareia, 
people  came  from  all  parts ;  consequently,  many  neighboring  divinities 
received  hospitality.  The  inscriptions  here  published  are  divided  into  two 
classes,  (1)  a  series  of  dedications  to  Zeus  and  Hera  ;  (2)  a  number  of  ex- 
votos  consecrated  to  other  divinities.  Some  of  the  early  inscriptions  give 
Kaptos,  the  true  epithet  of  the  god,  while  nava//,apos  is  a  posterior  surname. 
Five  of  the  stelai  name  a  group  of  persons,  Flavius  Aristolaos,  "  friend 
of  Caesar  and  friend  of  the  city,"  father  of  Leontis  who  was  priestess 


236  AMERICAN  JO  URN  A  L  OF  ARCHMOL  OGY. 

with  Flavius  Aeneas,  whose  son,  Titus  Flavius  Leon,  afterwards  had  the 
priestly  office.  There  follow  two  dedications  to  Zeus  Kannokos  (KawtoKos), 
to  Hera,  and  to  Nike.  The  Karian  idea  of  the  direct  intervention  and 
real  presence  of  the  gods  is  evident  in  these  votive  stelai.  Other  divinities 
mentioned  are  Apollon  and  Artemis  (whose  worship  was  very  popular  in 
Karia),  Demeter,  Aphrodite",  Hekate1,  etc. — G.  FOUGERES,  Archaic  basrelief 
of  Tyrnavo  (Phalanna)  (pp.  273-6 ;  pi.  xvi).  This  sculpture  is  on  the 
upper  part  of  a  small  sepulchral  stele  of  white  marble :  the  subject  is  a 
youthful  female  figure  spinning :  she  must  have  been  standing,  holding 
the  spindle  high  with  her  left  hand :  only  the  head  and  neck  and  the  hand 
holding  the  spindle  are  left.  The  style  is  extremely  interesting  and  reminds 
of  that  of  the  two  girls  on  the  stele  of  Pharsala  found  by  M.  Heuzey, 
though  the  face  lacks  their  vivacity  of  expression.  Nevertheless,  they 
are  of  the  same  time,  i.  e.,  the  close  of  the  vi  cent.,  and  almost  by  the  same 
hand.— W.  R.  PATON,  Inscriptions  of  Myndos  (pp.  277-83).  Nos.  1  and 
2  are  fragments  of  a  list  of  priestesses  of  Artemis.  No.  6  gives  the  exact 
name  of  the  island,  not  before  known  :  it  is  Pserymos. — P.  FOUCART,  The 
gold  figures  of  Nike  of  the  Akropolis  (pp.  283-93).  Thoukydides  reports 
an  address  byPerikles  enumerating  the  pecuniary  resources  of  Athens  for 
the  war,  in  which  the  gold  statutes  of  Nik6  are  probably  included  in  the 
term  iepa  a-Kevr).  He  it  doubtless  was  who  had  the  idea  of  transforming 
into  works  of  art  the  mass  of  precious  metals  which  constituted  the  treasure 
of  the  gods  and  the  reserve  of  the  republic.  At  all  events,  the  gold  Nikes 
existed  before  the  beginning  of  the  Peloponnesian  war.  They  are  men- 
tioned in  a  decree  probably  of  the  year  435.  An  inscription  found  in  1887 
is  the  first  one  to  mention  these  statues.  It  is  at  the  close  of  an  inventory 
of  the  treasures  of  the  goddess  different  from  any  already  known.  Its 
date  is  slightly  anterior  to  the  Persian  war.  One  statue  is  mentioned  as 
already  existing.  The  two  next  mentioned  were  made  that  year  by  the 
artists  .  .  .  chides  and  Timodemos  with  the  gold  given  them  by  the  com- 
mittee of  eTrto-rarat.  All  the  Nikes  were  not  cast  in  the  same  mould,  but 
differed  in  some  details.  In  407,  the  Athenians  were  forced  to  melt  the 
statues  into  money :  at  the  close  of  the  Peloponnesian  war,  part  of  these 
statues  were  restored.  A  second  fragment,  dating  from  about  the  archon- 
ship  of  Eukleides,  inventories  one  Nike1,  giving  the  weight  of  each  part. 
The  second  one  weighs  one  talent  5987  drachmas ;  the  weight  of  a  third  is  not 
given.  The  date  of  the  second  Nike;  is  very  early  :  it  existed  before  the  date 
of  inscr.  No.  1,  and  is  the  same  as  that  mentioned  in  it :  it  differs  in  details 
from  the  two  new  statues  of  the  fifth  cent,  and  that  of  the  fourth,  which 
do  not  hold  crowns.  This  is  a  proof  that  one  and  perhaps  more  of  the 
statues  were  not  cast  in  407.  It  is  supposed  that  these  early  figures  were 
not  placed  in  the  Hekatompedon  but  in  another  building.  There  were 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  237 

originally  ten  statuettes  weighing  on  the  average  two  talents  of  gold  each, 
or  a  total  of  524  kilograms,  and  of  a  total  value  of  over  200  talents,  thus 
forming  the  major  part  of  the  reserve  fund.  Only  three  were  in  existence 
— two  old  and  one  new — shortly  after  the  end  of  the  Peloponnesian  war, 
and  it  was  not  until  long  after  that  the  orator  Lykourgos  procured  for  the 
republic  the  means  necessary  for  the  manufacture  of  the  other  seven.  All, 
however,  were  taken  by  the  tyrant  Leochares. — A.  L.  DELATTRE,  Impre- 
catory inscriptions  found  at  Carthage  (pp.  294-302).  In  the  second  pagan 
cemetery  of  Bir-el-Djebbana  were  found  seven  leaden  tablets  covered  with 
inscriptions  written  with  the  stylus  and  containing  imprecatory  formulas. 
They  are  the  Gnostic  amulets  called  abraxas,  and  were  found  in  sepulchral 
cippi.  No.  1  contains  a  list  of  thirty  horses  to  be  cursed :  No.  2,  a  list  of 
drivers  against  whom  the  charm  was  to  work.  The  following  texts  are 
almost  illegible  from  the  minuteness  of  the  letters.  The  celestial  and  in- 
fernal powers  are  adjured  to  bind  the  members  and  muscles  of  the  opposing 
drivers  and  their  horses,  to  bind  their  limbs  and  stop  their  course,  to  tor- 
ture their  soul  and  prevent  them  from  gaining  the  victory. — R.  DARESTE, 
Note  on  a  mortgage  inscription  (pp.  302-5). — M.  HOLLEAUX,  Inscription 
of  Alcraiphiai  (pp.  305-15).  This  inscription  was  discovered  by  Leake, 
and  published  first  by  Ulrichs,  and  then  by  Keil.  Many  phrases  badly 
mutilated  in  their  copies  are  made  plain  by  this  further  publication. — TH. 
HOMOLLE,  Two  basreliefs  found  at  Delos  (pp.  315-23  ;  pi.  xiv).  The  first 
relief,  illustrated  on  pi.  xiv— 1,  is  mutilated  on  all  sides:  it  represents  a 
female  figure  seated,  in  a  graceful  position,  on  a  stone  bench,  resting  lightly 
on  her  right  arm.  The  forms  are  supple,  the  drapery  is  masterly,  and  its 
style  is  that  of  the  masters  of  the  close  of  the  fifth  or  the  beginning  of  the 
fourth  cent.  The  second  fragment  (xiv— 2)  is  only  the  upper  right-hand 
corner  of  a  relief  of  Paros  marble  on  which  is  part  of  a  female  figure, 
probably  Artemis.  Both  these  works  attest  the  Athenian  influence  at 
Delos. — G.  DESCHAMPS,  Excavations  in  the  island  of  Amorgos  (pp.  324—7). 
See  JOURNAL,  iv,  201-2,  350-1. — P.  F(OUCART),  A  decree  of  Magnesia  on 
the  Maiandros  (pp.  328-30).  The  preamble  of  the  inscription  gives  new  in- 
formation on  the  little-known  constitution  of  Magnesia  on  the  Maiandros 
and  on  its  calendar.  It  also  makes  known  the  college  of  strategoi  and  the 
importance  of  the  secretary  of  the  people. — An  Athenian  decree  (p.  331). 
This  is  the  fragment  of  a  decree  of  the  tribe  Erechtheis  ordering  an  annual 
sacrifice  to  Poseidon  and  Erechtheus :  it  belongs  to  the  middle  of  the  iv 
cent. — H.  LECHAT,  Excavations  on  the  Alcropolis  (pp.  332-6). 

H.  LECHAT,  Excavations  at  the  Peiraieus.  The  ancient  fortifications  (pp. 
337-54 ;  pi.  xv).  This  account  of  the  excavations  on  the  site  of  the  ancient 
walls  of  Eetioneia  is  summarized  in  the  JOURNAL,  vol.  iv,  p.  361 :  cf.  pp.  57, 
98.— DEM.  BALTAZZI,  Inscriptions  of  the  Aiolis  (pp.  358-76).  With  the 


238  .      AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

exception  of  Lesbos,  the  Aiolis  has  given  but  few  epigraphical  texts.  Those 
here  published  are  partly  edited,  partly  inedited.  No.  17  makes  known  to 
us  one  Menekles,  a  Pyrrhonian  philosopher,  who  prides  himself  on  having 
realized  the  pyrrhonian  ideal  of  ataraxia,  i.  e.,  of  an  existence  serene  and 
free  from  passions.  No.  30  shows  that  the  road  from  Ephesos  to  Pergamon, 
built  in  129  B.  c.,  was  repaired  under  Vespasian  in  75  A.  D.  No.  22  men- 
tions several  times  the  city  of  Grynion,  which  has  been  met  with  only  in 
one  other  epigraphic  text. — G.  FouGERES,$fe/e  of  Mantin&ia  (pp.  376-80; 
pi.  iv).  A  description  of  this  stele,  a  Dorian  work  of  the  close  of  the  fifth 
century,  is  given  in  vol.  iv,  p.  360. — M.  HOLLEAUX,  The  Excavations  of  the 
temple  of  Apollon  Ptoos  (pp.  380-404 ;  pis.  xi,  xn).  The  two  handles  of  a 
large  bronze  basin,  found  in  the  excavations  in  1885,  consist  of  two  figur- 
ines formed  by  the  combination  of  a  human  body  and  the  body  of  a  bird : 
the  head,  bust,  and  arms  are  those  of  a  man  ;  the  wings  and  tail  are  of  a 
bird  :  the  wings  are  full-spread.  Similar  works  have  been  found  at  Van  in 
Armenia,  at  Palestrina,  Olympia,  and  Athens — twelve  in  all.  The  motive 
is  certainly  Oriental.  According  to  Furtwangler  (Arch.  Ztg.,  1879,  p.  181 ; 
Bronzef.  a.  01.,  p.  63)  its  origin  is  Assyrian,  from  the  emblem  of  the  god 
Assur.  The  writer  opposes  this  theory  and  supports  an  Egyptian  origin, 
bringing  forward  examples  of  Egyptian  winged  divinities,  part  human  part 
bird.  The  actual  execution  of  the  figurines  may  be  Phoenician.  PI.  xi 
reproduces  a  bronze  statuette  of  a  standing  female,  in  which  a  very  primi- 
tive archaism  is  combined  with  an  art  already  learned,  delicate,  and  almost 
graceful :  it  is  a  transitional  work.  The  head  has  hardly  any  traces  of 
archaism. — J.  N.  SVORONOS,  On  the  A  EBHTE^  (a  kind  of  coinage)  ofKrete 
and  the  date  of  the  great  inscription  containing  the  laws  of  Gortyn  (pp.  405— 
18).  In  supporting  his  view  of  the  sixth-century  date  for  the  text  of  the 
Gortyn  code,  especially  as  against  KirchhofFs  date,  posterior  to  450,  Pro- 
fessor Comparetti  recently  brought  forward  a  discovery  made  by  Dr.  Halb- 
herr.  In  one  of  the  archaic  inscriptions  of  Gortyn,  the  fines  were  to  be  paid, 
not  in  staters,  drachmas,  triobols  or  obols,  but  in  tripods  (rptVoSa)  and  cal- 
drons (XcyS^res).  Not  finding  any  Gortynian  coins  with  either  of  these 
objects,  Comparetti  concluded  that  the  inscriptions  dated  from  the  time 
previous  to  the  introduction  of  coined  money,  i.  e.,  anterior  to  about  650 
B.  c.  These  archaic  inscriptions  are  somewhat  older  than  the  code-inscrip- 
tion, which  would  thus  appear  to  belong  to  the  sixth  century.  The  writer 
here  seeks  to  overthrow  Comparetti's  argument  by  proving  that  a  well- 
known  countermark  on  the  coins  of  many  Kretan  cities,  including  Gortyn 
and  Knossos,  is  nothing  else  than  a  lebes  or  caldron ;  that  all  the  coins  thus 
countermarked  are  staters  ;  and  that  the  lebetes  of  the  archaic  inscriptions 
correspond,  as  Comparetti  recognizes,  with  the  staters  of  the  great  code- 
inscription.  The  earliest  staters  with  the  countermark  of  the  \efir)<;  belong 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  .  239 

to  the  very  period  to  which  Kirchhoff  assigns  the  great  inscription.  It  is 
explained,  that  this  countermark  was  invented  to  establish,  for  purposes  of 
convenience,  a  coinage  common  to  the  tribunals  of  the  different  cities  of  the 
island. — TH.  HOMOLLE,  A  new  name  of  a  Greek  artist  (pp.  419-24).  This 
artist  is  Teletimos.  He  is  requested  by  the  Delians  to  execute  statues  of 
Asklepios  and  of  queen  Stratonike,  who  is  probably  the  daughter  of  Deme- 
trios  Poliorketes  and  wife  of  Seleukos  I.  The  date  may  be  c.  300  B.  c. — 
P.  FOUCART,  A  Latin  inscription  of  Macedonia  (pp.  424-7). — G.  DOUBLET, 
An  inscription  of  Pompeiopolis  (pp.  428-9).  The  date  assigned  to  this  in- 
scription fixes  that  of  the  foundation  of  Pompeiopolis  by  Pompey,  on  the  site 
of  Soloi,  after  Pompey's  third  imperium,  i.  e.,  after  67  B.  c.  Pompeiopolis 
is  the  only  Greek  city  which  struck  coins  with  the  effigy  of  Pompey. — H. 
LECHAT,  Excavations  on  theAkropolis  (pp.  430-40). 

CH.  DIEHL,  Byzantine  Paintings  of  Southern  Italy  (pp.  441-59  ;  pis.  vii, 
vin,  ix,  x).  This  paper  is  entitled  "The  hermit  grottos  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Brindisi."  The  Terra  d1  Otranto,  by  its  geographical  position,  was 
a  great  centre  of  Byzantine  influence,  and  a  home  for  Greek  colonists.  It 
contained  a  very  large  number  of  flourishing  monasteries  of  the  Basilian 
order.  The  great  undulating  plain  is  cut  up  at  every  step  by  numerous 
crevasses  called  gravine,  sometimes  several  kilometers  long,  with  rugged 
sides  and  full  of  rocks  and  boulders.  In  their  slopes  are  thousands  of  natural 
grottos,  which  early  served  as  a  refuge  in  times  of  danger.  Here  the  Greek 
monks  established  themselves  and  founded  chapels  and  sanctuaries  that  were 
much  frequented.  A  number  of  early  paintings  in  the  sanctuaries  of  the 
region  of  Brindisi  are  here  described.  (1)  The  crypt  of  S.  Giovanni  near 
S.  Vito,  where  are  paintings  of  the  native  art  of  the  xm  and  xiv  centuries, 
and  fine  Byzantine  paintings  of  a  much  earlier  date.  Here,  as  often  else- 
where, the  decoration  has  been  periodically  renewed.  (2)  Near  it  is  the 
crypt  of  S.  Biagio  with  pictures  of  the  greatest  importance.  The  date  of 
some  of  these  paintings  is  1197 ;  they  were  executed  by  master  Daniel  under 
the  hegoumenos  Benedict.  The  chapel  was  partly  re-decorated  in  the  xiv 
century. — B.  LATYSCHEW,  The  priestly  regulations  of  Mykonos  (pp.  459-63). 
The  inscription  here  republished  contains  the  regulations  for  sacrifices  in 
this  island.  Some  better  readings  are  proposed. — TH.  HOMOLLE,  On  the 
base  of  a  statue  (from  Delos)  bearing  the  signature  of  an  artist  and  decorated 
with  reliefs  (pp.  463-79 ;  pi.  xm).  This  triangular  marble  base  has  remains 
of  the  feet  of  a  nude  standing  male  figure  slightly  advancing  his  left  leg. 
On  it  is  a  very  archaic  inscription  which  reads :  Fi[<£]iKa/3Ti'8?7s  \  |ju,'d  |  rc&eicc  \ 
ho  |  Naho-tos  >o|i«ras:  "  Iphikartides  of  Naxos  made  and  dedicated  me." 
The  statue  is  probably  that  of  Apollon.  The  base  has  two  gorgoneia  and 
a  ram-head  at  the  corners,  of  an  extremely  rude  and  summary  archaic  style 
of  the  close  of  the  vn  or  the  beginning  of  the  vi  cent.  The  study  of  the 


240  .  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Naxian  alphabet  also  indicates  the  possibility  of  as  early  a  date  as  the  vn 
cent.  Another  early  sign  is  that  the  boustrophedon  inscription  begins  on 
the  right  according  to  Phoenician  traditions.  It  is  interesting  to  compare 
with  it  the  Artemis  of  Nikandra.  This  base  of  Delos  gives  the  earliest 
known  artist's  signature,  anterior  to  that  of  Mikkiades  and  Archermos. — 
G.  DESCHAMPS  and  G.  COUSIN, Inscriptions  of  the  temple  of  ZeusPanamaros 
(contin. ;  pp.  479-90).  Among  the  inscriptions  are  many  dedications  of 
hair  to  the  god.  It  was  the  custom  to  place  in  the  temple  or  in  the  sacred 
enclosure  a  small  stone-coffer  in  the  shape  of  a  stele,  and  to  place  the  hair 
consecrated  in  a  cavity  cut  in  one  side,  often  closed  up  by  a  thin  piece  of 
marble :  the  dedicatory  inscription  was  engraved  on  a  rectangular  cartouche 
between  two  cornices.  Sometimes  the  same  stele  is  used  for  the  ex-votos 
of  several  persons.  Traces  of  a  similar  custom  of  offering  hair  are  found 
at  Athens,  Argos,  Delphoi,  Delos,  Megara,  Troizen,  Titand  (Sikyonia), 
Paros,  Thebes,  Phigaleia,  Hierapolis  (Syria),  Alexandreia  and  Prousa.  In 
almost  all  worships  the  sacrifice  of  the  hair  was  considered  meritorious  and 
agreeable  to  the  divinity.  This  custom  is  found  in  Egypt,  and  also,  in  a 
marked  way,  among  the  ancient  Arabs.  But  there  has  never  been  found 
so  large  and  precise  a  series  of  dedications  as  at  this  Karian  temple.  It  is 
suggested  that  there  was  some  connection  between  hair-offering  and  the  fetes 
of  theKomyria.  Sixty-one  inscriptions  are  given. — E.  POTTIER,  The  archaic 
vases  with  reliefs  in  Greek  countries  (pp.  491-509).  On  archaic  Etruscan 
black  and  red  ware  are  two  kinds  of  decoration  in  relief:  (1)  the  earliest 
kind  was  made  by  rolling  a  cylindrical  mould  or  stamp  over  the  soft  clay, 
producing  a  narrow  band  of  figures  or  animals  repeated  ad  lib.;  (2)  the 
later  kind,  made  by  means  of  isolated  moulds,  represented  single  heads  or 
figures,  thus  ensuring  greater  variety.  Two  questions  arise :  (1)  Did  the 
Etruscans  invent  archaic  vases  with  reliefs  ?  (2)  Admitting  even  the  imi- 
tation of  foreign  models,  Are  the  works  found  in  Etruscan  necropoli  of 
native  manufacture?  The  second  subject  has  recently  been  discussed  be- 
tween MM.  Loeschcke  and  Kekule,  and  is  here  set  aside.  In  accord  with 
Loeschcke,  the  writer  not  only  takes  away  from  the  Etruscans  the  inven- 
tion of  the  technique,  but  also  denies  that  they  manufactured  the  great  mass 
of  these  vases ;  affirming,  on  the  contrary,  their  Sicilian  provenance,  per- 
haps from  Syracuse,  where  they  were  derived  from  Greece  itself.  This  view 
is  supported  by  the  publication  of  a  large  archaic  vase  with  reliefs,  found 
on  the  Akropolis  in  1887,  and  by  an  enumeration  of  other  examples  from 
different  parts  of  Greece,  one  of  the  most  important  being  from  Tanagra, 
now  in  the  Louvre.  Many  more  of  an  extremely  early  date  come  from  the 
islands :  Kythnos,  Tenos,  Krete,  Rhodos,  Kypros.  Notes  are  added  on  finds 
in  Karia  and  the  Troad.  The  conclusions  are,  (1)  that  the  Italian  manu- 
facturers, Etruscans  and  Sicilians,  had  Greek  models  and  invented  nothing; 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 


241 


(2)  that,  in  the  history  of  Greek  keramics  from  the  beginning  down  to  the 
fifth  cent.,  a  large  share  belongs  to  the  technique  in  relief. — M.  HOLLEAUX, 
Address  of  Nero  at  Corinth,  giving  the  Greeks  their  liberty  (pp.  510—28).  A 
note  on  this  address  is  given  in  vol.  iv,  p.  491.  Lines  1-6  contain  the  cir- 
cular addressed  by  the  Emperor  Nero  to  the  Greeks,  ordering  them  to 
assemble  on  Nov.  28,  67  (?)  A.  D.  at  Corinth.  Lines  7-26  have  the  official 
text  of  the  Emperor's  address  delivered  at  that  date;  lines  27-58,  the  de- 
cree in  honor  of  Nero,  voted  by  the  city  of  Akraiphia  on  the  proposition  of 
Epaminondas,  high-priest  for  life  of  the  Augusti  and  of  Nero.  It  would 
seem  as  if  the  cause  for  this  was  the  enthusiastic  reception  which  the  Greeks 
had  given  him  on  his  Achaian  visit,  when  they  humored  all  his  follies  and 
tickled  his  vanity.  This  address  is  the  only  record  of  the  style  and  eloquence 
of  the  emperor.  A.  L.  F.,  JR. 

BULLETTINO  DELL'  IMP.  ISTITUTO  ARCHEOLOG1CO  GERMAN- 
ICO.  SEZIONE  ROMANA.  Vol.  III.  No.  2.— H.  HEYDEMANN,  Obser- 
vations on  the  death  of  Priam  andAstyanax  (pp.  101-12 ;  pi.  in).  In  the 
Museum  at  Florence  is  a  small  slab  in  relief,  coming  originally  from  Greece 
and  known  to  collectors  as  early  as  the  xvn  cent.  It  is  singular  as  be-' 
ing  the  only  example  of  a  Greek  relief  used  in  the  Roman  period  as  a  sepul- 
chral relief.  On  the  altar  where  Priam  is  being  killed,  the  following  Latin 
inscription  was  added  towards  200  A.  D.  :  Aurelia  Secunda\se  viva  fecit  sibi 
et  suis.  The  relief  represents  Priam  seated  on  the  altar  of  Zeus  Herkeios 
defending  himself  against  Neoptolemos,  who  seizes  him  by  the  head  and 
grasps  his  sword,  while  further  on  the  altar  kneels  Hecuba  with  both  arms 
extended.  The  conception  and  composition  full  of  pathos  and  dramatic 
action  reminds  of  the  frieze  of  Phigaleia,  and  the  original  composition,  of 
which  this  appears  to  be  a  copy,  may  be  assigned  to  the  close  of  the  fifth 
cent.  B.  c.  Vase-paintings  represent  Priam  in  the  act  of  fleeing  toward  the 
altar,  or  seated  upon  it  waiting  quietly  the  approach  of  Neoptolemos.  A 
red-figured  vase  of  severe  style  represents  the  death  of  Astyanax,  held  by 
the  hair.  Two  other  vases  of  the  black-figured  style  represent  Priam 
already  wounded  and  dying.  There  are  two  modes  of  representing  the 
death  in  ancient  art,  one  with  and  one  without  Astyanax. — PAUL  WOL- 
TERS,  Contributions  to  Greek  Iconography  (pp.  113-19 ;  pi.  iv).  In  this 
paper,  entitled  ARCHIDAMOS,  W.  examines  a  well-known  fine  bust  from 
the  villa  at  Herculaneum  usually  called,  since  Winckelmann's  time,  a  bust 
of  Archimedes,  on  account  of  a  very  indistinct  inscription  painted  upon  it. 
W.  reads  the  letters  APXIAAMOC,  and  believes  the  portrait  to  be  that  of 
Archidamos  III,  son  of  Agesilaos  king  of  Sparta,  who  first  fought  after 
the  battle  of  Leuktra  and  fell  on  the  very  day  of  the  battle  of  Chaironeia. 
A  statue  was  dedicated  to  him  at  Olympia  by  the  Lakedaimonians  (Paus. 


242  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

vi.  4.  9) ;  another,  also  at  Olympia,  perhaps  by  the  grateful  Tarentines. 
This  btist  may  be  copied  from  one  of  these. — A.  MAU,  Excavations  of  Pom- 
peii. Tombs  of  the  Via  Nucerina  (pp.  120-49).  The  Street  of  Tombs  here 
described  has  already  been  noticed  in  vols.  n,  p.  484,  in,  183,  and  iv,  104-5. 
It  is  only  necessary  to  add,  that  architecturally  these  tombs  may  be  divided 
into  two  classes :  one,  simple  (Nos.  1 ,  3,  5)  with  or  without  angular  pilas- 
ters ;  the  other,  richer  (Nos.  2,  4,  6)  with  angular  columns  and  half  col- 
umns, this  class  being  later.  All  belong  to  the  rite  of  cremation. — CH. 
HUELSEN,  Remarks  on  the  architecture  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus 
(pp.  150—5).  In  view  of  the  scarcity  of  information  regarding  this  impor- 
tant monument,  the  writer  calls  attention  to  two  drawings  in  the  Uffizi  at 
Florence,  one,  surely,  the  other,  probably,  executed  by  Antonio  da  San- 
gallo  the  younger.  One  represents  a  column,  the  other  a  cornice  said  to 
have  been  brought  from  the  temple  of  the  Olympian  Zeus  by  Sulla  for  the 
Capitoline  temple.  The  fine  Corinthian  cornice  is  simpler  than  those  of 
the  second  and  third  centuries,  and  by  means  of  it  several  theories  are  ad- 
vanced regarding  the  architecture  of  the  temple. 

No.  3. — F.  DUMMLER, Fragments  of  vases  from  Kyme  inAiolis  (pp.  159- 
80).  The  fragments  were  found  at  Kyme  in  1880,  and  belong  mainly  to 
vases  similar  to  both  the  Corinthian  and  the  early-Ionian  styles.  Although 
the  types  are  distinctly  archaic  and  the  technique  early-archaic,  the  period 
may  not  be  earlier  than  the  Persian  wars ;  for  some  positions,  like  that  of  the 
half-turned  Seilenos,  are  unknown  to  strictly  archaic  art.  They  are  inter- 
esting examples  of  a  distinctive  style  belonging  to  part  of  Asia  Minor  and 
developing  on  a  parallel  line  with  the  Rhodian  kerarnics.  This  is  a  fur- 
ther proof  that  the  forerunners  of  Attic  painting  are  to  be  sought  not  only 
in  Corinth  but  in  Asia  Minor.  A  study  is  then  made  of  the  Ionian  mo- 
tives used  in  these  vases  from  Kyme,  and  a  catalogue  of  comparative  monu- 
ments is  given.  The  nearest  in  style  are  vases  found  at  Caere,  evidently 
imported,  of  Ionian  style  with  Rhodian  influence  and  acquaintance  with 
Egypt.  The  Kyme  vases  are  of  importance  as  aids  in  settling  the  difficult 
question :  What  early  vases  found  in  Italy  are  foreign  imports,  and  what 
are  native  imitations. — A.  MAU,  Excavations  of  Pompeii  1886-88  (pp.  181- 
207  ;  pi.  vn).  The  excavations  were  limited  to  two  points :  (1)  the  row 
of  houses  extending  on  the  s.  limits  of  the  city,  from  the  triangular  forum 
towards  the  basilica,  and  the  houses  called  "  of  Championnet "  (Ins.  vn.  2) ; 
(T)Insula  xi.  7  to  the  east  of  the  house  called  "del  Centenario  "  (Ins.  ix.  6). 
This  paper  deals  with  Ins.  vin.  2.  House  28  remains  essentially  in  its 
present  form  from  the  Samnite  period  (tufa  period),  but  was  rebuilt  in 
alternate  courses  of  brick  and  stone :  the  style  of  decorations  show  this 
reconstruction  to  have  taken  place  in  the  last  period.  The  atrium  is  tetra- 
style  and  Ionic.  The  next  house,  Nos.  26-27,  goes  back  to  the  same  early 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 


243 


period,  with  later  reconstruction  not  later  than  the  third  decorative  style, 
i.  e.,  about  50  A.  D.  It  is  remarkable  for  a  series  of  subterranean  cham- 
bers. The  following  house,  Nos.  22-24,  is  a  small  bathing  establishment, 
described  in  the  News  on  p.  219.  The  adjacent  construction  (No.  21)  has 
not  yet  been  completely  excavated,  but  it  is  already  evident  that  it  was 
rebuilt  before  the  construction  of  the  bathing  establishment,  to  which,  how- 
ever, the  rooms  to  the  left  of  its  atrium  were  added.  The  decoration  has 
entirely  disappeared.  In  the  atrium  lie  fragments  of  marble  columns  and 
architraves. — CH.  HULSEN,  The  site  and  inscriptions  of  the  Schola  Xantha 
in  the  Roman  Forum  (pp.  208-32  ;  pi.  vin).  The  magistrates  of  Repub- 
lican Rome  who  had  charge  of  the  finances  and  archives  had  offices  by 
the  Roman  forum.  All  these  have  disappeared  without  trace.  In  the 
middle  of  the  xvi  cent,  a  small  building  entirely  of  marble  and  in  perfect 
preservation  was  excavated  near  the  temple  of  Saturn  and  immediately 
destroyed.  This  schola  has  been  variously  placed  by  archaeologists.  The 
writer,  by  an  ingenious  connection  with  the  known  position  of  the  base  of 
Stilicho's  statue  and  a  passage  of  Ligorio,  is  able  to  place  the  building  with 
relative  certainty  on  the  s.  side  of  the  rostra,  between  them  and  the  Via 
Sacra,  facing  the  latter.  The  reconstruction  of  the  epigraphic  texts  is  more 
difficult,  as  none  of  the  four  early  writers — three  of  them  contemporary 
with  the  discovery — report  the  entire  texts.  The  exact  name  of  the  build- 
ing is :  schola  scribarum  librariorum  et  praeconum  aedilium  curulium.  The 
writer  is  opposed  to  the  common  theory,  that  the  restoration  by  Bebryx 
Drusianus  and  A.  Fabius  Xanthus  was  as  late  as  the  middle  of  the  third 
century,  and  assigns  it  to  the  time  of  Caracalla.  In  support  of  this,  he 
gives  a  list,  showing  that  the  double  names  of  servi  and  liberti  of  the  house 
of  Augustus  disappear  after  Trajan.  A  restoration  of  the  various  inscrip- 
tions to  their  conjectured  positions,  and  with  various  readings,  is  given. — 
MISCELLANIES.  J.  Six,  Kleophrades,  son  of  Amasis.  An  examination  of 
a  vase  in  the  Due  de  Luynes'  collection  in  Paris  (  Vases  peints,  p.  24)  shows 
that  it  was  not  executed  by  an  Amasis,  as  the  inscription  cannot  read 
AMA^[isj  eypa<£]^[e,  on  account  of  there  being  no  room  for  a  letter  be- 
tween the  last  3  and  the  three  dots.  Consequently,  there  is  no  Amasis  II 
(Klein,  Meistersig.,  p.  149).  The  inscription  may  be  completed  as  follows : 
WEO<t>RAAES  :  EPOIESEM  |  AMAS[IOS  \  HVVJ3;  This  is,  then, 
the  work  of  a  son  of  Amasis.  Amasis  himself  seems  to  have  been  the  first 
to  paint  in  red  figures,  and  founded  that  school:  this  view  is  supported  by 
the  De  Luynes  amphora  in  which  the  black  and  red-figure  techniques  are 
combined.  On  account  of  Amasis'  connection  with  Egypt  and  perhaps 
with  Naukratis,  there  would  be  a  strong  inference  in  favor  of  the  rise  of 
the  Attic  red-figured  style  under  foreign  influence. — E.  PETERSEN,  The 
theatre  of  Tauromenion.  These  remarks  were  written  after  a  short  visit 


244  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

to  the  theatre,  for  the  purpose  of  showing  that  it  is  worthy  of  more  care- 
ful study  than  has  heretofore  been  given  to  it. — F.  RUHL,  Representation 
of  a  dolmen  on  a  painting  in  Pompeii.  It  is  suggested  that  the  fresco  in 
the  National  Museum,  Naples,  marked  xxxvi,  9042,  with  the  punishment 
of  Dirke,  contains  the  representation  of  a  dolmen. 

No.  4. — G.  JATTA,  The  rivalry  of  Thamyris  and  the  Muses  (pp.  239-53  ; 
pi.  ix).  This  vase  had  been  published  by  Michaelis  as  early  as  1865,  and 
his  drawing  has  been  since  reproduced  by  Comparetti  and  Baumeister:  but 
all  these  writers,  including  also  E.  Pottier  (  Ceram.  de  la  Or.,  p.  359,  pi.  vi), 
are  ignorant  of  the  present  existence  and  ownership  of  the  vase.  Michaelis' 
drawing  also  is  incorrect  in  some  details.  Hence  the  present  publication. 
The  writer  opposes  Michaelis,  who  considered  the  group  of  three  female 
figures  with  erotes  to  be  Sappho,  Aphrodite  and  Peitho,  and  denies  the 
presence  of  Sappho,  the  sole  reason  for  which  is  the  existence  of  the  in- 
scription ^  AO.  This  explanation  is  considered  forced  and  not  justified  by 
myth,  legend,  art,  or  literature.  He  adheres  to  Furtwangler's  opinion,  that 
these  are  Aphrodite,  Peitho,  Paregoros  with  Eros,  Pothos  and  Himeros,  in- 
spiring Thamyris.  The  attitude  of  Apollon  and  the  Muses  towards  Thamy- 
ris is  evidently  one  of  hostility. — A.  MICHAELIS,  The  antiquities  of  the  city  of 
Rome  described  by  Nicholas  Muffel  (pp.  254-76).  Nicholas  Muffel  of  Niirn- 
berg  visited  Rome  in  1452  in  the  suite  of  the  Emperor  Frederick  III,  whose 
crown  jewels  he  carried,  in  view  of  the  coronation  by  Pope  NicholasV.  The 
relation  of  his  journey  was  published  by  W.Vogt  in  1876  in  vol.  cxxvin 
of  the  Bibliothek  des  litterarischen  Vereins  in  Stuttgart,  but  it  has  been  very 
little  noticed.  It  merits  greater  attention,  especially  on  account  of  the  very 
detailed  description  of  the  seven  principal  basilicas  and  the  ancient  monu- 
ments, given  especially  at  the  close  of  the  report.  He  appears  to  have 
carefully  digested  Poggio's  dialogue  de  varietatefortunae.  The  text  is  here 
republished  with  some  omissions. — F.  STUDNICZKA,  The  archaic  statuette  of 
Artemis  from  Pompeii  (pp.  277—302  ;  pi.  x).  The  numerous  recent  discov- 
eries of  archaic  statuary  will  strongly  affect  our  views  regarding  the  group 
of  sculptures  usually  termed  "  archaistic."  It  will  be  recognized  that  these 
are  just  as  much  copies  of  genuinely  archaic  works  as  the  well-known  repro- 
ductions of  sculptures  of  the  masters  of  the  classic  period,  and  they  will 
thus  help  to  reconstruct  the  history  of  early  Greek  art.  Such  a  work  the 
writer  sees  in  a  statuette  of  Artemis,  hunting,  found  in  1760  in  the  tempietto 
of  a  house  in  Pompeii.  Its  base  and  colors  were  then  perfectly  preserved. 
The  height  of  the  figure  is  1.078  met.  The  upper  and  lower  part  of  the 
quiver,  the  attribute  in  the  left  hand,  and  bits  of  the  diadem  are  missing, 
as  are  also  pieces  of  the  garments,  etc.  The  original  of  this  work  may  be 
assigned  to  the  time  of  the  Persian  wars,  the  copy  being  made  in  the  early 
imperial  period.  The  figure  is  represented  as  advancing  rapidly  with  eager 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  245 

eyes  fixed  on  the  distance,  raising  her  long  chiton  with  her  right  hand. 
There  is  great  similarity  to  the  NikS  figures  of  the  Chios- Attic  archaic 
school.  The  archaic  character  of  the  different  parts  is  discussed  in  detail. 
A  good  proof  of  this  being  a  copy  of  an  archaic  original  is  found  in  a  rep- 
lica at  Venice  from  the  Grimani  collection.  A  wall-painting  of  the  time  of 
Augustus,  reproducing  the  same  figure,  was  found  in  the  Farnesina  gar- 
dens. The  bow  held  in  the  left  hand  leads  one  to  restore  the  same  in  the 
hand  of  the  statue.  This  is  supported  by  several  coins  reproducing  the 
so-called  Sicilian  Artemis.  Pausanias  (vn.  18.9)  describes  at  Patrai  a 
statue  of  Artemis  by  Menaichmos  and  Soidas,  artists  of  Naupaktos,  trans- 
ported there  from  Kalydon  by  Augustus.  This  is  considered  to  be  possibly 
the  original  of  the  Pompeian  statue. — E.  PETERSEN,  Commodus  and  Tritons 
(pp.  303-1 1).  An  elegant  bust  of  Commodus  in  the  new  Capitoline  Museum, 
supposed  to  have  no  connection  with  the  two  tritons  placed  near  it,  is  shown 
to  have  formed  their  centre-piece,  instead  of  a  Neptune,  as  had  been  sug- 
gested. On  sarcophagi,  tritons  and  other  mythical  creatures  are  often  rep- 
resented holding  a  circle  with  the  portrait-head  or  heads  of  the  deceased. 
The  bust  seems  to  have  been  held  directly  by  the  tritons,  and  the  entire  com- 
position would  thus  very  easily  be  fitted  into  a  gable. — T.  MoMMSEN,.Le#er 
to  C.Huelsen,  supporting  his  demonstration  of  the  disuse  of  double  names 
of  servi  and  liberti  after  Trajan.  A.  L.  F.,  JR. 

GAZETTE  ARCHEOLOGIQUE.    1888.    Nos.  7-8.— H.  DEGLANE,  The 

Palace  of  the  Ccesars  on  the  Palatine  (pp.  145-63 ;  pis.  21,  22,  23)  (contin.). 
The  constructions  under  Augustus  are  first  studied,  then  the  buildings  of 
Tiberius  and  Caligula  and  the  imperial  palace  up  to  the  time  of  the  Flavii, 
then  the  palace  of  Domitian.  These  include  the  house  of  Augustus,  the 
temple  of  Apollo  of  the  Palatine,  the  temple  of  Vesta  of  the  Palatine,  and 
the  library  of  Apollo,  the  palaces  of  Tiberius,  Caligula  and  Nero,  and  the 
palace  of  Domitian.  In  the  latter,  the  entrance,  the  tablinum,  the  lara- 
rium,  basilica,  the  communications  with  the  palace  of  Tiberius,  and  the 
tribunals  are  specially  studied.  The  restored  plan  of  M.  Deglane  evinces 
careful  study  of  previous  restorations  as  well  as  of  the  existing  remains. — 
L.  COURAJOD,  A  sculpture  from  the  church  of  La  Chaise-Dieu  (pp.  164—6; 
pi.  24).  The  church  of  La  Chaise  has  many  features  in  common  with  for- 
eign churches,  but  the  fayade  is  more  truly  national,  especially  the  sculp- 
tured portal  with  its  triple  row  of  archivolts  figured  with  musical  angels, 
patriarchs  and  prophets,  apostles  and  doctors.  The  sculptured  prophet 
here  reproduced  belongs  to  the  great  current  of  French  art  formed  in  Paris 
under  Flemish  influence  during  the  second  half  of  the  xiv  century. — E. 
POTTIER,  Studies  in  Greek  Keramics  (pp.  167-81 ;  pis.  25,  26).  i.  Vases 
with  artists'  signatures.  In  the  Gazette  Arch,  for  1877,  M.  Pettier  increased 


246  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the  series  of  known  signed  vases  by  adding  those  of  the  Ravestein  Museum, 
Brussels.  He  now  adds  a  number  from  the  Louvre,  contributing  also  new 
bibliographical  material  to  supplement  the  work  of  Prof.  Klein,  Die  grie- 
chischen  Vasen  mit  Meistersignaturen.  The  new  names  of  artists  are  Oiko- 
pheles,  Greece ;  Menaidas,  Boiotia ;  Aisehines,  Athens ;  Kallis,  Athens ; 
Oreibelos,  Athens;  Xenotimos,  Italy.  New  ^ases  by  artists  already  known 
are  also  added.  11.  Acquisitions  by  the  Louvre.  An  enumeration  of  about 
150  figurines  and  vases  acquired  by  the  Louvre  from  Feb.  1886  to  Jan. 
1888,  classified  as  of  the  styles  of  Asia  Minor,  of  Krete,  of  the  Cyrenaica, 
Greek  (Attic,  Boiotian,  N.  Greece,  Lokris,  Eretria)  and  Italic. — DIEULA- 
FOY,  Notes  on  the  standard  cubits  of  Persia  and  Chaldaea  (pp.  182-92 ; 
pi.  27).  In  the  Cabinet  des  Medailles  there  is  a  black-marble  rule  covered 
with  cuneiform  characters.  It  was  brought  to  Europe  in  the  xvn  century. 
The  inscription  reads:  "I  am  Darius  the  great  king,  son  of  Hystaspes  the 
Achsemenid."  It  seems  to  be  a  standard  measure,  corresponding  to  a  half- 
cubit.  Its  length  is  0.2656  m.  The  cubit  deduced  from  other  measure- 
ments is  found  to  be  0.5311  m.,  a  sufficiently  exact  correspondence. 

Nos.  9-10. — J.  Six,  Archaic  Vases  with  polychromatic  figures  on  a^black 
background  (pp.  193-210 ;  pis.  28,  29).  The  fact  that  Furtwangler,  in 
his  catalogue  of  vases  in  the  Berlin  Museum,  classifies  these  polychromatic 
vases  with  the  red-figured,  and  Koumanoudis,  in  the  Archaeological  Mu- 
seum at  Athens,  classes  them  with  the  black-figured,  is  only  an  apparent 
contradiction,  as  the  style  covered  both  periods.  Forty-five  vases  of  the 
archaic  period  are  here  studied.  Of  these,  seventeen  come  from  Greece 
proper,  eleven  from  Magna  Graecia,  three  from  Vulci,  four  from  Italy 
(possibly  Etruscan),  and  nine  are  of  uncertain  provenance.  It  is  not  pos- 
sible to  state  the  exact  number  found  in  Athens  or  in  Attika,  but  it  seems 
to  be  large  enough  to  make  it  reasonably  certain  that  they  were  all  made 
in  the  workshops  of  Athens. — H.  DEGLANE,  The  Palace  of  the  Ccesars  ort 
the  Palatine  (contin.  and  end:  pp.  211-24;  pis.  21,  22,  23,  30).  Con- 
tinuing his  survey  of  the  constructions,  the  writer  describes  (8)  the  peri- 
stylium,  a  rectangle  of  over  3000  sq.  meters,  decorated  on  all  four  sides 
with  a  portico  of  channelled  columns.  As  one  faces  the  triclinium,  the 
right  side  led  to  eight  halls,  surrounding  a  central  octagon,  of  small  dimen- 
sions but  varied  in  shape,  and  which  may  be  considered  as  summer  halls 
or  zetae  aestivales.  The  peristyle  of  the  Flavian  palace  joined  on  to  the 
house  of  Augustus  (9),  and  under  it  were  buried,  when  the  level  was  raised, 
some  halls  (10)  built  at  the  end  of  the  Republican  period.  From  the  peri- 
style opened  out  a  large  and  sumptuous  triclinium  (11)  with  a  aymphaeum 
on  either  side,  connected  on  the  one  side  with  the  aedes  Jovis  Victoris  and 
on  the  other  with  the  house  of  Augustus.  Next  came  the  Bibliotheca  and  the 
Academia  (13),  the  stadium  of  Domitian  (14),  the  imperial  tribune  (15), 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  247 

and,  in  front  of  it,  the  portico  of  the  stadium  (16). — M.  COLLIGNON,  Fune- 
rary plaques  in  painted  terracotta  found  at  Athens  (pp.  225-32 ;  pi.  31). 
These  plaques,  now  in  the  Museum  of  Berlin,  were  found  at  Athens,  in 
1872,  in  the  tomb  of  a  woman.  They  are  in  the  archaic  Attic  style,  and 
are  covered  with  painted  funerary  scenes.  The  fragments  belong  to  a 
series  of  twelve  plaques  of  unusual  size,  0.37  cent,  high  by  0.43  cent,  long: 
contrary  to  the  usual  custom  they  have  no  holes  for  suspension.  The 
direction  of  the  painted  maeanders  indicates  that  they  formed  two  distinct 
series  arranged  as  friezes.  They  are  of  extreme  interest  for  the  study  of 
the  funeral  rites  in  Attika,  because  they  represent,  with  details  not  to  be 
found  in  vase-paintings,  the  successive  acts  in  the  ceremonies :  (1)  the  ex- 
position of  the  body  (7iy>o0ecris)  and  the  mourning  ;  (2)  continuance  of  the 
mourning ;  (3)  scene  in  the  women's  apartments ;  (4)  transportation  of 
the  body  (e/c</>opa)  ;  (5)  the  funeral  procession,  including  men  and  women 
on  foot,  chariots,  and  horsemen.  The  conception  and  execution  of  these 
scenes  is  fine.  Their  date  is  thought  to  be  about  550  or  540. — JOIN- 
LAMBERT,  The  inscriptions  (Rebus  and  Enigmas)  of  the  church  of  Saint- 
Gregoire-du-  Vievre  (pp.  233-44 ;  pis.  32,  33).  The  writer  sees,  in  these 
peculiar  figured  drawings  and  inscriptions  on  this  church-wall  of  the  end 
of  the  xvi  century,  signs  of  free-masonry  and  of  protestant  enmity  to  Catholi- 
cism.— A.  DE  CHAMPEAUX  and  P.  GAUCHERY,  Works  of  architecture  and 
sculpture  executed  for  Jean  de  France,  due  de  Berry  (contin. :  pp.  245-54 ; 
pi.  34).  This  ch.  vii  treats  of  the  duke's  tomb.  During  his  lifetime  he 
made  several  efforts  to  erect  a  monument  to  himself,  and  even  went  so  far 
as  to  build  at  Bourges  the  Sainte  Chapelle,  begun  in  1392  and  finished  in 
1405,  which  he  regarded  as  a  mausoleum.  His  death  took  place,  how- 
ever, before  his  monument  was  begun,  and  the  English  wars,  the  penury 
of  the  royal  treasury,  etc.,  prevented  the  carrying  out  of  the  project  until 
1450.  Before  this,  Jehan  de  Cambray,  the  duke's  imagier,  had  executed 
the  effigy  of  his  master.  The  life  and  family  of  Jehan  de  Camb.-ay  are 
studied,  as  well  as  his  works,  and  his  style  is  judged  to  be  Burgundian. 
In  fact  he  was  one  of  the  best  pupils  of  the  famous  Andre  de  Beauneveu. 
In  1453,  when  King  Rene  visited  Bourges,  Estienne  Bobillet  and  Paoul 
de  Mosselemen  are  mentioned  as  the  sculptors  working  on  the  tomb :  at 
least  one  of  these  artists  is  Flemish,  and  this  explains  the  style  of  the 
monument.  They  executed  the  ornamental  part  of  the  sarcophagus  and 
the  surrounding  statuettes.  The  name  of  Paul  Mosselmann  was  already 
known :  that  of  Etienne  Bobillet  is  new.  An  excursus  is  made  in  order 
to  narrate  the  history  of  the  execution  of  the  stalls  of  the  cathedral  of 
Rouen,  in  part  executed  by  Mosselmann.  The  tomb  of  the  due  de  Berry 
was  finished  about  1457,  and  occupied  for  three  centuries  the  centre  of 
the  choir  of  the  Sainte-Chapelle,  until  the  building  was  demolished  in 


248  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

1757,  when  it  was  taken  to  the  cathedral. — A.  VERCOUTRE,  Note  on  a 
piece  of  pottery  with  bilingual  inscription  (pp.  255-6).  This  fragment  was 
found  at  Soussa  and  bears,  on  one  side,  a  Latin  inscription  (PHERI)  and, 
on  the  other,  a  neo-Punic  inscription  of  doubtful  reading. — CHRONIQUE. — 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Nos.  11-12. — J.  N.  SVORONOS,  Odysseus  among  the  Arkadians,  and  the 
Telegoneia  of  Eugammon  (pp.  257-80 ;  pi.  35).  The  coinage  of  Arkadia 
offers  numerous  examples  of  the  use  of  types  of  coins  referring  to  local  myths 
concerning  Artemis,  Arkas,  Paso,  Herakles,  etc.  This  article  refers  to  simi- 
lar types  on  some  coins  from  Mantineia  the  meaning  of  which  has  thus  far 
escaped  the  numismatists  and  archaeologists.  Several  of  these  coins  ex- 
hibit the  figure  of  a  man  carrying  what  appeared  to  be  a  spear  or  har- 
poon. Homer  (Odyss.  XT.  121-34)  shows  this  to  be  Odysseus,  at  the 
moment  when  he  meets  the  predicted  wayfarer  and  plants  his  "shapen 
oar "  in  the  earth  and  sacrifices  to  Poseidon.  This  interpretation  is  sub- 
stantiated by  correspondences  of  the  coins  of  Mantineia  with  the  continu- 
ation of  the  story  of  Odysseus  in  the  Telegoneia  of  Eugammon.  The  con- 
clusions are  thus  summarized  by  the  author :  "  A  single  coin  enables  us  to 
comprehend,  for  the  first  time  after  so  many  centuries,  what  was  the  people 
indicated  by  the  great  poet  in  one  of  the  most  interesting  rhapsodies  of  his 
epic;  it  enables  us  to  avoid  ancient  and  modern  misinterpretations;  to  un- 
derstand the  spirit  and  the  series  of  facts  of  an  epic  which  constitutes  the 
continuation  of  the  Odyssey ;  to  recognize  the  very  interesting  costume  with 
which  they  were  clothed  who  went  down  to  consult  Trophonios ;  it  shows 
us  the  as  yet  unknown  form  of  the  krepides  of  Lebadeia ;  it  gives  us  the 
correct  interpretation  of  one  of  the  rarest  and  most  interesting  of  engraved 
stones ;  it  enables  us  to  understand  why  in  Arkadia  and  not  elsewhere  there 
are  so  many  legends  about  the  end  of  the  life  of  Odysseus ;  in  this  coin,  we 
possess  a  monument  commemorative  of  the  famous  battle  of  Leuktra  and 
of  the  reconstruction  of  Mantineia  under  the  advice  and  support  of  Epami- 
nondas  the  noblest  of  ancient  generals;  the  exact  date  of  the  coin  is  known, 
a  circumstance  of  importance  for  the  chronological  classification  of  the  coins 
of  the  entirePeloponnesos." — J.  Six.,  Archaic  Vases  with  poly  chromatic  figures 
on  a  black  background  (contin.  and  end :  pp.  281-94 ;  pis.  28, 29).  If  doubts 
may  be  cast  upon  the  provenance  of  the  group  of  vases  previously  described, 
the  same  cannot  be  said  of  those  which  form  the  subject  of  the  present  paper, 
as  they  are  undoubtedly  of  Athenian  origin.  The  painting  is  in  general  poor, 
but  the  potter's  work  excellent.  The  little  paterae,  about  twenty  centimeters 
in  diameter,  are  light,  smooth,  and  often  have  the  black  varnish  most  suc- 
cessfully applied.  As  characteristic  marks,  may  be  mentioned,  that  the 
figures  painted  on  the  inner  side  have  always  their  heads  toward  the  centre 
and  feet  toward  the  border ;  and  that  the  omphalos  is  often  surrounded 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  249 

with  radiating  marks  painted  with  greater  carelessness  than  the  rest.  Simi- 
lar careless  marks  sometimes  form  the  band  which  encloses  the  subject-paint- 
ing. A  strong  resemblance  was  first  observed  between  a  fragment  from  the 
Athenian  akropolis  and  the  pottery  of  Naukratis.  Now  that  more  than, 
thirty  such  fragments  have  been  founc[  on  the  Akropolis,  the  presumption 
is  very  strong  in  favor  of  a  date  prior  to  the  Median  wars.  Epigraphic  evi- 
dence establishes  this  conclusion. — G.  DUPLESSIS, Italian  Binding  ofthexv 
century  in  silver  niello  (pp.  295-8  ;  pis.  37,  38).  Of  all  the  known  nielli, 
the  book-covers  here  reproduced  are  the  largest ;  measuring  0.415  X  0.295 
met.  They  are  now  in  the  possession  of  Baron  Nathaniel  de  Rothschild  of 
Vienna,  and  appear  to  have  once  belonged  to  the  Vatican  collections  sold 
in  1798.  As  they  are  of  Italian  workmanship  and  contain  the  arms  of  the 
French  Cardinal  Jean  Ballue,  it  seems  not  improbable  that  they  covered 
an  evangelarium  to  be  presented  to  the  Cardinal  shortly  after  his  nomi- 
nation to  the  office  in  1464,  but  that,  owing  to  the  Cardinal's  unfortunate 
career,  it  could  not  be  presented,  and  found  its  way  naturally  to  the  library 
of  the  Vatican. — MAURICE  PROU,  Carlovingian  inscriptions  in  the  crypts  of 
Saint-  Germain  atAuxerre  (pp.  299-303).  The  monk  Raoul  Glaber  relates 
that,  during  his  stay  in  the  abbey  of  Saint-Germain  at  Auxerre,  he  was 
invited,  about  the  year  1002,  to  restore  the  inscriptions  of  about  22  altars. 
These  epitaphs  cannot  be  earlier  than  859,  the  year  when  the  crypts  were 
finished  and  the  body  of  Saint-Germain  transported  there.  The  work  of 
Raoul  can  hardly  have  been  more  than  refreshing  the  color  of  the  inscrip- 
tions.— E.  BABELON,  Applied  bronze  figures  in  the  Cabinet  des  Medailles 
(pp.  304-7 ;  pi.  36).  Two  bronze  figures  in  relief  in  the  Cabinet  des  Me- 
dailles, in  Paris,  which  belonged  to  Foucault's  collections  and  were  placed 
in  1727  in  the  Cabinet  du  Roi,  appear  to  have  been  detached  from  a  series 
of  figures  in  applied  relief  which  formed  a  procession  similar  to  the  Pana- 
thenaia,  or  rather  a  nuptial  procession  of  gods  and  goddesses  analogous  to 
those  decorating  the  sarcophagus  of  the  Villa  Albani  (marriage  of  Peleus 
and  Thetis)  and  the  circular  altar  at  Corinth,  which  are  Graeco-Roman 
copies  of  works  of  the  fifth  century.  These  two  bronzes  are  themselves 
archaistic,  and  seem  to  represent  Hebe  and  Hera. — E.  MOLINIER,  The 
chalice  of  the  Abbot  Pelagius  at  the  Museum  of  the  Louvre  (pp.  308-11 ;  pi. 
39).  This  well-known  chalice  was  recently  purchased  by  the  Louvre :  it 
is  of  silver  partly  gilt :  the  globe  which  is  placed  between  the  conical  foot 
and  the  hemispherical  bowl  is  cast  and  chiselled,  and  has  the  symbols  of 
the  Evangelists  in  relief.  The  inscription  on  the  foot  reads:  *  Pelagius 
abbas  me  fecit  ad  honorem  s(an)c(£)i  lacobi  ap(osto)li.  It  is  accompanied 
by  its  patena.  The  place  of  manufacture  is  evidently  Spain.  The  name 
Pelagius  is  especially  common  in  Gallicia  and  the  Asturias.  In  style,  it 
would  belong  to  the  xn  cent,  if  it  were  French,  but  Spain  was  behind 


250  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

France  in  progress,  and  this  work  probably  dates  from  the  first  half  of 
the  xiu  century. — A.  HEISS,^.  Keltiberian  dish  in  terracotta  discovered  at 
Segovia  (pp.  312-20  ;  pi.  40).  At  the  beginning  of  1888,  this  plate  in  red 
terracotta  covered  with  a  black  varnish  was  found  at  Segovia.  It  is  48  cen- 
tim.  in  diameter,  and  has  two  inscriptions  in  Keltiberian  characters.  It 
seems  to  be  unique,  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  M.  Stanislas  Baron.  It 
has  been  considered  a  forgery,  partly  because  it  was  not  found  in  the  region 
where  "  Hispano-Moorish  "  pottery  was  manufactured.  The  date  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Augustus,  and  the  place  of  manu- 
facture the  south  of  Spain.  The  inscriptions  are  compared  with  the  bilingual 
coins  of  the  Balearic  Islands  and  with  those  of  Abdera,  Oba,  Lascuta,  Asido, 
etc.  Only  on  some  of  the  coins  of  the  Turdetaui  are  the  inscriptions  retrograde, 
as  on  the  plate.  A  comparative  table,  on  the  basis  of  the  Hebrew  alphabet, 
is  given  of  the  characters  of  the  dish  compared  with  those  of  the  Iberian 
and  Turdetanian  alphabets ;  and  other  tables  of  the  values  of  the  characters 
of  the  internal  and  external  dish-inscriptions.  No  attempt  is  made  at  a 
philological  explanation. — INDEX. — CHRONIQUE. — BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ALLAN  MARQUAND. 

JAHRBUCH  D.  K.  DEUT.  ARCHAOLOGISCHEN  INSTITUTS.    Yol.  III. 

1888.  No.  4r. — R.  BORRMANN,  Stelai  for  votive  offerings  on  the  A  kropolis  at 
Athens  (30  cuts).  The  shafts  of  these  stelai  are  round,  polygonal,  or  four- 
sided,  sometimes  square,  sometimes  oblong.  The  shape  of  the  capitals  de- 
pends upon  that  of  the  offerings  they  are  intended  to  support.  The  capi- 
tals are  of  all  kinds,  Doric,  Ionic,  and  cup-shaped.  The  ornamentation 
is  executed  in  colors,  mostly  blue,  red,  and  gray.  Inscriptions  are  gener- 
ally colored  red.  The  round  columns  are  sometimes  fluted:  the  flutes 
are  always  shallow,  and  have  sharp  dividing  lines  whether  the  capital  be 
Doric  or  Ionic.  The  top  of  the  shaft  is  hewn  down  to  a  comparatively 
small  size,  and  fits  into  a  hole  in  the  capital,  where  it  is  fastened  with  lead. 
This  is  like  wood  construction,  except  that  wooden  beams  would  be  fas- 
tened with  pegs  instead  of  melted  lead.  In  general,  these  stelai  confirm 
the  recent  theories  concerning  the  origin  of  Doric  as  well  as  Ionic  archi- 
tectural forms  from  wooden  prototypes.  These  stelai  were  probably  placed 
so  high  that  the  tops  of  the  capitals,  which  are  often  but  roughly  finished, 
were  invisible. — F.  IMHOOF-BLUMER,  Figures  on  ancient  coins  (pi.  9  rep- 
resenting 29  coins),  i.  Praying  and  supplicating  figures.  A  late  Tyrian 
coin  represents  a  woman  stretching  out  her  hands  in  prayer  to  the  temple 
of  Melkart.  Two  Sikyonian  coins  (of  Julia  Domna  and  Fulvia  Plautilla) 
represent  a  youth  with  garland  on  his  head,  his  hands  raised  in  prayer. 
Two  coins  of  Magnesia  in  Lydia  have  the  same  type.  The  youth  is  pro- 
bably returning  thanks  for  an  athletic  victory.  A  Corinthian  coin  of 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  251 

Antoninus  Pius  represents  Melikertes  standing  on  a  dolphin  and  praying. 
Three  coins  of  Nikaia  (Commodus)  represent  the  infant  Dionysos  sitting 
in  a  basket,  and  stretching  out  his  arms.  Similar  gestures  of  prayer  are 
seen  on  coins  with  representations  of  Eros  and  Aphrodite,  of  the  infant 
Dionysos,  of  Arkas,  and  of  children,  n.  Myths  of  Zeus.  Two  Laodicean 
coins  of  Marcus  Aurelius  represent  respectively  the  infant  Zeus  with  Rhea 
and  Adrasteia  and  with  Adrasteia  and  the  Korybantes.  in.  The  Judg- 
ment of  Paris.  Coins  of  Skepsis,  Ilion,  Tarsos,  and  Alexandreia  represent 
the  judgment  of  Paris,  iv.  The  Legend  of  the  Foundation  of  Ephesos. 
Three  Ephesian  coins  represent  the  mountain-deity  IleiW,  a  mountain, 
and  a  stricken  boar.  v.  Mountain-deities,  Mountains,  Nymphs.  On  the 
coins  of  Laodikeia,  Skepsis,  and  Ephesos  above-mentioned,  mountain-deities 
are  depicted.  A  coin  of  Synnada  represents  Kybele  and  a  recumbent  moun- 
tain-god. A  coin  of  Dokimia  represents  the  mountain  Persis  and  Kybele. 
A  coin  of  Kyzikos  represents  a  nymph  and  a  satyr. — A.  FURTWANGLER, 
Studies  on  Gems  with  Artists'  Inscriptions,  u.  Gems  with  Artists'  Inscrip- 
tions in  various  Collections  (contin. :  pis.  10, 11 ;  8  inscriptions  in  facsimile). 
The  Paris  amethyst  with  the  so-called  head  of  Maecenas  is  not  an  original 
work  of  Dioskourides,  but  a  work  of  the  later  part  of  the  xvi  or  of  the 
xvn  century.  A  second  copy  is  in  Berlin.  Four  gems  with  the  inscrip- 
tion COAOONOC  represent  the  same  head,  and  are  doubtless  copies  of  a 
lost  gem  by  an  artist  Solon.  The  head  is  that  of  Cicero.  Three  modern 
copies  (two  in  the  British  Museum  and  one  in  Rome)  exist  of  a  lost  gem 
by  Dioskourides  representing  the  head  of  Julius  Csesar.  Three  gems  rep- 
resenting Augustus  are  not  by  Dioskourides,  but  are  modern.  The  same 
is  true  of  the  Perseus  in  Naples.  All  other  known  gems  ascribed  to  Dios- 
kourides (except  those  mentioned  in  the  previous  article)  are  manifest 
forgeries.  Eutyches  and  Hesophilos,  sons  of  Dioskourides,  have  left  each 
one  gem,  here  described.  Three  gems  by  Hyllos,  a  third  son,  are  described. 
Of  Solon  only  two  genuine  works  are  known  to  exist.  All  others  are  imi- 
tations. Works  by  Felix,  Polykleitos,  and  Gnaios  are  discussed.  All  these 
artists  worked  in  the  style  of  Dioskourides.  Are  described  and  published 
gems  by  Agathangelos,  Mykon,  Saturninus,  Epitynchanos,  Euodos,  Apol- 
lonios,  Pamphilos,  Teukros,  Anteros,  and  Philemon.  To  judge  from  the  por- 
traits which  they  represent,  these  artists  belong  to  the  early  Empire. — 
J.  BOEHLAU,  Boiotian  Vases  (36  cuts).  A  catalogue  is  given  of  a  class  of 
vases  from  early  Boiotion  tombs.  55  are  wide  dishes  with  or  without  a 
standard  or  foot ;  the  remaining  17  are  of  various  forms.  Idols  of  similar 
technique  are  discussed,  and  three  are  published.  These  vases  are  of  light, 
loose  clay,  and  made  on  the  wheel.  The  decoration  is  "geometrical"  and 
"  orientalizing."  The  "  geometrical  "  part  resembles  that  of  the  "  proto- 
Corinthian"  style,  rather  than  that  of  the  "-Dipylon  "  style,  which  latter 


252  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  ARCH^OLOG  Y. 

derived  its  ornaments  in  great  measure  from  the  Mykenaian  style.  The 
"  orientalizing  "  parts  of  these  Boiotian  vases  reached  Boiotia  by  way  of 
Chalkis.  The  vases  belong  to  the  vn  century  B.  c.,  but  cannot  as  yet  be 
more  accurately  dated. — In  an  appendix  (12  cuts)  are  described  objects  of 
bronze  found  in  the  Boiotian  graves.  The  objects  comprise  fibulae,  rings, 
bracelets,  etc. — E.  PERNICE,  On  the  Chest  of  Kypselos  and  the  Amyklaian 
Throne.  Pausanias  describes  the  first,  third,  and  fifth  x^pat  of  the  chest 
of  Kypselos  from  right  to  left,  the  second  and  fourth  from  left  to  right. 
He  describes  (v.  17.  9)  Herakles  in  the  description  of  the  funeral  games 
of  Pelias.  This  figure  belongs  in  the  preceding  scene,  the  departure  of 
Amphiaraos,  and  is  not  Herakles  but  a  crouching  figure  holding  the  horses 
of  Amphiaraos.  The  staff  held  by  this  figure  may  have  been  mistaken 
for  the  club  of  Herakles.  This  figure  is  found  on  Corinthian  vases  with 
representations  of  the  departure  of  Herakles.  So,  too,  the  house  mentioned 
at  this  point  by  Pausanias  occurs  on  Corinthian  vases.  Comparison  of 
Pausanias'  description  of  the  chest  with  vase-paintings  strengthens  the 
probability  that  the  chest  was  of  Cdrinthian  workmanship.  The  division 
of  the  first,  second,  fourth,  and  fifth  x^pat  into  scenes  of  equal  size  divided 
by  triglyphs  (Klein,  Sitzungsber.  d.  Wien.  Akad.,  vol.  108,  pp.  51-83)  is 
impossible,  for  the  scenes  contain  various  numbers  of  persons,  and  cannot 
be  reduced  to  the  same  size.  Besides,  if  the  scenes  were  divided  by  tri- 
glyphs, Pausanias  could  not  attribute  any  figure  to  a  scene  to  which  it  did  not 
belong.  One  such  false  attribution  (v.  17. 11),  by  which  lolaos  is  removed 
from  the  scene  of  the  Hydra  and  made  victor  in  a  chariot  race,  is  univer- 
sally acknowledged,  and  a  second  is  pointed  out  above.  In  his  descrip- 
tion of  the  Amyklaian  Throne,  Pausanias  (in.  18.11)  mentions,  in  order, 
Herakles  in  combat  with  Thourios,  Tyndareos  with  Eurytos,  and  the  rape 
of  the  daughters  of  Leukippos.  Tyndareos  belongs  to  the  last  scene,  for 
the  maidens  are  carried  off  by  his  sons  Kastor  and  Polydeukes.  Klein 
(Archaol.-epigr.  Mitth.  aus  Oester.,  1885,  pp.  145-68)  divides  the  repre- 
sentations on  the  throne  into  separate  pictures.  This  is  impossible  for 
reasons  similar  to  those  which  forbid  the  division  of  the  scenes  on  the  chest 
of  Kypselos. — ADDENDA. — BIBLIOGRAPHY.— REGISTER. 

Vol.  IT.  1889.  No.  1.— O.  RICHTER,  The  Roman  Orator  }s  Platform  (9 
cuts).  There  is  no  evidence  of  a  locus  inferior  as  part  of  the  rostra.  The 
ships-beaks  were  arranged  in  two  rows  across  the  entire  front  of  the  plat- 
form, 20  in  the  upper  and  19  in  the  lower  row.  The  platform  was  80  feet 
in  length.  Its  base  was  a  foundation  a  foot  in  height ;  above  this  was  a 
moulding  f  foot  high ;  then  the  wall  8£  feet  in  height,  which  was  sur- 
mounted by  a  cornice  If  ft.  high.  Above  the  cornice  was  the  balustrade 
which  surrounded  the  platform  with  the  exception  of  a  space  in  the  middle 
of  the  front  and  the  entrance  at  the  back.  The  platform  was  entered  by 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  253 

an  inclined  plane.  At  the  sides  of  the  entrance  were  the  reliefs  represent- 
ing the  suovetaurilia  and  the  scene  with  the  rostra  at  one  end  and  Marsyas 
under  the  fig-tree  at  the  other.  Upon  the  platform  were  numerous  statues, 
and  at  least  five  triumphal  columns.  As  the  taste  of  the  Romans  grew  more 
and  more  to  favor  colossal  figures,  the  foundations  of  the  platform  had  to 
be  strengthened  to  support  the  great  masses  placed  upon  it. — G.  TREU,  A 
Painted  Marble  Head  in  the  British  Museum  (pi.  1).  This  female  head  was 
found  on  the  Esquiline,  and  was  brought  to  the  British  Museum  in  1884. 
It  was  originally  set  into  a  statue.  The  hair  is  yellow,  but  the  shading  was 
done  in  brown ;  the  face  is  of  a  rosy  flesh-color ;  the  eyebrows  are  black, 
as  is  the  pupil  of  the  eye  and  the  outline  of  the  iris.  The  black  of  the  eye- 
brows is  applied  directly  to  the  marble,  which  was  covered  with  fine  white 
wax  to  receive  the  other  colors.  The  colors  are  now  very  easily  effaced, 
rubbing  off  at  a  touch :  the  result  of  long  lying  in  the  damp  earth.  The 
figure  was  once  covered  with  a  disc  to  keep  off  the  rain :  it  must,  then,  have 
stood  in  the  open  air. — A.  E.  J.  HOLWERDA,  Attic  Vases  of  the  Transition 
Style  (4  cuts).  Five  vases  (kylikes)  of  the  museum  in  Leyden  are  discussed, 
of  which  three  are  published.  One  represents  a  music-lesson  and  scenes  of 
the  komos ;  the  second,  scenes  in  the  life  of  an  Attic  iTrn-eus ;  the  third  a 
draped  female  figure  in  the  centre,  and;  on  the  outside,  two  groups,  each 
consisting  of  a  female  figure  between  two  males,  all  draped.  Under  the 
handles  of  all  these  vases  are  palmettes.  The  t7nrev<s  is  treated  as  an  athlete 
rather  than  as  a  soldier.  The  Athenian  cavalry  attained  little  prominence 
in  war  until  the  Peloponnesian  war.  These  vases  show  the  transition  from 
the  rigid  red-figured  style  to  the  free  style.  In  the  treatment  of  drapery 
there  are  still  reminiscences  of  the  careful,  apparently  starched,  folds  of 
earlier  art.  The  change  from  those  folds  to  the  free  drapery  of  the  fifth 
century  probably  took  place  in  reality  as  well  as  in  art.  The  rigid  red- 
figured  style  of  vase-painting  flourished  before  the  Persian  wars.  After  the 
Persian  wars,  a  less  artificial  costume  and  a  freer  life  was  accompanied  by 
a  corresponding  change  in  the  style  of  vase-painting. — A.  FURTW ANGLER, 
Studies  on  Gems  with  Artists' Inscriptions  (conclusion :  pi.  2,  nos.  1—5 ;  1  cut ; 
9  inscriptions  in  facsimile).  Only  three  works  of  Aspasios  are  recognized 
as  genuine  :  the  well-known  Athena  Parthenos,  a  bearded  Dionysos  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  a  fragment  of  what  seems  to  be  a  Sarapis  in  the 
Florentine  Museum.  Gems  by  the  following  artists  are  described  :  Skylax, 
Koinos,Aulus  son  ofAlexas,  Quintus  son  of  Alexas,  Caius,  Lucius,  Tryphon, 
Rufus,  Sostratos  and  Diodotos.  The  gemjahrbueh  in.  pi.  11.  24  has  the  in- 
scription eY7repext/ou-  This  may  be  the  name  of  the  artist  or  of  the  owner. 
The  name$Admon,Nicomacus,PharnaJces,  andAlpheos  are  those  of  the  owners 
of  the  stones  on  which  they  are  engraved.  The  name  Allion  occurs  on  imi- 
tations of  antique  gems.  A  Florentine  gem  has  the  form  A  A  A 1 0  N .  Whether 


254  AMERICAN  JO URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 

the  inscription  denotes  the  artist,  the  owner,  or  the  person  represented  is  un- 
certain. The  following  artists'  names  are  forgeries :  Action,  Neisos,  Heius, 
Thamyras,  Skopas,Axeochos,  Glykon,Pergamos,Agathemeros,  Seleukos,Am- 
monios,  Hermaiskos,  Epitonos,Karpos,Apollonides,Kronios,  Hellen,  the  last 
three  of  which  are  derived  from  Pliny.  The  gems  with  all  these  inscriptions 
are  described  and  discussed.  The  artists'  signatures  are  always  modest  in 
size  and  position.  Before  Alexander,  the  inscriptions  are  careful,  and  the 
earliest  ones  follow  the  curve  of  the  edge  of  the  gem.  In  the  earliest  in- 
scriptions the  strokes  taper  to  a  point,  but  later  they  are  of  uniform  width 
and  end  in  a  curve.  The  nominative  is  more  frequent  than  the  genitive. 
The  works  follow  the  tendencies  of  monumental  art  of  the  same  period.  In 
the  Hellenistic  period,  the  inscriptions  are  more  careless.  The  nominative 
is  more  common  than  the  genitive,  and  the  verb  tTroiet  is  more  frequently 
added  than  before  Alexander.  The  artists  are  distinguished  for  freshness 
in  conception  and  execution.  In  the  first  century  before  and  after  Christ, 
the  inscriptions  are  exact  and  elegant.  The  strokes  end  in  a  ball.  The 
round  cursive  forms  of  epsilon  and  sigma  are  the  rule.  Omega  has  the  forms 
CO  and  Q.  The  verb  eTroiei  is  less  frequent  than  before,  and  the  genitive  is 
more  frequent  than  the  nominative.  The  inscription  is  always  written  in 
a  straight  (generally  vertical)  line.  The  artists'  works  are  distinguished 
for  correctness  and  elegance,  but  lack  the  freshness  of  the  earlier  works. 
In  an  appendix,  the  ring  of  Philon  (Jahrb.,  in,  p.  206)  is  said  to  be  in  the 
possession  of  Count  Michel  Tyszkiewicz.  An  additional  work  of  Ly komedes 
is  published  and  discussed.  A  beautiful  fragment  of  the  gem  of  Athenian 
(Jahrb.  in.  pi.  3.3)  is  published  and  discussed.  So  also  another  work  of'Hyl- 
los. — A.  CONZE,  The  Prototype  of  the  Diomedes  Gems  (pi.  2.7).  A  relief  in 
the  Museo  Nazionale  in  Naples  is  published.  Orestes  is  represented  in  the 
sanctuary  at  Delphoi  about  to  leave  the  altar:  at  his  feet  is  a  sleeping  Erinys. 
The  motive  seems  to  have  been  invented  for  Orestes  and  adopted  by  Dios- 
kourides  for  Diomedes.  Furtwangler,  however,  thinks  it  was  invented 
for  Diomedes. — ARCHAOLOGISCHER  ANZEIGER  (Supplement  to  theJahrbuch). 
This  contains  an  account,  by  IT.  Wilcken,  of  the  Hellenistic  portraits  from 
El-Faiyum,  which  are  said  to  represent  the  persons  in  whose  graves  they 
were  found,  and  are  ascribed  to  the  second  and  third  centuries  after  Christ ; 
Reports  of  the  meetings  of  the  Berlin  Archaeological  Society  from  Jan.  1886 
to  July  1886;  Reports  on  the  activity  and  publications  of  the  Institute ;  and 
&  Bibliography.  HAROLD  N.  FOWLEE. 

MITTHEILUNGEN    D.    K.    DEUT.   ARCHAOLOGISCHEN    INSTITUTS. 
ATHENISCHE   ABTHEILUNG.     Vol.  XIII.     Nos.  3-4.— W.  M.  RAMSAY, 

Laodieeia  Combusta  and  Sinethandos  (pp.  233-72).  Laodikeia  was  situ- 
ated where  Yorgan  Ladik  now  is.  Sinethandos  was  at  Khadyn  Khan, 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  255 

about  12  miles  on  the  road  from  Laodikeia  to  Apameia  and  Ephesos. 
Geographically  in  Lykaonia,  Laodikeia  was  at  various  times  included  in 
Galatia  and  Pisidia.  140  inscriptions  from  this  neighborhood  are  pub- 
lished, most  of  them  for  the  first  time.  Their  dates  are  from  the  third  cen- 
tury B.  c.  to  the  fifth  century  of  our  era.  Most  of  them  are  sepulchral, 
many  Christian. — F.  DUMMLER,  Remarks  on  the  earliest  Art-handiwork  on 
Greek  soil  (pp.  273—303  ;  10  cuts).  I.  The  Nekropolis  near  Halikarnassos. 
The  race  to  which  the  nekropolis  (discovered  by  W.  R.  Paton,  see  Journ. 
of  Hell.  Stud.,  vin,  p.  66  ff )  belonged  regarded  its  graves  as  family  sanc- 
tuaries, and  practised  cremation.  The  family  tomb  is  of  two  kinds :  a  rec- 
tangular temenos,  and  a  sepulchral  chamber  with  dromos  and  tumulus.  Of 
these  the  former  is  more  primitive.  In  these  the  remains  were  placed  in 
ostothekai  like  the  tombe  a  pozzo  of  Corneto,  but  also  in  graves  like  the 
tombe  a  fossa.  In  the  tumuli  also  both  kinds  of  graves  are  found.  The 
nekropolis  was  evidently  not  very  long  in  use.  In  the  tombs  were  found, 
beside  vases,  objects  of  gold,  bronze,  and  iron.  The  decoration  of  the  vases 
consists  mainly  of  horizontal  stripes  and  groups  of  concentric  circles  or 
semicircles.  The  civilization  of  the  people  was  evidently  not  that  of  My- 
kenai,  but  the  decoration  of  the  vases  has  points  of  resemblance  with  that 
of  some  of  the  early  vases  found  at  Rhodos.  u.  The  Kyprian  geometrical 
style.  The  types  of  the  Kyprian  vases  are  either  (1)  Phoenician  with  only 
chance  points  of  similarity  to  Greek  geometrical  vases,  or  (2)  Phoenician 
exerting  an  influence  upon  Greek  manufactures,  or  (3)  originally  Greek 
and  developed  in  Kypros  by  Greeks  and  Phoenicians  in  common.  The 
third  alternative  is  adopted.  Comparison  of  different  geometrical  styles 
shows  that  the  Kyprian  style  is  as  closely  connected  with  the  style  of  My- 
kenai  as  is  the  Dipylon-style.  The  Kyprian  geometrical  style  is  pre- 
Dorian.  It  was  brought  to  Kypros  by  the  Arkadians  when  they  came 
from  Peloponnesos.  The  Dipylon-style  is  attributed  to  one  of  the  Greek 
tribes  which  drove  out  the  people  to  which  the  civilization  of  Mykenai  be- 
longed, and  forced  some  of  the  Arkadians  also  to  leave  the  Greek  mainland, 
in.  The  Nekropolis  at  the  Dipylon  and  the  style  of  the  Dipylon-vases.  The 
earliest  Greek  inhabitants  of  Attika  may  sometimes  have  buried  their 
dead  in  their  cities  or  even  in  their  houses.  They  certainly  buried  them 
before  the  gates  at  both  sides  of  the  road.  They  burned  the  bodies.  The 
smaller  and  earlier  Dipylon-vases  go  back  to  a  time  centuries  before  the 
large  vases  with  burial-scenes  and  naval  battles  which  Kroker  ascribes  to 
the  seventh  century  B.  c.  Iron  objects  found  in  graves  do  not  prove  that 
they  are  post-Homeric  but  rather  that  they  are  pre-Homeric.  The  Ho- 
meric descriptions  apply  in  great  measure  to  the  Ionic  nobility,  which  was 
under  Oriental  influence.  As  the  Arkadians  were  driven  to  colonize  Ky- 
pros, so  other  tribes  were  driven  out  of  Greece  at  the  same  time.  Tradi- 


256  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

tions  of  such  early  colonization  are  not  wanting.  The  nekropolis  at  Hali- 
karnassos  belonged  to  such  a  colony  founded  long  before  the  Dorian  inva- 
sion.— H.  G.  LOLLING,  Inscription  from  Kyzikos  (pp.  304-9 ;  supplementary 
pi.).  A  list  of  prytanes  of  Kyzikos  is  published.  The  inscription  is  now 
in  Constantinople.  There  were,  in  imperial  times,  at  least  8  tribes  in  Kyzi- 
kos :  Otvowres,  "OTrXrjTcs,  'ApyaSeis,  TeXeovre?,  'lou/Veis,  Se/foo-Teis,  Bca/oets, 
AiytKopets.  The  'louAets  and  Sc/Sao-Tets  were  probably  connected  with  the 
cult  of  the  emperors.  The  year  of  Kyzikos  began  at  the  autumnal  equi- 
nox. The  months  were :  (first  half-year)  Bo^Spo/xiwv,  Kvavoi/wov,  'A-Trarov- 
pecov,  Iloo-eiSecoj',  Ar/vatwv,  'Avfleo-n/pKoj/,  (second  half-year)  'Apre/ucrioji/,  Tav- 
/oeoiv,  KaA.a/x,cu(ov,  Ilav^/xos,  Kpovtoov,  ©apy^A-ttov. — P.  WOLTERS,  The  grave- 
stone  of  Antipatros  of  Askalon  (pp.  310-16  ;  cut).  The  relief  upon  this 
stone  (see  Corpus  Insc.  Semit.,  I,  p.  140)  represents  a  dead  body  on  a  couch, 
over  whose  head  leans  a  lion,  while  a  man  with  a  ship's  prow  for  a  head 
leans  over  his  feet,  opposite  the  lion.  The  lion  probably  represents  the 
god  of  death.  The  figure  with  a  ship's  prow  for  a  head  may  represent  the 
ship  which  saved  the  body  of  Antipatros  for  burial,  or  may  have  some 
unknown  significance  in  Phoenician  mythology. — G.  TREU,  The  Inscrip- 
tion of  the  Leonidaion  at  Olympia  (pp.  317-26;  facsimile).  The  inscription 
was  cut  on  the  Ionic  architrave  of  the  "southwest  building"  at  Olympia. 
The  fragments  read :  A[e]co[v]tS[^]5  Aeorrov  [N]a£ios  eTrot^crc.  The  in- 
scription was  repeated  on  at  least  two  sides  of  the  building.  This  Leonidas 
is  the  same  mentioned  by  Pausanias  vi.  16. 5 ;  but,  in  v.  15.  2,  he  describes 
him  as  an  Eleian.  The  inscription  was  covered  with  stucco  at  the  time 
of  Pausanias.  It  must  have  been  longer  than  the  mere  artist's  inscription 
given  above ;  probably,  AetoviS^s  AeoWi;  Na£tos  e-TrotV/cre  /cat  dve^/ce  Ait 
'OXvfjL7TLo)L.  This  agrees  with  the  statement  of  Pausanias,  that  the  Leoni- 
daion was  a  gift  (dva^r/px)  of  Leonidas.  There  can  now  be  no  doubt  that 
the  "southwest  building"  is  the  Leonidaion. — W.  DORPFELD,  The  Altis- 
wall  at  Olympia  (pp.  327-36  ;  pi.  vn).  The  inscription  of  the  Leonidaion 
makes  it  certain  that  the  TTO/XTTIKT)  eto-oSos  of  Pausanias  was  at  the  s.  w.  cor- 
ner of  the  Altis.  The  wall  which  has  been  ascribed  to  the  Macedonian 
epoch  is  shown  to  be  Roman.  It  had  three  gates:  a  large  one  with  a 
triumphal  arch  on  the  southern  side,  and  two  smaller  ones  on  the  western 
side.  This  wall  was  probably  built  by  Nero.  He  caused  the  "  southeast 
building  "  to  be  changed  to  a  Roman  dwelling,  and  increased  the  size  of 
the  Altis  toward  the  west  and  south.  The  great  street  which  passed  in 
front  of  the  Leonidaion  and  turned  to  the  east  along  the  southern  side  of 
the  old  Altis  was  now  partly  inside  the  Altis.  In  front  of  the  Leonidaiou, 
the  new  wall  was  in  the  middle  of  the  old  street,  making  it  so  narrow  as 
to  excite  the  comment  of  Pausanias.  Nero  doubtless  intended  the  trium- 
phal arch  in  the  southern  wall  for  the  main  entrance  to  the  Altis.  The 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  257 

bouleuterion,  with  part  of  the  agora,  was  within  the  enlarged  Altis.  The 
site  of  the  Hippodameion  is  uncertain,  but  must  still  be  sought  in  the  east- 
ern part  of  the  Altis. — A.  MILCHHOFER,  Account  of  Antiquities  in  Attika 
(pp.  337-62  ;  conclusion).  E.  The  Plain  of  Athens,  i.  The  upper  plain, 
(a)  West  of  the  Kephisos.  Antiquities  reported  from :  Menidi  (Epano 
Liossia,  Kamatero),  Kato  Liossia  and  vicinity,  Bistardo,  Hagios  Elias, 
Chaidari,  Daphne  and  vicinity  and  the  olive  grove  by  the  Kephisos.  (6) 
East  of  the  Kephisos.  The  reports  are  from  :  Kukuvaones,  Herakli,  Ke- 
phisia,  Marousi,  Chalandri,  Kalogresa,  Psychiko,  Omorphi  Ekklisia,  Galaki, 
Plakakia,  Patisia,  and  Kypseli.  n.  The  Lower  Plain  (from  Athens  to  the 
sea).  The  western  and  southern  slopes  of  Hymettos.  The  reports  are  from : 
Ambelokipi,  Kutzopodi,  Asteri,  Kaesariani,  Kutala,  Kopana,  Karea,  Kara, 
Brahami,  Trachones,  Pirnari,  Chasani,  Haliki,  Vari.  This  part  of  the  ac- 
count embraces  Nos.  496-778.  The  antiquities  reported  consist  of  inscrip- 
tions (largely  sepulchral,  terminal,  and  dedicatory),  together  with  some 
reliefs  and  fragmentary  sculptures.  Inscriptions  and  monuments  already 
known  are  assigned  to  their  proper  places  in  the  territorial  scheme. — A. 
BRUCKNER,  On  the  Gravestone  of  Metrodoros  in  Chios  (pp.  363-82 ;  pi.  iv ; 
2  cuts).  Examination  of  this  stone  (see  Mitth.,  p.  199  ff.)  shows  that  it  was 
ornamented  on  all  four  sides.  The  leaf-pattern,  the  sirens,  the  battle  of 
the  centaurs,  and  the  chariots  driven  by  Nikai  were  continued  on  the  four 
sides.  On  the  side  to  the  left  of  the  front,  the  deceased  is  represented  shoot- 
ing an  arrow  ;  behind  him  stands  a  small  slave  with  arrows ;  a  plane  tree 
and  a  column  upon  which  is  an  amphora  show  that  the  action  takes  place 
in  a  gymnasium.  On  the  back  of  the  stone,  the  attributes  of  an  athlete 
(sponge,  strigil,  oil-bottle,  and  a  fourth  object,  perhaps  a  quiver  or  a  purse) 
are  represented  hanging  from  a  peg.  At  each  side  is  a  column.  The  rep- 
resentation in  the  middle  of  the  fourth  side  is  destroyed.  Examples  of  the 
use  of  sirens  as  ornaments  are  given,  and  the  use  of  other  figures  in  the 
same  way  is  discussed.  The  Nikai  and  the  battle  of  the  centaurs  are  also 
purely  ornamental,  without  any  connection  with  the  deceased.  Such  orna- 
mental representations  had  become  conventional  in  the  third  century  B.  c. 
The  parallels  adduced  are  also  from  Hellenistic  times.  One  cut  represents 
the  monument  of  Parmeniskos  from  Apollonia  in  Epeiros.  It  is  orna- 
mented with  a  battle  of  Amazons,  a  pattern  of  oak-branches,  two  sirens, 
two  rosettes,  and  two  griffins  between  which  stands  a  kantharos :  in  the 
gable  at  the  top  of  the  stone  is  a  face.  The  other  cut  represents  the  grave- 
stone of  Heraion  (C.  I.  A.,  n,  3,  3771).  The  top  is  adorned  with  a  pal- 
metto :  below  the  inscriptions  are  two  dolphins,  instead  of  the  more  usual 
rosettes.— E.  REISCH,  The  Monument  of  Thrasyllos  (pp.  383-401 ;  pi.  vin; 
cut).  This  monument  is  the  only  example  of  a  tripod-building  of  the  time 
of  the  agonothetai.  The  original  building  of  Thrasyllos  was  intended  to 


258  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

support  one  tripod,  which  probably  stood  over  the  middle  of  the  facade. 
When  Thrasykles  had  been  agonothetes  (in  271/70  B.  c.),  he  wished  to  set 
up  two  tripods,  one  for  the  choir  of  men  and  one  for  that  of  boys.  He 
changed  the  upper  part  of  the  monument  erected  by  his  father  Thrasyllos, 
adding  an  attika.  The  tripods  were  doubtless  placed  one  at  each  end, 
while  the  central  position  on  the  top  of  the  building,  was  occupied  by  the 
statue  of  Dionysos  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The  pose  and  drapery  of 
this  statue  remind  one  of  the  works  of  the  fifth  century.  The  same  aca- 
demic tradition  is  to  be  noted  in  many  Athenian  reliefs  of  comparatively 
late  times.  The  head  and  arms  of  the  statue  were  made  of  separate  pieces 
and  set  into  the  trunk ;  the  left  arm  was  partly  raised  and  held  forward  ; 
the  head  cannot  have  had  long  hair  or  beard ;  in  the  breast  is  a  hole  for 
the  attachment  of  an  attribute,  probably  a  harp.  The  hole  in  the  lap  of 
the  figure  may  have  been  (as  it  cannot  be  seen  from  below)  made  to  aid 
in  raising  the  figure  to  its  place.  Dionysos  with  the  harp  (Dionysos  Mel- 
pomenos,  C.  I.  A.,  in,  274)  was  an  appropriate  figure  in  this  place.  The 
statue  was  seen  and  sketched  by  Cyriacus  of  Ancona  (cut)  :  even  in  his 
time  the  head  and  arms  were  gone.  A  part  of  the  inscription  of  Thrasyl- 
los is  given  in  facsimile. — B.  GRAEF,  The  Sculptures  of  Olympia.  The 
head  which  has  been  placed  on  the  kneeling  girl  in  the  eastern  pediment 
(o,  Treu)  belongs  to  the  youth  whom  Curtius  and  Kekule  put  crouching 
before  the  horses  of  Pelops  (#,  Treu).  The  head  heretofore  given  to  this 
youth  belongs  to  the  figure  which  sits,  according  to  Kekule,  close  behind 
the  horses  of  Pelops  (c,  Treu).  The  head  here  taken  from  the  girl  (o)  and 
given  to  the  youth  (#)  has  the  same  arrangement  of  hair  as  the  Apollo  of 
the  western  pediment  and  the  head  formerly  given  to  the  girl  E  but  now 
to  the  Lapith  H.  A  very  similar  arrangement  of  hair  is  found  in  a  few 
other  cases  not  in  Olympia.  This  arrangement  is  peculiar  to  young  men. 
The  head,  therefore,  which  has  been  ascribed  to  the  Athena  of  the  lion- 
metope  from  the  opisthodomos  of  the  temple  of  Zeus  at  Olympia  is  a  male 
head,  as  is  further  shown  by  the  wrinkle  in  the  forehead.  It  must  be  the 
head  of  Herakles  in  the  Amazon-metope. — S.  P.  LAMBROS,  KvpaSes-Xot- 
/oaSes  (pp.  408-9).  Lolling  (Hist,  undphil  Aufs.  Ernst  Curtius . . .  gewidmet, 
p.  8)  suggests  that  the  modern  name  KvpaSes  for  the  two  small  islands  off 
Cape  Skaramanga  in  the  strait  of  Salamis  is  only  a  slight  corruption  of  an 
ancient  name  XoipaSes.  Aischylos,  Pers.,  421,  d/crai  Se 
l-n-XrjOvov  seems  to  support  this  view,  though  neither  d/am  nor 
should  be  written  with  a  capital  in  this  line. — M.  P.  KONSTANTINOS,  In- 
scriptions from  Tralleis.  Three  inscriptions :  (1)  the  name  Alexandras ; 
(2)  on  the  same  stone  names  of  victors  in  running,  strength  (eve£ta),  jave- 
lin-throwing, and  archery ;  (3)  a  fragment  of  an  honorary  decree. — H. 
WINNEFELD,  The  Sanctuary  of  the  Kabeiroi  near  Thebes  (pp.  412-27 ; 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  259 

pis.  ix-xn  ;  18  cuts),  in.  The  vases.  The  fragments  of  vases  found  in 
the  Kabeireion  form  three  groups:  (1)  Attic  vases,  (2)  black-figured  vases 
of  local  manufacture,  (3)  black  varnished  vases.  The  number  of  Attic 
vases  is  comparatively  small.  They  are  mostly  red-figured  vases  of  vari- 
ous shapes.  Several  of  these  are  described.  A  few  lekythoi  and  flat  dishes 
have  black  figures.  Fragments  of  panathenaic  amphorai  also  occur.  The 
vases  of  local  manufacture  are  for  the  most  part  round  cups  with  two 
handles,  though  other  forms  occur.  They  are  decorated  with  black  stripes, 
plant-patterns,  and  figures.  The  plant-patterns  represent  ivy,  tamus 
cretica,  grape-vines,  olive  branches,  branches  which  look  like  myrtle, 
and  occasionally  other  plants.  A  few  simple  patterns  of  curved  lines 
occur.  The  vases  were  made  expressly  for  the  sanctuary  of  the  Kabeiroi. 
This  is  evident  from  the  inscriptions,  as  well  as  from  the  scenes  repre- 
sented. The  Kabeiros  and  the  Pais  are  frequently  represented.  Other 
scenes  are  Kephalos  and  Lailaps,  Bellerophon  and  the  Chimaira,  pygmies 
and  cranes,  a  procession,  feasts,  dances  and  flute-playing.  In  all  of  these, 
caricature  is  the  most  striking  feature.  Somewhat  different  are  the  few 
representations  of  Seilenoi  and  Mainads.  The  workmanship  of  these  paint- 
ings is  careless  but  lively.  They  all  belong  apparently  to  the  fourth  cen- 
tury B.  c.  A  group  of  curious  hollow  cylindrical  articles,  ending  at  the 
bottom  in  a  slightly  rounded  cone,  have  much  the  same  ornamentation  as 
the  above-mentioned  vases,  but  without  representations  of  figures:  perhaps 
these  articles  are  tops.  The  black  varnished  vases  are  mostly  in  the  form 
of  a  kantharos  with  a  high,  thin  foot  and  high  handles,  though  other  forms 
occur.  The  forms  are  not  elegant,  nor  has  the  varnish  the  gloss  or  black- 
ness of  that  of  Attika. — MISCELLANIES.  H.  SCHLIEMANN,  Attic  Sepulchral 
Inscriptions.  Two  inscriptions  from  the  courtyard  of  Dr.  Schliemann's 
house  in  the  'OSos  Movorwv. — LITERATURE  and  DISCOVERIES.  An  account 
of  recent  discoveries  in  Athens  and  Pergamon.  HAROLD  N.  FOWLER. 

REVUE    ARCHEOLOGIQUE.— Noy.-Dec.      1888.— S.    REINACH,    The 

Gauls  in  ancient  art  and  the  Sarcophagus  of  the  Vigna  Ammendola  (pp. 
273-84 ;  pis.  xxn,  xxin ;  2  figs.).  The  museum  of  St.-Germain  has 
been  collecting  casts  of  Greek  and  Graeco-Roman  art  with  representations 
of  the  Gauls  or  the  Galatians  of  Asia.  Ethnographic  exactitude  in  the 
representations  appears  first  with  the  Pergamene  artists  of  the  third  cent. 
B.  c.  Roman  art  went  still  further,  as  in  the  columns  of  Trajan  and  Anto- 
nine.  The  writer  here  undertakes  to  give  a  list  of  the  Graeco-Roman  works 
of  art  in  which  Gauls  are  represented,  confining  himself  to  the  Hellenistic 
works,  including  especially  the  monuments  commemorating  the  victories  of 
the  Greeks  over  the  Galatians  of  Asia  Minor  and  the  hordes  of  Brennus  be- 
fore Delphoi.  It  is  only  of  late  years  that  such  a  group  of  monuments  has 


260  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

been  recognized.  The  first  to  be  properly  identified  was  the  so-called  dying 
gladiator  of  the  Capitol;  then  the  so-called  Arria  andPaetus  of  the  Villa 
Ludovisi ;  in  1870,  statues  were  recognized  in  museums,  coming  from  the 
great  composition  dedicated  by  Attalos,  and  representing  Galatians,  Per- 
sians, Amazons,  and  Giants ;  finally,  the  excavations  at  Pergamon  disclosed 
a  number  of  bases  of  bronze  statues.  It  would  seem  as  if  the  "gladiator" 
and  the  Ludovisi  group  were  copies  of  part  of  a  large  composition  at  Per- 
gamon, connected  with  these  bases. — R.  CAGNAT,  The  Camp  and  Praetorium 
of  the  III  Augustan  legion  at  Lambesa  (pp.  285-93 ;  pi.  xxiv ;  2  figs.). 
These  notes  are  given  as  a  supplement  to  the  very  detailed  description  of 
these  ruins  published  in  1885.  The  camp  is  placed  on  a  slight  rise  at  the 
foot  of  the  Aures  chain  and  forms  a  rectangle  420  met.  wide  by  500  long, 
more  in  accord  with  the  plans  of  Polybios  than  those  of  Hyginus.  There 
are  four  bastions  on  the  shorter  sides  and  five  on  the  longer.  It  is  defended 
by  two  semi-engaged  towers,  and  has  four  gates,  one  on  each  side.  The 
praetorium  or  N.  gate  has  two  unequal  openings,  one  for  pedestrians,  the 
other  for  vehicles.  Two  main  roads  at  right  angles  joined  these  gates,  and 
at  their  intersection  stood  the  praetorium. — BERTHELOT,  On  the  name  of 
bronze  among  Greek  alchemists  (pp.  294-8).  There  is  great  obscurity  in  re- 
gard to  the  origin  of  the  word  bronze.  A  text  in  the  collection  of  Greek 
alchemists  uses  the  word  ppovrrjo-iov.  The  MS.  in  which  it  is  used  dates  from 
the  xi  cent.,  but  the  text  is  probably  of  the  vm  or  ix  cent.  From  a  pas- 
sage in  Pliny  (H.  N.,  xxxiv.  ix.  45  and  xvir.  48),  it  might  be  concluded 
that  this  word,  brontesion,  was  derived  from  the  name  of  the  city  of  Brun- 
dusium  (Gr.  B/oev-nyo-iov),  famous  for  its  bronze  called  aes  Brundusinum. — 
P.  MONCEAUX,  Eponymic  Fasti  of  the  Thessalian  League:  Federal  Tagoi  and 
Strategoi  (pp.  299-318)  (contin.).  Chapter  mis  on  the  constitution  of  the 
new  Thessalian  league  by  Flaminius  in  196  B.  c.,  after  the  conquest  by 
Philip  of  Macedon.  Autonomy  was  however  given  to  a  number  of  tribes 
formerly  subject  to  the  Thessalian  KOLVOV.  The  constitution  given  by  Flami- 
nius was  strongly  aristocratic.  This  lasted  for  a  half  century,  until  the 
Macedonian  insurrection  and  the  ruin  of  the  Achaean  League,  which  was 
the  occasion  for  the  abolition  of  all  federations  in  Greece :  Thessaly  was 
then  annexed  to  Macedon.  But,  again,  Csesar  proclaimed  the  liberty  of 
Thessaly  in  48  B.  c.,  on  the  battle-field  of  Pharsala,  and  the  league  was  re- 
constituted. The  varieties  of  coins  struck  during  the  different  parts  of  this 
period  are  reviewed,  and  from  them  a  list  of  the  Strategoi  of  the  new  league 
is  constructed.  Most  of  them  belong  to  the  first  period  of  autonomy,  196- 
146  B.  c.— F.  DE  MELY,  The  fish  in  engraved  stones  (pp.  319-32).  The  tal- 
ismanic  virtue  of  the  fish  in  antiquity  is  best  illustrated  in  the  so-called 
Cyranides  of  Hermes  Trismegistus  which  is  based  on  the  science  of  draw- 
ing omens  from  the  combination  of  letters.  There  are  24  formulas  corres- 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  261 

ponding  to  the  letters  of  the  alphabet :  the  four  elements  are  represented 
in  each,  the  air  by  a  bird,  the  earth  by  a  plant,  fire  by  a  stone,  water  by 
a  fish,  whose  names  begin  with  the  same  letter.  The  writer  has  identified 
three  of  these  on  engraved  stones,  the  eagle  or  dc-ros,  the  sole,  and  the 
anchovy. — E.  DROUIN,  The  era  ofYezdegerd  and  the  Persian  calendar  (pp. 
333-43).  The  era  of  Yezdegerd  is,  next  to  the  Hegira,  the  most  import- 
ant chronological  system  used  in  the  East.  The  present  memoir  studies 
the  circumstances  of  its  establishment  and  its  calendar.  Yezdegerd  III 
was  the  last  Sassanid  king,  and  was  conquered  by  the  Mohammedans. 
His  era  begins  on  June  16,  632  A.  D.  It  is  still  used  by  the  followers  of 
Zoroaster.  The  Sassanid  names  of  months  are  then  given. — W.  HELBIG, 
Inscription  engraved  on  the  foot  of  a  Tarentine  vase  (pp.  344-8).  The  vase 
was  found  near  Chiusi :  the  style  is  that  of  inferior  vases  from  Magna 
Graecia.  The  curious  inscription  reads  O£TO(S)  rov  Brj^ov  ty-q  -jrovrjpov: 
"  This  one  called  the  bad  demos."  The  dialect  is  Doric,  the  sentiment 
political. — L.  DE  FLEURY,  The  deposits  of  ashes  at  Nalliers  (Vende'e)  (pp. 
349—59). — J.  MENANT,  Two  false  Chaldaean  antiquities. — This  article  seeks 
to  prove  that  two  tablets  published  by  Dr.  Wm.  Hayes  Ward  in  the  Journal 
of  Archaeology  (March,  1888)  are  forgeries,  copied,  in  his  opinion,  from  the 
finds  of  Telloh. — V.  J.  VAILLANT,  Circular  stamp  of  the  fleet  of  Brittain  found 
at  Boulogne-sur-mer  (pp.  366—71).  This  circular  tile  has  the  four  letters 
C  L B R  for  ClassisBritannica. — BIBLIOGRAPHY. — SUPPLEMENT.  R.  CAGNAT, 
Review  of  Epigraphic  Publications  relating  to  Roman  Antiquity. 

Jan.-Feb.  1889. — R.  CAGNAT,  The  Camp  and  Praetorium  of  the  III 
Augustan  legion  at  Lambesa  (cont. :  pp.  1—10  ;  pis.  I,  n).  iv.  The  Prae- 
torium. It  is  a  rectangular  building  measuring  23.30  X  30.60  met.,  deco- 
rated on  the  outside  with  two  superposed  rows  of  pilasters  and  isolated  col- 
umns. Its  main  fa9ade  has  an  immense  arcade  in  the  centre.  An  inscrip- 
tion, probably  dating  from  268  A.  D.,  records  the  reconstitution  of  the 
building,  presumably  after  the  consequences  of  the  earthquake  of  267,  and 
at  this  time  some  decorative  additions  were  made.  The  s.  fagade  is  similar. 
The  two  side-fronts  have  four  doors  with  Corinthian  pilasters.  From  frag- 
ments of  surrounding  walls,  it  is  proved  that  the  now-existing  part  of  the 
Praetorium  formed  only  the  inner  court  of  the  building.  Like  the  prae- 
torium  at  Carnuntum,  recently  uncovered,  it  was  divided  into  three  sections  : 
that  in  front  of  the  court  being  the  forum,  that  at  the  rear  the  posticum. 
v.  Other  buildings  in  the  Camp.  One  is  the  thermae  of  the  legion,  a  second 
is  unidentified,  a  third  is  of  uncertain  use,  supposed  by  some  to  be  a  prison, 
by  others  a  basilica.  An  appeal  is  made  for  the  complete  excavation  of 
the  Camp. — S.  REINACH,  The  Gauls  in  ancient  art  and  the  sarcophagus  of  the 
Vigna  Ammendola  (contin. :  pp.  11-22).  Among  the  statues  probably 
belonging  to  the  ex-voto  of  Attalos  I  in  the  Akropolis,  six  are  certainly  of 


262  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Galatians:  (1)  a  bearded  warrior,  (2)  a  dead  warrior,  (3)  a  warrior  fall- 
ing backwards,  all  three  at  Venice ;  (4)  a  helmeted  wounded  warrior,  at 
Naples  ;  (5)  a  wounded  warrior,  resting  on  one  knee,  at  the  Louvre ;  (6) 
a  warrior  seated  on  an  oval  buckler,  in  the  Torrigiani  garden,  at  Florence. 
Other  statues  are  related  to  this  series :  five  are  enumerated  by  Brunn ; 
three  are  here  added.  Several  more  are  known  to  have  existed  in  the  first 
half  of  the  xvi  cent,  from  the  travels  of  Claude  Bellieure  and  Aldrovandi's 
Statue  Antiche.  M.  Reinach  brings  forward  arguments  to  prove  that  the 
original  ex-voto  of  Attalos  was  composed  of  bronze  statues,  and  that  these 
marble  statues  may  have  been  replicas  in  Pergamon  or  some  other  Asiatic 
city. — E.  LE  BLANT,  On  some  ancient  monuments  related  to  the  consequences 
of  criminal  affairs  (pp.  23-30 ;  pi.  in).  A  few  monuments  are  here  brought 
forward  which  illustrate  different  acts  of  Roman  criminal  procedure.  (1)  On 
some  sarcophagi,  a  man  arrested  by  placing  a  rope  around  his  neck  (St. 
Paul  ?)  ;  (2)  a  fresco  of  Pompeii,  supposed  by  some  to  represent  the  Judg- 
ment of  Solomon,  before  79  A.  D.,  with  a  view  of  the  praetorium  ;  (3)  a 
miniature  in  the  Codex  Rossanensis,  of  the  vi  cent.,  representing  the  pro- 
curator ;  (4)  an  ivory  diptych  of  Rufius  Probianus. — E.  POTTIER,  An 
oinochoe  in  the  Louvre  signed  by  Amasis  (pp.  31—7  ;  pi.  iv).  On  a  small 
black-figured  oinochoe  in  the  Louvre,  we  read  the  signature  of  Amasis 
M  EPO I  E[*  E]  N  A  M  A*  I  *.  The  figures  are :  1.,  Poseiden  draped,  holding 
trident  and  facing  an  advancing  group  of  gods — Hermes  with  the  cadu- 
ceus,  Athena  armed,  Herakles  as  archer.  The  work  is  very  delicate.  M. 
Pettier  remarks  on  the  Oriental  origin  of  many  of  the  names  of  the  early 
vase-painters  of  the  black-figured  vases:  6  ^KV^S.,  "the  Scythian"; 
6  AvSos,  "  the  Lydian  "  ;  Sikelos  and  Sikanos,  from  Sicily  ;  etc.  Amasis 
reminds  of  the  Egyptian  king  Aahmes  or  Amasis  II,  from  whom  the 
painter  may  have  taken  his  name.  In  view  of  the  recent  importance  given 
to  the  cult  of  Herakles  at  Athens  by  the  recent  discoveries,  M.  Pettier 
thinks  that  the  combination  of  Herakles  and  Athena  on  this  vase  may  be 
but  another  indication  of  the  attempt  of  Peisistratos  to  reconcile  the  cults 
of  the  two  great  Greek  races,  the  Dorian  and  Ionian. — M.  DELOCHE, 
Studies  on  some  seals  and  rings  of  the  Merovingian  period  (contin. :  pp. 
38-49X  LXI.  Gold  ring  found  in  a  Frankish  cemetery  in  Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, with  the  name  of  Hunila,  probably  a  person  of  royal  family.  LXII. 
Gold  ring,  found  near  Valenciennes,  with  a  monogram  of  the  name  Falco. 
LXIII.  Bronze  ring  found  in  Hesse- Darmstadt  with  the  name  of  a  Frankish 
woman,  Fagala.  LXIV.  Gold  seal-ring  of  Audo.  LXV.  Bronze  ring  with 
merely  the  letters  Si  for  Signum  or  Signavi.  LXVI-LXX.  Bronze  rings  found 
respectively  at  Worms, Worrstadt,  Oberolm,  Dietersheim,  and  Udenheim. — 
P.  MoNCEATJX,-E2pom/?mc  Fasti  of  the  Thessalian  League:  Federal  Tagoi  and 
Strategoi  (cont.  and  end ;  pp.  50-63).  Ch.  iv.  Constitution  of  the  League 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS.  263 

under  the  Roman  Emperors,  from  Augustus  to  Gallienus.  The  League  was 
reorganized  by  Augustus,  and  its  condition  may  be  studied  from  an  inscrip- 
tion of  Tiberius  at  Kierion :  it  then  had  an  eponymic  strategos,  common 
assemblies,  and  the  right  to  coin  money.  After  Hadrian,  it  was  not  even 
required  that  there  should  be  any  Roman  type  on  the  coins.  A  list  of  the 
federal  strategoi  is  given.  Certain  general  conclusions,  summarizing  all 
the  preceding  papers,  are  given,  classified  under  the  four  periods.  (1)  The 
KOLVOV  TWI/  ©eo-o-aXoiv,  organized  between  the  vm  and  vi  cent.  B.  c.,  with 
Aleuas  of  Larissa  as  its  military,  and  Skopas  of  Krannon  as  its  financial 
legislator.  It  included  the  cities  of  Thessaliotis  and  Pelasgiotis  with  the 
surrounding  mountainous  tribes  as  tributaries.  The  election  of  a  life-dic- 
tator or  rctyos,  on  occasions  of  great  danger,  led  to  tyrrany,  and  this  to  the 
Macedonian  intervention.  (2)  Macedonian  period  with  nominal  inde- 
pendence. (3)  Roman  republican  period  with  greater  independence  but 
restricted  territorial  dominion  interrupted  by  annexation  to  Macedonia. 
(4)  Roman  imperial  period. — A.  LEBEGUE,  The  Miikriac  basrelief  of  Pesaro 
(pp.  64-9).  A  paper  in  the  same  sense  as  that  by  M.  Fr.  Cumont  in  the 
last  number.— J.  BAILLET,  The  Stele  of  Menschieh  (pp.  70-83).  This  stele, 
now  at  Bulaq,  was  found  at  Menschieh,  the  site  of  Ptolemais.  It  com- 
memorates the  erection  of  a  temple  and  begins :  "In  the  name  of  the 
Emperor  Caesar  Nerva  Trajan  Augustus  Germanicus,  in  the  honor  of  As- 
klepios  and  Hygieia,  this  temple  and  its  enclosure  have  been  built  by  our 
city  under  the  prefect  Pompeius  Planta  and  the  epistrategos  Calpurnius 
Sabinus."  This  is  followed  by  an  interesting  paean  to  Asklepios.  The 
whole  is  Greek  without  any  Egyptian  elements. — D.  MALLET,  The  in- 
scriptions of  Naukratis  (pp.  84—91).  A  summary  is  given  of  the  diver- 
gent opinions  of  Ernest  Gardner  and  of  Hirschfeld. — BUHOT  DE  KERSERS, 
Monumental  Statistics  of  the  department  of  the  Cher :  Conclusions  (pp.  92- 
101).  A  resume"  is  given  of  the  history  of  architecture  in  this  department 
during  various  periods.  This  paper  includes  the  prehistoric,  the  Gallic, 
the  Roman,  the  Merovingian,  and  the  Carlovingian  periods. — BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
— SUPPLEMENT.  R.  CAGNAT,  Review  of  Epigraphic  Publications  relating 
to  Roman  antiquity. 

March-April,  1889. — E.  LE  BLANT,  On  some  ancient  monuments  relating 
to  the  consequences  of  criminal  a/airs  (pp.  145-62).  In  the  enumeration  of 
monuments,  we  find  a  fresco  representing  a  martyr  appearing  before  a  judge, 
and  the  assessors  or  members  of  the  judge's  concilium  represented  in  an  ivory 
and  on  sarcophagi.  The  instruments  of  torture,  the  lignum  or  nervus,  the 
prison,  the  machaera  or  sword  and  the  mensa,  the  work  at  the  mines  and  the 
representations  of  martyrdom  are  described.  The  martyrdom  itself  was 
very  seldom  represented  in  early  Christian  art. — M.  DE  VOGUE,  Note  on 
the  necropoli  of  Carthage  (pp.  163-86 ;  pis.  v-vm).  A  full  account  of  this 
9 


264  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

paper  is  given  under  News,  on  pp.  201-2. — SAL.  REINACH,  Gauls  in  ancient 
art  and  the  Sarcophagus  of  the  Vigna  Ammendola  (3rd  paper :  pp.  187- 
203  ;  pi.  ix).  The  enumeration  is  continued  of  Greek  or  Graeco-Roman 
statues  representing  Galatinns  or  Gauls.  First  of  these  is  a  torso  in  Dres- 
den, reproduced  in  fig.  10,  representing  a  wounded  Gaul ;  fig.  11  gives  the 
head  of  a  Gaul  in  the  museum  of  Bulaq ;  fig.  12,  one  of  two  large  reclining 
decorative  statues  at  the  Villa  Albani;  fig.  13,  the  mediocre  statue  of  a 
Gallic  warrior  resting  on  his  shield,  at  Avignon ;  fig.  15,  the  fine  bust  of 
a  barbarian  in  the  British  Museum,  which  also  contains  two  small  bronzes 
one  of  which  is  an  evident  imitation  of  Pergamene  models.  Several  small 
bronzes  represent  captive  Gauls:  one  of  these  is  given  in  fig.  16.  The 
koroplasts  of  Asia  Minor  represented  the  Galatians,  and  a  very  interest- 
ing series  of  statuettes  and  groups  of  this  character  are  enumerated.  Two 
of  these  (figs.  18,  19)  are  from  Myrina,  in  the  Louvre ;  two,  representing 
fighting  and  dead  warriors  are  from  Pergamon,  at  Berlin.  The  works  of 
decorative  sculpture  are  then  enumerated,  principally  trophies  (pi.  ix), 
sepulchral  monuments,  arches,  etc. — D.  MALLET,  The  inscriptions  of  Nau- 
kratis  (con tin. :  pp.  204-11).  The  eight  famous  inscriptions  on  which  the 
entire  discussion  has  turned  are  examined.  The  writer  reads,  against  Mr. 
Gardner's  views,  a>rroAAa>  o-ds  ei/u,  taking  the  letters  before  and  after  the 
second  o  to  be  the  same,  namely,  or ;  instead  of  the  first  a  v,  and  the  second 
a  o-,  as  Gardner  thinks.  This  involves  the  question  of  the  origin  of  certain 
letters.  The  general  tendency  of  this  paper  is  to  claim  a  direct  influence  of 
Egyptian  hieratic  writing  on  the  Greek  alphabet  without  the  intervention 
of  the  Phoenicians. — PH.  BERGER,  On  the  coins  of  Mikipsa  and  the  attribu- 
tion of  other  coins  of  Numidian  princes  (pp.  212-18).  The  writer  believes 
he  has  found  in  a  Neo-Punic  inscription  from  Cherchell  the  name  of  Mi- 
kipsa, and  this  led  him  to  an  examination  of  the  legends  on  coins  attributed 
to  this  and  other  Numidian  princes,  which  led  to  unexpected  conclusions. 
The  name  is  written  Mikipzan  on  the  stele.  Coins  belonging  to  a  series  of 
autonomous  coins  of  Numidia  have  the  two  Phoenician  letters  M  N,  which 
the  writer  recognizes  as  the  first  and  final  letters  of  Mikipzan.  This  is 
made  clearer  by  another  coin  which  contains  the  additional  letters  H  T, 
the  first  and  final  letters  of  the  word  for  king :  hammamleket.  An  entire 
series  of  coins  attributed  to  Adherbal  and  Hiempsal  I  must  be  restored  to 
Mikipsa.  The  application  of  the  same  solution  to  other  coins  leads  to  the 
restoration  of  many,  (1)  to  Gulussa;  (2)  to  Adherbal;  (3)  to  Hiempsal. 
M.  de  Vogue  was  led  to  adopt  a  similar  system  in  explanation  of  the  coins 
of  Kypros. — V.-J.  VAILLANT,  The  new  Roman  cippus  of  Boulogne-sur-mer 
(pp.  219-24). — J.-ADRIEN  BLANCHET,  Ancient  theatrical  and  other  tesserae 
(pp.  225-42).  A  bibliography  of  the  subject  is  first  given,  beginning  with 
Fabretti  in  1702.  A  description  of  individual  tesserae  follows,  with  numer- 


SUMMARIES  OF  PERIODICALS. 


265 


ous  illustrations  and  the  reproduction  of  all  inscriptions.  The  first  class, 
alone  treated  in  the  present  paper,  is  entitled,  tesserae  with  legends  and 
numbers,  of  which  only  section  1,  with  names  of  divinities,  is  completed. 
The  figures  are :  Agathodaimon ;  the  Dioskouroi;  Athena;  Apollon;  Ares; 
Harpokrates;  Aphrodite;  Erato;  Eos(?);  Zeus;  Helios;  Hera;  Herakles; 
Isis ;  Kastor ;  Kore\ — E.  DROUIN,  The  era  of  Yezdegerd  and  the  Persian  Cal- 
endar (contin. :  pp.  243-56).  The  author  draws  the  following  conclusions 
from  the  texts  he  examines:  (1)  that  the  Persian  year  had,  at  the  Sassanid 
period,  365  days ;  (2)  that  every  120  years  the  beginning  of  the  year  was  a 
month  in  advance  of  the  solar  year,  thus  necessitating  the  addition  of  a 
thirteenth  month ;  (3)  it  is  not  certain  what  position  in  the  year  this  month 
occupied ;  (4)  the  epagomenoi  came  at  the  close  of  the  embolismic  year, 
and  preserved  this  position  during  the  rest  of  the  cycle  of  119  years ;  (5) 
in  1006  A.  D.  the  epagomenoi  were  definitely  placed  at  the  close  of  the  year 
after  Isfendarmed ;  (6)  finally,  the  ninth  intercalation  would  have  been 
made  under  Yezdegerd,  had  it  not  been  for  the  Arabic  invasion.  The  first 
intercalation  must  have  taken  place  in  309  B.  c.  An  examination  of  the 
reason  why  in  309  B.  c.  originated  the  idea  of  equilibrating  the  civil  year 
and  the  astronomical  year  is  deferred  to  the  following  paper. — BUHOT  DE 
KERSEKS,  Monumental  Statistics  of  the  department  of  the  Cher:  Conclusions. 
This  is  the  continuation  of  a  history  of  architecture  in  this  department,  and 
includes  the  Romanesque  period,  the  xi  and  xn  centuries. — R.  CAGNAT, 
Review  of  Epigraphic Publications  relating  to  Romanantiquity.  A.  L.  F.,  JR. 


AMERICAN 
JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

Vol.V.  SEPTEMBER,  1889.  No.  3. 

PAPERS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  SCHOOL  OF  CLASSICAL 

STUDIES  AT  ATHENS. 
EXCAVATIONS  AT  THE  THEATRE  OF  SIKYON. 


I.   GENERAL  REPORT  OF  THE  EXCAVATIONS. 

[PLATES  VI,  VII,  IX.] 

The  excavations  at  Sikyon  by  the  American  School  were  begun  March 
23,  1886,  during  the  directorship  of  Professor  M.  L.  D'Ooge,  and  were 
continued,  with  some  interruptions,  until  May  10.  In  the  succeeding 
session  of  the  School,  under  the  directorship  of  Professor  A.  C.  Merriam, 
the  excavations  were  resumed  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  M.  L.  Earle, 
who  will  present  a  final  report  of  the  work  done.*  The  choice  of  the 
site  of  Sikyon  as  a  field  for  archaeological  investigation  was  recom- 
mended by  the  fact  that,  in  spite  of  the  antiquity  of  the  city  and  its 
particular  importance  in  the  history  of  art,  no  systematic  excavation 
had  ever  been  made  there.  Whether  it  was  due  to  the  charm  of  the 
surrounding  landscape,  or  to  a  happy  blending  of  Ionian  and  Dorian 
elements  in  the  population,  or  again  to  the  circumstances  of  the  politi- 
cal history  of  the  city,  or,  what  is  most  probable,  to  the  united  action 
of  all  these  causes,  few  cities  in  Hellas  were  more  renowned  as  art  cen- 
tres than  Sikyon. 

Sikyon  first  comes  into  view  in  the  Homeric  line,  KOI  ^IKVWV,  od'ap* 
Trpwr  e/jLJ3ao-[\€vev  (Iliad,  II.  572).  Hesiod  (Theog.,  536) 


*  The  PLAN  of  the  theatre  so  far  as  excavated  by  Mr.  McMurtry  was  made  by  Mr. 
S.  B.  P.  Trowbridge.  To  this  the  results  of  Mr.  Earle's  work  have  been  added  by  Mr. 
J.  W.  Cromwell.  The  other  PLATES  are  from  photographs  taken  by  Mr.  W.  L.  Cushing. 

267 


268  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

makes  it  the  scene  of  a  contest  between  gods  and  men.  He  calls  the 
place  M.r)Kd)i>r),  an  appellation  which  undoubtedly  originated  from  the 
abundant  growth  of  wild  poppies,  which  still,  at  the  present  day,  are 
scattered  over  the  plateau  upon  which  the  old  city  was  built.  At 
the  Dorian  conquest,  the  Ionian  inhabitants  seem  not  to  have  been 
expelled  or  violently  oppressed,  as  in  nearly  all  the  regions  of  the  Pelo- 
ponnesos,  and  they  came  to  form  a  fourth  tribe  beside  the  three  tribes 
of  the  Dorians.  To  this  diiference  of  race  among  the  inhabitants,  and 
to  the  jealousies  and  variances  that  would  naturally  arise  from  it,  may 
be  attributed  the  long  duration  in  Sikyon  of  the  rule  of  tyrants.  In 
fact,  tyranny  was  the  usual  rather  than,  as  in  other  Hellenic  communi- 
ties, the  exceptional  form  of  government.  One  family  of  despots,  the 
Orthagoridai,  held  sway  for  a  century,  a  circumstance  without  paral- 
lel among  Greek  states.  The  government  of  this  family  was  very 
successful.  They  formed  extensive  commercial  relations,  carried  on 
victorious  wars,  encouraged  artistic  enterprises,  and  won  chariot-vic- 
tories for  their  city  in  the  national  games.  The  period  of  Kleisthenes 
especially  was  one  of  the  most  flourishing  in  the  history  of  Sikyon. 
Herodotos'  story  (vi.  126)  of  the  marriage  of  the  daughter  of  that 
prince  gives  a  picture  of  the  contemporaneous  importance  of  the  city. 
The  Orthagoridai  seem  not  to  have  belonged  to  the  Dorian  portion  of 
the  people,  and  to  have  done  everything  in  their  power  to  repress  the 
citizens  of  that  race.  Kleisthenes  went  so  far  as  to  change  the  ancient 
and  venerated  names  of  the  three  Dorian  tribes  and  to  force  upon  them 
new  and  odious  designations.  But  Kleisthenes  was  the  last  ruler  of 
his  line,  and  it  is  probable  that  after  his  death  there  came  a  Dorian  reac- 
tion. At  any  rate,  we  find  that  Sikyon  was  a  member  of  the  Dorian 
league  during  the  Persian  and  Peloponnesian  wars.  During  the  strug- 
gle between  Sparta  and  Thebes  the  city  suffered  severely.  It  gradu- 
ally lost  its  importance,  became  subject  to  Ptolemy,  and  finally  fell  into 
the  hands  of  Demetrios  Poliorketes,  who  played  a  prominent  part  in 
its  later  history.  Previous  to  his  time,  the  main  portion  of  the  city 
stood  in  the  plain  at  the  foot  of  the  large  plateau  upon  which  the 
akropolis  was  located.  Probably  for  the  reason  that  the  population 
had  become  so  reduced  in  numbers  as  to  be  inadequate  for  the  defense 
of  so  large  an  extent  of  wall,  Demetrios  compelled  the  citizens  to  abandon 
the  town  in  the  plain,  and  to  build  upon  the  akropolis.  Upon  the  smaller 
and  somewhat  more  elevated  plateau  immediately  behind  the  earlier 
akropolis,  he  placed  his  own,  fortifying  the  entire  height,  already  by 


REPORT  OF  EXCA  VA  TIONS  A  T  SIKYON.  26 9 

nature  almost  impregnable,  by  means  of  a  wall,  considerable  portions 
of  which  are  still  standing. 

When  the  Achaian  league  became  powerful,  its  most  efficient  leader 
was  Aratos,  a  Sikyonian,  who  freed  his  native  city  from  the  oppressive 
sway  of  tyrants  under  Macedonian  protection,  and  induced  it  to  join 
the  league.  After  the  destruction  of  Corinth  by  the  Romans,  Sikyon, 
delivered  from  the  rivalry  of  that  city,  increased  in  power  and  secured 
the  administration  of  the  Isthmian  games.  The  period  of  prosperity, 
however,  was  of  short  duration.  &oman  cupidity  was  tempted  by  the 
numerous  and  valuable  works  of  art  in  the  city,  and  many  of  the  most 
precious  treasures,  were  removed  to  contribute  to  the  splendor  of  the 
imperial  metropolis.  Afterward,  earthquakes  destroyed  many  of  the 
art-treasures  which  the  Romans  had  left  behind.  Yet,  when  Pausanias 
was  at  Sikyon  in  the  second  century  A.  D.,  he  found  it,  though  a  place 
of  small  population,  still  in  possession  of  notable  works  of  art. 

It  was  in  the  field  of  art  rather  than  of  politics  that  Sikyon  won 
her  fame.  There,  for  a  long  period,  was  one  of  the  chief  seats  of 
Greek  artistic  activity ;  indeed,  one  tradition  places  the  invention  of 
painting  at  Sikyon ;  and,  as  Pliny  says  (HN,  xxx.  11),  Diu  ilia 
fuitpatria  picturae.  One  of  the  great  schools  of  painting  has  its  name 
from  Sikyon,  a  school  founded  by  Eupompos,  and  of  which  Pamphilos 
and  Apelles  were  pupils.1  In  sculpture,  too,  the  fame  of  Sikyon  was 
no  less  great.  While  tradition  assigns  to  a  native  of  Sikyon  the  inven- 
tion of  painting,  Pliny  (HN,  xxxv.  43)  tells  us  that  Butades,  a  Sik- 
yonian, was  the  first  to  make  images  of  clay.  Dipoinos  and  Skyllis, 
the  early  sculptors,  though  Kretans  by  birth,  were  connected  with 
Sikyon  in  their  work.2  The  first  native  sculptor  of  importance  was 
Kanachos  :  the  most  famous  was  Lysippos.  The  city  was  also  famed 
throughout  Hellas  for  the  taste  displayed  by  the  inhabitants  in  the  manu- 
facture of  various  articles  of  dress,  especially  a  certain  kind  of  shoe.3 

No  Greek  city  had  a  more  advantageous  site,  or  more  beautiful  natu- 
ral surroundings  than  Sikyon.  The  extensive  plateau  which  formed 
the  original  akropolis,  and  was  made  by  Demetrios  the  site  of  the  new 
town,  is  situated  about  two  miles  back  from  the  gulf  of  Corinth.  Its 
level,  fertile  surface  would  have  been  adequate  for  the  support  of  a 
large  populace  in  case  of  a  protracted  siege.  Water  was  conveyed  to 
it  by  rock-cut  aqueducts,  which  are  still  to  be  seen.  In  the  rear  of 

1  PUN.,  HN}  xxxv.  10.       2  PLIN.,  HN,  xxxvi.  4.       3  STEPH.  BYZANT.,  s.  v. 


270  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

this  plateau,  to  the  southward,  a  smaller  one  rises  above  it,  having 
about  one-third  the  area  of  the  lower,  from  which  it  is  separated  by 
a  rocky  slope.  This  was  made  by  Demetrios  the  new  akropolis.  On 
either  side  of  the  entire  height  a  small  river  flows  toward  the  gulf. 
The  larger  of  these,  that  on  the  east  side,  is  the  ancient  Asopos  :  the 
smaller  stream,  that  toward  the  west,  was  probably  the  ancient  He- 
lisson.  At  the  foot  of  the  large  plateau,  a  fertile  plain  stretches  north- 
ward in  several  descending  terraces  to  the  brilliant  blue  waters  of  the 
gulf.  It  is  now  covered,  as  undoubtedly  it  was  of  old,  by  vineyards. 
On  the  opposite  side  of  the  gulf  rise  the  peaks  of  Parnassos,  Helikon, 
and  Kithairon.  To  the  eastward  stretches  the  rich  plain,  the  fertility 
of  which  gave  rise  to  the  proverbial  wish,  Eti?  poi  TO.  yueraf  v  KopivOov 
KOI  ^IKVWVOS.  On  this  side,  the  landscape  is  shut  in  by  the  Isthmian 
mountains  and  Akrokorinthos.  At  sunrise  and  sunset  especially,  the 
view  is  of  surpassing  loveliness. 

Pausanias'  description  of  the  city  (n.  7)  is  so  indefinite  in  its  topo- 
graphical allusions  that  very  little  can  be  made  of  it  in  an  attempt  to 
fix  the  actual  location  of  the  temples  and  other  monuments.  The 
theatre  is  the  only  object,  in  his  description,  of  which  the  site  is  now 
certain.  He  tells  us  that  upon  the  stage  was  the  statue  of  a  man  with 
a  shield,  said  to  represent  Aratos.  Beyond  the  theatre  (yuero,  TO  6ia- 
Tpov),  he  says,  is  a  temple  of  Dionysos.  He  speaks  of  about  fifteen 
temples,  some  of  them  already  at  that  time  in  ruin.  In  the  agora, 
he  saw  bronze  statues  of  Zeus  and  Herakles,  by  Lysippos.  He  speaks 
of  two  gymnasia,  in  one  of  which  was  shown  a  marble  statue  of  Hera- 
kles by  Skopas. 

On  the  site  of  Sikyon,  as  seen  to-day,  there  are,  scattered  here  and 
there  over  the  lower  and  the  upper  plateau,  numerous  foundations  of 
buildings,  some  of  them  cut  out  of  the  living  rock.  These  remains 
are  most  numerous  in  the  vicinity  of  the  theatre,  which  is  partly  hol- 
lowed out  from  the  rocky  declivity  separating  the  two  plateaus.  A 
short  distance  northeast  from  the  theatre  are  considerable  remains  of 
a  Roman  building,  consisting  of  brick  walls  eight  or  nine  feet  high, 
with  numerous  small  compartments  in  the  interior.  This  was  pro- 
bably a  bath.  A  short  distance  to  the  west  of  the  theatre  are  the  con- 
spicuous remains  of  the  stadion,  not  mentioned  by  Pausanias.  It  was 
constructed  in  the  usual  manner,  the  northeast  extremity  of  the  course 
being  built  up  with  a  wall  of  polygonal  stones.  On  the  upper  plateau 
only  a  few  foundations  appear.  It  is  hardly  probable  that  there  were 


REPORT  OF  EXCA  VATIONS  AT  SIKYON.  271 

ever  any  great  number  of  buildings  here :  Pausanias  mentions  only  two 
temples.  Underneath  this  plateau,  aqueducts  are  cut  in  the  rock  at  a 
considerable  depth;  indeed,  both  natural  and  artificial  underground 
cavities  are  very  numerous  about  Sikyon.  On  the  lower  plateau  at  vari- 
ous points  the  location  of  the  old  streets  is  indicated  by  long  lines  of 
stones,  extending  from  N.  E.  to  s.  w.,  and  from  s.  E.  to  N.  w.  Of  the 
numerous  foundations  upon  this  plateau  some  have  evidently  belonged 
to  large  structures.  At  the  present  time,  the  northeastern  side  is  occu- 
pied by  the  Albanian  village  of  Basilik6,  the  name  of  which  doubtless 
originated  from  the  extensive  ruins  near  by.  Some  architectural  frag- 
ments are  to  be  seen  about  the  village  church,  within  which  there  is 
a  large  Corinthian  capital. 

The  ruins  at  Sikyon,  and  particularly  the  theatre,  have  been  de- 
scribed by  various  scholars  and  travellers,  of  whom  the  most  promi- 
nent are  Leake,4  Curtius 5  and  Bursian.6  A  very  brief  account  of  the 
theatre,  accompanied  by  a  plan,  is  given  by  Blouet  in  the  Expedition 
scientifique  de  Moree.  The  most  peculiar  feature  of  the  theatre,  the 
two  arches  affording  an  entrance  to  the  KOI\OV  on  either  side,  is  noticed 
by  all  these  writers.  Both  Curtius  (op.  dt.9  n.  490)  and  Bursian 
(op.  cit.,  p.  28)  seem  to  have  thought,  as  they  had  no  other  means'  of 
judging  than  the  scanty  traces  of  the  stage-foundations  that  were  visible 
previous  to  our  excavations,  that  these  foundations  were  cut  from  the 
natural  rock,  while  we  now  know  that  they  were  largely  constructed 
of  masonry.7 

The  Theatre  previous  to  the  Excavations. — The  declivity  from  which 
the  Kol\ov  of  the  theatre  is  excavated,  consists  of  a  soft  poros-stone, 
and  this  same  stone  was  used  in  the  construction  of  the  masonry.  The 
structure  faces  toward  the  northeast,  and  commands  the  beautiful  view 
which  has  been  described.  The  diameter  of  the  KoT\,ov  is  about  four 
hundred  feet.  These  dimensions  were  not  secured  entirely  by  exca- 
vation of  the  side-hill ;  the  sides  of  the  KOL\OV  were  extended  by 

'  *  Travels  in  the  Morea,  vol.  m,  p.  364  ff.  5  Peloponnesos,  n.  482  ff. 

6  Geographic  von  Griechenland,  II,  23  ff. 

7  The  space  occupied  by  the  stage-structure,  as  a  whole,  was  originally  formed  of 
an  irregular  mass  of  rock,  some  two  meters  or  so  in  height  toward  the  orchestra  at 
each  side,  but  cut  asunder  by  a  depression  through  the  middle.     The  rock  was  cut 
down  to  the  level  of  the  orchestra  for  the  reception  of  the  ends  of  the  walls  of  the 
scene-structure  A-DD,  leaving  considerable  masses  on  either  side,  which  were  smoothed 
or  left  rough  as  exigencies  required.    The  projections  of  these  rock-masses  were  seen 
by  Curtius,  and  others. 


272  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

masonry  covered  with  earth.  Before  we  began  our  work,  at  each  end 
of  the  space  that  was  evidently  occupied  by  the  stage-structure,  a  mass 
of  rock  projected  above  the  surface.  Between  these  rock-masses  ap- 
peared slight  traces  of  the  foundation-walls  of  the  stage.  The  orches- 
tra was  covered  by  a  deposit  of  earth  that  had  been  washed  down  from 
above :  this  earth  was  found  to  have  a  depth  increasing  from  one  meter 
in  front  to  three  in  the  rear.  The  seats  were  visible  here  and  there 
in  the  upper  portion  of  the  icoTKov,  those  in  the  lower  part  being  cov- 
ered with  earth.  So  great  a  mass  of  material  overlaid  the  orchestra 
that  it  was  out  of  the  question,  with  the  means  at  our  command,  to 
undertake  to  uncover  the  theatre  completely.  Our  aim  was  therefore 
restricted  to  such  excavation  as  would  fully  bring  to  light  the  plan 
of  stage-structure  and  orchestra.  Moreover,  we  were  not  without  hopes 
that  some  works  of  art  might  have  been  covered  up  and  hence  pre- 
served in  the  theatre. 

RESULTS  OF  THE  EXCAVATIONS  AT  THE  THEATRE. 

THE  STAGE-STRUCTURE. — The  PLAN  of  the  excavated  portion  of 
the  Theatre  (PLATE  ix)  shows  that  there  are  five  main  foundation- 
walls  belonging  to  the  stage-buildings,  marked  A,  B,  C,  DD,  E.  Of 
these,  A  and  E,  the  front  and  rear  walls,  are  of  about  the  same  length, 
projecting  on  the  west  side  a  little  more  than  six  meters  beyond  the 
others.  The  rock  has  been  cut  away,  in  both  front  and  rear,  in  order 
to  admit  of  this  projection. 

The  Wall  A.— The  total  length  of  this  wall  is  23.60  meters.  A  piece 
of  it  at  the  east  end  is  formed  of  two  upright  slabs  of  stone,  0.70  m. 
high.  The  remainder  of  the  wall  is  composed  of  small  blocks  of  poros 
intermingled  with  bricks  and  mortar.  The  average  height  is  about 
0.55  m.,  the  thickness,  0.65  m.  There  are  three  doorways  in  this 
wall.  The  first  is  2.56  m.  from  the  east  end,  and  its  width  is  1.05  m. 
Upon  either  side  of  this  doorway,  as  well  as  of  the  others  in  this  wall, 
there  is  a  cavity  for  the  door-post.  At  a  distance  of  7.32  m.  from  this 
doorway  there  appears  to  have  been  a  double  door.  The  openings  are 
each  1.05  m.  wide,  and  are  separated  by  a  pier  formed  of  two  blocks  of 
stone.  On  the  west  side  of  the  western  doorway  the  end  of  the  w^all  is 
plastered  over,  and  preserves  some  traces  of  ornament  in  color.  The 
third  doorway  is  2.65  m.  distant  from  the  western  end  of  the  wall : 
like  the  others,  it  is  1.05  m.  wide.  The  portion  of  wall  beyond  this 
door  is  higher  than  the  rest,  having  a  height  of  0.80  m. 


REPORT  OF  EXCA  VATIONS  AT  SIKYON.  273 

In  front  of  the  base  of  the  wall  A,  a  marble  step  or  plinth  extends 
almost  the  entire  length  :  it  begins  at  the  east  side  of  the  eastern  door, 
and  continues  to  the  western  end  of  the  wall.  The  width  of  the 
blocks  is  0.57  m. ;  and  they  project  0.40  m.  These  blocks  were  un- 
doubtedly taken  from  another  structure.  In  proof  of  this,  I  observed 
a  shallow  circular  cavity  cut  in  one  of  the  blocks  and  extending  partly 
under  the  wall,  evidently  having  no  connection  with  the  present  posi- 
tion and  use  of  the  block.  Moreover,  upon  another  of  these  blocks,  at 
the  west  end  of  the  wall,  there  is  an  inscription  which,  in  the  present 
position  of  the  block,  is  inverted.  Upon  the  ends  of  a  number  of  these 
marble  blocks  we  found  the  masons'  marks  in  the  form  of  Greek  letters. 
These  are  as  follows,  proceeding  from  east  to  west :  (1)  none ;  (2)  K  — ; 
(3)  — A;  (4)A-M;  (5)8  —  1;  (6)1-;  (7)s  — ;  (8)  none;  (9) 
A  — 3;  (10)  H  — B;  (11)  B—  I;  (12)  A  —  9  ;  (13)1—.  It  will  be 
observed  that  the  first  and  eighth  blocks  are  unmarked,  and  that  some 
of  the  others  are  marked  only  at  one  end.  The  irregular  order  of  the 
letters  seems  to  indicate  that  they  were  not  cut  with  reference  to  the 
existing  arrangement.  A  remarkable  peculiarity  is  the  archaism  in 
some  of  the  letters,  especially  the  angular  beta.  The  alpha  is  of  the 
type  of  the  Macedonian  period. 

In  front  of  that  part  of  the  wall  lying  to  the  west  of  the  western 
door  stand  two  marble  bases  (marked  a  and  b  in  the  PLAN  :  PLATE 
ix).  The  length  of  a.  is  0.66  m. ;  height,  0.37  m. ;  width,  0.56  m. 
Both  a  and  b  rest  upon  a  stone  foundation.  Upon  the  upper  surface 
of  a  is  cut  a  rectangular  cavity,  0.33  m.  by  0.26  m.,  and  0.04  m.  deep. 
The  dimensions  of  b  are  similar  to  those  of  a,  except  that  it  is  not 
quite  so  long :  it  also  has,  upon  its  upper  surface,  a  cavity  similar  to 
that  of  a.  These  bases  probably  supported  statues,  or  columns  or  pil- 
asters, most  likely  the  latter.  In  the  space  of  1.85  m.  between  them, 
there  is  a  continuation  of  the  marble  foundation-step,  consisting  of  two 
slabs ;  and  beneath  these  slabs  and  projecting  in  front  of  them  there 
appears  a  foundation  of  stone.  Upon  the  face  of  the  second  slab  (the 
western  one)  is  an  inscription  of  the  Macedonian  period,  which  records 
the  victories  gained  in  various  games  by  a  certain  Kallistratos,  son  of 
Philothales.  This  inscription,  the  second  one  found,  is  given  below : 
it  is  inverted,  as  already  observed. 

Directly  opposite  the  western  door,  on  the  north  side  of  the  wall 
-4,  there  is  a  stone  block,  marked  c  on  the  PLAN,  0.75m.  long,  0.85m. 
wide,  and  0.38  m.  thick.  It  has  a  circular  hole  cut  through  it,  lying  a 


274  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHEOLOGY. 

little  back  of  the  centre,  the  diameter  of  this  hole  at  the  top  being  0.45  m., 
and  decreasing  gradually  downward.  On  either  side  of  this  hole  is  cut 
a  deep  groove  in  a  slanting  direction  to  the  edges  of  the  block.  This 
stone  has  every  appearance  of  being  in  situ.  It  may  have  served  as 
a  support  for  some  revolving  stage-machine. 

Both  the  material  and  the  method  of  construction  of  the  wall  A 
mark  it  as  of  Roman  origin.  The  position  of  the  doors  displays  a  lack 
of  symmetry.  We  should  naturally  expect  the  double  doorway  to  be 
midway  between  the  other  two :  we  find,  however,  that  on  the  east  side 
the  interval  is  7.32  m.,  while  on  the  west  side  it  is  but  6.14  m.  The 
position  of  the  double  door  was  probably  determined  with  reference  to 
the  doors  in  the  walls  B  and  C. 

The  Wall  B.— This  wall  is  at  a  distance  of  2.15  m.  from  A,  with 
which  it  is  parallel.  Its  total  length  is  16.07m.,  average  height,  1.10  m., 
and  thickness,  0.65  m.  It  has  one  doorway,  1.15  m.  wide,  4.60  m.  dis- 
tant from  the  west  end.  The  construction  of  this  wall  is  entirely  dif- 
ferent from  that  of  A,  and  it  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  original  Hellenic 
walls.  It  consists  of  two  courses  of  large  blocks  of  stone  in  isodomic 
masonry,  resting  upon  a  low  stone  foundation :  the  blocks  have  a 
uniform  length  of  1.30  m.  At  a  distance  of  about  1.50  m.  east  of  the 
door,  on  the  north  side  of  the  wall,  is  a  buttress-like  projection,  marked 
d  on  the  PLAN,  having  in  the  top  a  deep  rectangular  cavity.  Imme- 
diately opposite  this,  there  remains  a  small  fragment  of  what  may 
have  been  a  similar  projection  from  the  wall  C. 

The  Wall  C. — This  wall  is  3.24  m.  distant  from  B.  Its  length 
is  16.29  m.,  average  height,  one  meter,  thickness,  like  B,  0.65  m. 
It  has  two  doorways,  the  first  of  which  is  2.70  m.  from  the  east  end, 
and  is  1.49  m.  wide.  At  the  west  side  of  this  doorway  there  is  an 
upright  block  of  stone  projecting  0.55  m.  above  the  wall.  The  second 
doorway  is  four  meters  from  the  west  end  of  the  wall,  and  is  2.10  m. 
wide.  At  a  distance  of  about  three  meters  from  the  west  end  of  the 
wall  there  is  a  projection  from  it  on  each  side,  formed  by  the  transverse 
position  of  two  blocks,  1.30  m.  long,  laid  one  above  the  other.  The 
wall  C  is  of  mixed  construction,  part  being  of  the  same  nature  as  B, 
and  of  Hellenic  origin  ;  while  the  remainder  is  like  A,  and  Roman. 

The  Cross-wall  F. — This  wall  extends  between  B  and  (7,  at  a  dis- 
tance of  6.95m.  from  the  east  end.  Its  length  is  3.24m.,  height  the 
same  as  that  of  B  and  C,  its  thickness  0.31  m.  The  construction  is 
Hellenic,  of  the  same  nature  as  that  of  B.  Near  its  northern  end  there 


REPORT  OF  EXCAVATIONS  AT  SIKYON.  275 

are  singular  projections  (marked  e  and/),  one  on  either  side  of  the  wall, 
each  formed  of  two  blocks  of  stone ;  the  second  block  on  each  side  hav- 
ing the  upper  lateral  edges  cut  out  squarely.  These  blocks  seem  to  be 
in  position ;  yet  they  have  no  foundation,  resting  merely  on  the  earth 
filling  the  space  between  B  and  C. 

The  Wall  DD. — This  wall  is  about  3.75  m.  distant  from  (7,  with 
which  it  is  parallel  and  of  equal  length.  It  is  of  very  irregular  and 
rough  construction,  composed  of  a  single  course  of  stones,  and  evi- 
dently of  Roman  date. 

The  Wall  E. — This  wall,  the  fifth  and  last  main  foundation-wall  of 
the  stage-structure,  is  of  much  better  construction  than  DD  •  although 
it,  too,  is  undoubtedly  Roman.  Its  length  is  23.86  m.,  and  its  thick- 
ness, 0.70  m.  At  about  seven  meters  from  the  west  end,  we  found, 
standing  upright  upon  the  wall,  a  piece  of  a  column  of  poros,  appar- 
ently in  situ.  Its  diameter  is  0.43  m.,  and  it  is  fluted  only  on  the 
northern  side.  This  column  suggests  that  the  wall  E  served  as  the 
front  foundation  of  a  stoa  decorating  the  side  of  the  theatre  facing  the 
city.  The  wall  terminated  at  the  west  end  in  a  corner  built  of  brick. 
Immediately  opposite,  a  short  pilaster  of  brick-work  is  built  out  from 
the  rock,  leaving  sufficient  space  for  a  door  leading  into  the  structure 
on  the  west  side,  an  account  of  which  will  be  given  below. 

THEOEY  AS  TO  THE  CONSTRUCTION  OF  THE  STAGE-STRUCTURE. — 
The  similarity  in  the  dimensions  and  mode  of  construction  of  A  and 
E  makes  it  probable  that  both  were  built  at  the  same  time,  when  the 
stage  of  the  theatre  was  altered  and  probably  enlarged  to  conform  with 
the  Roman  standard.  In  the  Hellenic  form  of  the  theatre,  the  wall 
C,  as  I  believe,  formed  the  foundation  of  the  rear  wall  of  the  stage, 
or  the  front  wall  to  a  person  approaching  the  theatre  from  the  city. 
Possibly  a  portico  extended  along  the  north  side  of  C.  But  this  wall 
did  not  constitute  the  entire  foundation ;  the  structure  continued  north- 
westward, with  the  natural  rock  as  a  foundation,  as  far  as  the  point 
marked  h  on  the  PLAN.  If  the  KoTkov  and  orchestra  had  practically 
the  same  width  in  both  the  Hellenic  and  the  Roman  form  of  the  thea- 
tre, and  it  is  evident  that  they  had,  it  is  impossible  to  suppose  that  the 
stage  originally  extended  only  so  far  as  the  outcrop  of  rock.  As  the 
walls  now  stand,  the  cross-wall  Ft  one  of  the  original  walls,  seems  to 
be  unsymmetrical.  But,  if  there  was  another  compartment  extending 
from  the  edge  of  the  rock-mass  to  A,  it  would  correspond  in  length  with 
the  compartment  east  of  F,  the  middle  compartment  being  somewhat 


276  AMERICAN  JO  URNAL  OF  ARCHJEOLOG  Y. 

longer  than  those  at  each  end.  Hence,  the  hypothesis  of  an  extension 
to  h  gives  a  natural  explanation  of  the  position  of  F.  At  i,  in  the  PLAN, 
there  is  an  approach  to  the  stage  consisting  of  an  ascending  passage  or 
ramp  cut  in  the  rock,  and  there  must  have  been  a  door  giving  com- 
munication from  this  passage  to  the  western  compartment.  There  may 
have  been  a  similar  arrangement  at  the  eastern  end ;  but  we  did  not 
dig  at  that  point.8  The  Hellenic  stage  proper  would  project  in  front 
of  the  wall  E.  When  the  Roman  stage  was  built,  the  Greek  one  was 
removed,  in  any  case,  so  that  no  traces  of  it  remain.  The  wall  A 
seems  to  have  been  the  front  foundation-wall  of  the  Roman  stage.  The 
rooms  in  the  rear  would  serve  for  dressing-rooms,  etc,. 

THE  ORCHESTRA. — Th§  orchestra  was  buried  in  earth  to  such  a 
depth  that  the  removal  of  the  entire  mass  was  too  great  an  under- 
taking. Our  aim  was  necessarily  limited  to  the  laying  bare  of  the 
boundary,  so  as'  to  show  the  form  of  the  orchestra.  First,  we  dug  a 
trench  from  the  middle  point  of  the  wall  A  to  the  opposite  point  at 
the  rear  of  the  orchestra.  The  PLAN  shows  that  the  orchestra,  within 
the  line  of  seats,  comprises  somewhat  more  than  half  the  circumference 
of  a  not  entirely  perfect  circle,  the  diameter  of  which  is  about  twenty 
meters.  If  carried  up  to  the  wall  A,  the  orchestra  would  still  fall  con- 
siderably short  of  the  complete  circle.  The  floor  of  the  orchestra,  at 
least  as  we  found  it,  is  of  earth  (icovicrTpa). 

The  theatre  had  an  elaborate  drainage-system.  On  the  west  side  of 
the  orchestra,  where  we  laid  bare  not  only  the  boundary  of  the  orchestra, 
as  on  the  east  side,  but  also  a  portion  of  the  Ko2\ov,  we  found  a  care- 
fully constructed  drain  extending  around  the  orchestra  (PLATE  vn). 
This  drain  is  about  1.25  m.  wide,  and  about  a  meter  deep.  Opposite 
each  stairway  of  the  KoTkov,  a  stone  slab,  with  an  average  width  of 
about  0.75  m.,  is  laid  across  the  drain  to  serve  as  a  bridge.  The  aver- 
age distance  between  these  bridges  is  about  2.15  m.  This  drain  closely 
resembles  that  in  the  Dionysiac  theatre  at  Athens.  Another  drain 
extends  from  the  centre  of  the  orchestra,  and  passes,  at  right  angles, 
underneath  the  wall  A  and  the  other  walls  of  the  stage-structure  par- 
allel to  A.  Within  the  orchestra,  this  drain  is  covered  over  with  blocks 
of  stone  laid  transversely,  some  of  which  were  found  displaced.  On 
each  side  of  A}  this  covering  is  formed  of  pieces  of  columns  of  poros- 
stone.  A  third  drain  extends  from  the  west  side  of  the  orchestra,  at 

8  See  Supplementary  Report  of  the  Excavations,  below. 


,  REPOE T  OF  EXCA  VA  TIONS  A  T  SIKYON.  277 

a  point  opposite  the  termination  of  the  icol\ov,  to  the  central  drain. 
This  now  consists  of  two  parallel  lines  of  stones.9  At  its  west  end,  on 
the  south  side,  a  drain  of  earthen  pipe,  near  the  level  of  the  orchestra, 
connects  with  it.  The  stone  slabs  near  by  (marked  F)  may  have  served 
as  steps.  A  similar  slab  was  found  at  the  middle  point  in  the  rear 
of  the  orchestra.  The  earth  was  removed  from  one  TrapoSo?,  that 
on  the  west  side.  It  has  a  width  at  the  entrance  of  4.08  m.  The  side 
forming  the  end  of  the  Kol\ov  is  composed  of  a  strong  retaining- wall 
of  large  rectangular  blocks,  which  shares  in  the  upward  slope  of  the 
icol\ov.  The  coping-stones  of  this  wall  have  something  of  an  orna- 
mental finish.  The .  opposite  side  of  the  TrapoSo?  is  inclosed  by  the 
natural  rock. 

THE  KOL\OV. — The  lower  part  of  the  Kol\ov,  like  the  orchestra,  had 
a  thick  covering  of  earth.  We  were  able  to  excavate  only  a  small  por- 
tion of  the  western  half,  including  three  complete  tiers  of  seats  and  the 
front  of  another.  The  icoTXov  was  found  to  be  divided  into  fifteen  sec- 
tions (icep KiSe?)  by  fourteen  stairways.  Accordingly,  a  line  drawn  from 
the  middle  point  of  the  stage  through  the  centre  of  the  orchestra  passes 
through  the  middle  of  the  eighth  section  of  seats,  and  does  not  coincide, 
as  in  some  theatres,  with  one  of  the  stairways.  This,  at  least,  is  the 
method  of  division  in  the  lower  section  of  seats.  One  Sidfafjia  is  easily 
recognized  by  portions  of  a  wall  composed  of  upright  slabs,  about  a 
meter  in  height,  that  formed  one  side  of  the  passageway.  At  the  base 
of  this  wall,  we  uncovered  a  portion  of  an  open  drain  that  undoubtedly 
extended  along  the  entire  length  of  the  wall.  We  dug  a  little,  in  the 
hope  of  discovering  whether  there  was  a  second  Sid^co/jia  above ;  but 
the  upper  portions  of  the  icol\ov,  here,  had  been  so  far  destroyed  that 
our  search  was  not  successful.  The  general  configuration  of  the  sur- 
face, as  well  as  the  great  distance  from  the  lower  SidZw/jLct,  to  the  sum- 
mit of  the  KOL\OV,  give  ground  for  the  belief  that  a  second  Sid%a)/j,a 
did  exist  at  the  point  where  it  might  naturally  be  looked  for.  The 
entire  number  of  rows  of  seats  seems  to  have  been  about  forty :  the 
uppermost  tiers,  though  cut  out  of  the  natural  rock,  are  very  incomplete. 

The  seats  of  the  first  tier  that  we  laid  bare  are  superior  in  character 
to  the  others ;  they  correspond  to  the  marble  chairs  in  the  Dionysiac 

9  [As  these  project  above  the  level  of  the  orchestra,  it  may  be  questioned  whether 
they  did  not  rather  form  the  front  wall  of  a  still  later  Roman  stage,  like  the  Phaidros 
wall  in  the  theatre  at  Athens.  The  drain  of  earthern  pipe  is  close  to  the  surface, 
not  at  the  bottom  of  the  conduit  surrounding  the  orchestra.— A.  C.  M.] 


278  AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  ARCHAEOLOGY. 

theatre  at  Athens,  and  were  plainly  intended  for  the  accommodation  of 
priests  or  other  officials.  But,  unlike  the  Athenian  chairs,  they  are 
made  of  the  same  poros  stone  as  the  ordinary  seats.  Each  seat  extends 
across  the  front  of  a  /ee/o/a?,  the  first  one  at  the  west  end  of  the  KOL\OV 
being  placed  a  step  higher  than  the  others.  These  seats  have  backs, 
and  arms  at  the  ends ;  each  seat  is  cut  from  two  blocks,  which  are 
joined  at  the  middle.  The  average  length  is  about  2.45  m.  The  seat 
proper  has  a  width  of  0.45  m.  and  a  height  of  0.43  m.  The  side  ele- 
vation of  the  back  is  0.54  m.,  rear  elevation  0.35  m.  Some  of  the  arms 
show  remains  of  ornamental  scroll-work  on  the  outer  side.  The  back 
and  arms  of  the  first  seat  are  destroyed;  one  block  of  the  second  is 
overturned  :  the  others  are  in  a  good  state  of  preservation.  The  aver- 
age length  of  the  ordinary  seats  in  the  first  tier  is  about  2.70  m.,  in  the 
second,  about  2.90  m.  They  are  divided  into  two  parts  by  a  longi- 
tudinal depression.  The  front  part,  or  seat  proper,  is  0.35  m.  wide ; 
while  the  back  part,  upon  which  the  persons  sitting  behind  placed  their 
feet,  is  0.20  m.  wide.  The  entire  width  of  the  seat  is  0.85  m.,  the  height 
0.35  m.  The  front  edge  has  a  projection  of  0.06  m.  The  rock-cut 
seats  still  remaining  in  the  upper  portion  of  the  KOL\OV  differ  in  form 
from  the  lower  ones.  The  feet  of  the  row  of  persons  behind  were  not 
on  the  same  level  as  the  surface  on  which  the  persons  in  front  sat,  but 
rested  on  an  elevation  which  was  0.35  m.  above  the  seat  and  the  same 
in  width.  The  seats  of  this  type  have  a  total  width  of  0.75  m. 

THE  VAULTED  PASSAGES  (Pand  Q). — The  arched  passages,  one  on 
the  east  and  the  other  on  the  west  side  of  the  KOI\OV,  served  as  entrances 
by  which  the  people  could  pass  directly  from  without,  and  issue  upon 
the  first  Sid^co/Ma.  The  arches  or  vaults  are  still  in  good  preservation, 
and  are  important  as  instances  of  true  Greek  arches.  That  the  vaults 
belong  to  the  purely  Hellenic  portion  of  the  theatre  seems  clear  from 
their  structure.  The  eastern  passage  is  now  about  fourteen  meters  long, 
but  a  portion  has  fallen  at  the  outer  entrance.  The  original  length  may 
have  been  about  sixteen  meters ;  the  width  is  2.55  m.  The  vault  is 
formed  of  six  courses  of  poros  blocks  on  either  side,  exclusive  of  the 
keystone  course.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  blocks  have  the  same